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Open Access Challenges
                             Kurt De Belder
                          University Librarian
     Dir...
Open Access after 10 years
 Uptake limited (= publications, dissertations, mandates)
 Publications (case of Dutch univer...
Open Access after 10 years
 Libraries have made green open access easy for
  researchers, have given it considerable supp...
Open Access after 10 years
 Libraries have set up gold open access pilots, have
  reduced APC by paying membership fees f...
The summer of … open access
 Working Group on Expanding Access to Published
  Research Findings:
  Accessibility, sustain...
New phase for Open Access?
 OA has arrived on the political agenda.

 Makes research funding agencies allocate OA funds
...
Political agenda
UK government accepted the Finch recommendations.

Motivation behind open access movement:
   ‚enhanced ...
Political agenda
European Commission will require OA publications
(Horizon 2020).

Vision * : free circulation of knowledg...
Funding agencies funding OA
Response to Finch report & government acceptance:
    Research Councils UK will give block gr...
View from scientific organisations
   Science paradigms (Jim Gray)




The Fourth Paradigm: Data-Intensive Scientific Disc...
View from scientific organisations
Not just about open publications but about open
data, open science. *
     New ways of...
The ‘Stapel affair’
Levelt Committee, Noort Committee, Drenth Committee: Flawed science: The
fraudulent research practices...
The ‘Stapel affair’
‚The Committees are therefore unable to make any statement on these
grounds about social psychology as...
New phase for Open Access?
Political pressure, funding policies, science
paradigm, credibility issues of science might
bri...
Costing Open Access future?
Publications

More expensive during transition
 Finch costs transition period at M£ 50-60/pa....
Costing Open Access future?
More expensive in steady state?
 Not part of Finch report. Possible greater competition and
 ...
Costing Open Access future?
Data

 Insufficient storage for the amount of data that is being
  created.
 These are now h...
New challenges?
 A new bureaucracy of a centralized publication
  budget, accounting, allocation, etc.?
 How can we crea...
Getting our institutions ready.
 These issues need to be discussed more broadly
  within the university. Most faculty and...
Leiden University Libraries – Strategic plan 2011-2015: Partner in Knowledge
http://media.leidenuniv.nl/legacy/meerjarenbe...
Partner in Knowledge
 Library to become expert centre digital information
  for research and teaching.

 New areas of ex...
Research life cycle




Leo Waaijers: The DARE Chronicle: Open Access to Research Results and Teaching Material in the
Net...
RESEARCH




 Virtual Research Environments (VRE)
 DataLabs
 Data Information Office




                            Di...
PUBLICATION




    Virtual Research Environments (VRE)
    Copyright Office
    Institutional Repository
    Leiden U...
REGISTRATION
  ARCHIVING




 Current Research Information System (CRIS)
 Library assigns Digital Author Identifier for
...
REVIEW




 No activities by library




                             Discover the world at Leiden University
CURATION




 Repository materials curated at E-depot from
  KB (National Library, The Netherlands).
 DataLabs to be cur...
DISSEMINATION




 Repository connected with general search
  engines (Google, WorldCat, …), specialized
  search engines...
IMPACT




 Publication advice (incl. knowledge about
  requirements funding agencies)
 Monthly repository statistics pe...
FUNDING




 Collaboration with LURIS (Leiden University
  Research and Innovation Services).




                       ...
Results
 Library becomes known within the university for
  these new services and its image changes.
 Library staff is e...
Thank you for your attention!

            Questions?



 k.f.k.de.belder@library.leidenuniv.nl
 www.linkedin.com/in/kurtd...
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Open Access Challenges

Keynote given at "The Researcher of Tomorrow" conference, The European Library, on December 3rd 2012, at Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Spain .

