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  1. 1. Commonly usedAristotelianConcepts:Maternal Instinct Male Aggressiveness MachismoPatriarchal Society Human Nature Matriarchal Society
  2. 2. Aristotelian concepts of Gender cannot explain