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Open Access Challenges

  1. 1. Open Access Challenges Kurt De Belder University Librarian Director of Leiden University Libraries & Leiden University Press The Researcher of Tomorrow December 3-5, 2012 Discover the world at Leiden University
  2. 2. Open Access after 10 years  Uptake limited (= publications, dissertations, mandates)  Publications (case of Dutch universities & KNAW *) Percentage of publications available in the repositories has not risen significantly in the period 2007-2010: varies between 7% and 30%, with an average of 20%- 21%. Dissertations: more than 80% of dissertations are available via Open Access.  Mandates **: ± 160 institutional mandates & ± 53 funder mandates * Leo Waaijers & Maurits van der Graaf: Monitor Nederlandse Onderzoek Repositories 2011, SURF, February 2012. ** Alma Swan: OA policies in the UK and the European Union. Berlin 10 Open Access Conference, Stellenbosch, 6‐9 November 2012. Discover the world at Leiden University
  3. 3. Open Access after 10 years  Libraries have made green open access easy for researchers, have given it considerable support and have assured high visibility.  Leiden University:  within CRIS, one step upload;  K 15 OA publications, M 1 downloads.  Why limited uptake by authors?  Too much work.  Concerns about copyright and relationship with publisher.  Not (always) the version of record.  I can’t be bothered. Discover the world at Leiden University
  4. 4. Open Access after 10 years  Libraries have set up gold open access pilots, have reduced APC by paying membership fees for publishing programs, negotiated APC discounts through their licensing deals, or set up gold OA publication funds.  Results  Take up is considerable when it’s free for the author or the allocated funds are available.  When those conditions disappear there is a considerable drop in interest among authors. Discover the world at Leiden University
  5. 5. The summer of … open access  Working Group on Expanding Access to Published Research Findings: Accessibility, sustainability, excellence: how to expand access to research publications, June 2012. (‘Finch report’)  European Research Council: Open Access Guidelines for authors funded by the ERC, June 2012.  European Commission: Towards better access to scientific information: Boosting the benefits of public investments in research, July 2012.  The Royal Society: Science as an open enterprise, June 2012. Discover the world at Leiden University
  6. 6. New phase for Open Access?  OA has arrived on the political agenda.  Makes research funding agencies allocate OA funds within their research budgets.  Scientific organisations are connecting new information technology possibilities and scientific changes to a new social and political environment. Discover the world at Leiden University
  7. 7. Political agenda UK government accepted the Finch recommendations. Motivation behind open access movement:  ‚enhanced transparency, openness and accountability, and public engagement with research;  closer linkages between research and innovation, with benefits for public policy and services, and for economic growth;  improved efficiency in the research process itself, through increases in the amount of information that is readily accessible, reductions in the time spent in finding it, and greater use of the latest tools and services to organise, manipulate and analyse it; and  increased returns on the investments made in research, especially the investments from public funds.‛ (p. 5, ‘Finch report’) Discover the world at Leiden University
  8. 8. Political agenda European Commission will require OA publications (Horizon 2020). Vision * : free circulation of knowledge becomes the 5th freedom of the EU.  Undo fragmentation within the European Research Area (ERA)  Increase speed of scientific progress  A greater return on investment * Based on keynote from Anneli Pauli, Deputy Director-General, DG Research & Innovation, European Commission, LERU conference, Open Horizons – A Revolution in Open Science, 30 November 2012. Discover the world at Leiden University
  9. 9. Funding agencies funding OA Response to Finch report & government acceptance:  Research Councils UK will give block grants to universities to support payment of APC associated with Gold OA (starts 1 April 2013).  HE Funding Councils develop policies that will include a requirement that research output submitted to the Research Excellence Framework (REF) will have to be made as widely accessible as feasible. European Research Council  Requires research papers & monographs to be made publicly available no later than 6 months after the official publication date.  Strongly encourages use of repositories.  Reminds ERC funded researchers that open access fees are eligible costs that can be charged against ERC grants. Discover the world at Leiden University
  10. 10. View from scientific organisations Science paradigms (Jim Gray) The Fourth Paradigm: Data-Intensive Scientific Discovery, 2009, p. xx Discover the world at Leiden University
  11. 11. View from scientific organisations Not just about open publications but about open data, open science. *  New ways of creating scientific knowledge from data (e.g. looking for inherent patterns).  Potential of linked data, data integration & dynamic data.  Exploiting the data deluge.  Closing the concept-data gap: maintaining self-correction, credibility and replicability.  Combating fraud  Cause: rewards and pressures promote extreme behavior and normalise malpratice.  Cure: open data for review, transparent peer review. * Science as an open enterprise Discover the world at Leiden University
  12. 12. The ‘Stapel affair’ Levelt Committee, Noort Committee, Drenth Committee: Flawed science: The fraudulent research practices of social psychologist Diederik Stapel. November 2012. ‚The discovery of the methodological defects […] did raise the critical question for the Committees as to whether this research culture […] is also rife throughout the field of social psychology, nationally and internationally. Could it be that in general some aspects of this discipline’s customary methods should be deemed incorrect from the perspective of academic standards and integrity?‛ (p.47) Discover the world at Leiden University
  13. 13. The ‘Stapel affair’ ‚The Committees are therefore unable to make any statement on these grounds about social psychology as a whole. It would nonetheless be simplistic to dismiss the findings […] as merely a local aberration. Mr Stapel worked in too many different places and in too many different capacities to support that view […]. Likewise he also collaborated with too many people from diverse universities in the Netherlands and abroad. Furthermore he published in nearly all the respected international journals in his filed. It was extremely rare for his extraordinarily neat findings to be subjected to serious doubt, even in the doctoral boards of ‘his’ doctoral candidates, even in the international review procedures, and even where the fraud was blatant. Taken together all of the above reinforces the picture of an international research community of which Mr Stapel, his PhD students and close colleagues were part, and in which the customary research methods and associated standards and values were mutually shared.‛ (p. 48) Discover the world at Leiden University
  14. 14. New phase for Open Access? Political pressure, funding policies, science paradigm, credibility issues of science might bring the OA process significantly further. Discover the world at Leiden University
  15. 15. Costing Open Access future? Publications More expensive during transition  Finch costs transition period at M£ 50-60/pa.  UK government contributes M£ 10 as a one off.  Major part of the extra costs will be funded by Research Councils UK.  Aren’t there alternatives besides pumping more money into the system? Within the financial framework of the big deal, move blocks of money from big deal to OA Gold? Discover the world at Leiden University
  16. 16. Costing Open Access future? More expensive in steady state?  Not part of Finch report. Possible greater competition and new initiatives from non-traditional publishers?  Funding agencies will fund OA APC as part of the research grant.  Studies by John Houghton indicate that total cost of the scholarly communication system will come down by adopting Open Access.  But these are system costs based on costs & benefits. Costs and benefits don’t necessarily come together.  So possibly steady state will be more expensive.  All of the studies project the present way of publishing (articles, monographs) into the future. Discover the world at Leiden University
  17. 17. Costing Open Access future? Data  Insufficient storage for the amount of data that is being created.  These are now hidden costs or non existent costs.  (Long term) costs for data storage, linking, integration, retrieval, curation and scientific use is unknown.  Which choices will be made, which data will be selected? (data that deals with the global grand challenges? Cf. Geoffrey Boulton) Discover the world at Leiden University
  18. 18. New challenges?  A new bureaucracy of a centralized publication budget, accounting, allocation, etc.?  How can we create negotiating power with regard to the APC pricing?  Will we move from managing scarcity by limiting access to managing scarcity by limiting entry? This will be much more controversial!  What does this mean for the publishing culture, the way in which decisions about promotion, tenure and funding are being made? Discover the world at Leiden University
  19. 19. Getting our institutions ready.  These issues need to be discussed more broadly within the university. Most faculty and administrators are unaware about the ramifications of this change.  University open access policy and mandate in line with funding agencies requirements.  Knowledge about and ability to follow up on funding agency requirements.  Start doing pilot projects with regard to research data. Discover the world at Leiden University
  20. 20. Leiden University Libraries – Strategic plan 2011-2015: Partner in Knowledge http://media.leidenuniv.nl/legacy/meerjarenbeleidsplan-ubl-2011-2015.pdf Discover the world at Leiden University
  21. 21. Partner in Knowledge  Library to become expert centre digital information for research and teaching.  New areas of expertise in research support: o Virtual Research Environments (=> production) o Data management & curation (pilots) o Text & data mining (exploring project) o Copyright (production) o GIS (exploring project) o Publication support (exploring project) o [further areas to be identified through in-depth focus group discussions with researchers] Discover the world at Leiden University
  22. 22. Research life cycle Leo Waaijers: The DARE Chronicle: Open Access to Research Results and Teaching Material in the Netherlands, Ariadne, 53, October 30, 2007. http://www.ariadne.ac.uk/issue53/waaijers Discover the world at Leiden University
  23. 23. RESEARCH  Virtual Research Environments (VRE)  DataLabs  Data Information Office Discover the world at Leiden University
  24. 24. PUBLICATION  Virtual Research Environments (VRE)  Copyright Office  Institutional Repository  Leiden University Press Discover the world at Leiden University
  25. 25. REGISTRATION ARCHIVING  Current Research Information System (CRIS)  Library assigns Digital Author Identifier for Leiden authors  Institutional Repository  Virtual Research Environments (VRE) & DataLabs (library focuses on data management during research project)  Digital Faculty Archives Discover the world at Leiden University
  26. 26. REVIEW  No activities by library Discover the world at Leiden University
  27. 27. CURATION  Repository materials curated at E-depot from KB (National Library, The Netherlands).  DataLabs to be curated at DANS and 3TU.DataCentre.  2013 close down of first VRE => project with research group to look at long term curation of research materials. Discover the world at Leiden University
  28. 28. DISSEMINATION  Repository connected with general search engines (Google, WorldCat, …), specialized search engines (NARCIS, DRIVER, DART, …).  Manages publication pages of faculty.  VRE (public website, blog, wiki).  Leiden University Press.  Founding member of OAPEN (Open Access Publishing in European Networks – www.oapen.org). Discover the world at Leiden University
  29. 29. IMPACT  Publication advice (incl. knowledge about requirements funding agencies)  Monthly repository statistics per publication available to authors  Collaboration with CWTS Discover the world at Leiden University
  30. 30. FUNDING  Collaboration with LURIS (Leiden University Research and Innovation Services). Discover the world at Leiden University
  31. 31. Results  Library becomes known within the university for these new services and its image changes.  Library staff is enthusiastic.  Library is invited to participate with (large) research funding requests.  Extra university funding allocated for some of these services.  Quick reaction time in related areas (e.g. copyright).  Unexpected opportunities present themselves (e.g. research/teaching)  Waiting list of research groups for VRE’s.  Show impact of library on primary processes. Discover the world at Leiden University
  32. 32. Thank you for your attention! Questions? k.f.k.de.belder@library.leidenuniv.nl www.linkedin.com/in/kurtdebelder @KurtDeBelder Discover the world at Leiden University

Keynote given at "The Researcher of Tomorrow" conference, The European Library, on December 3rd 2012, at Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Spain .

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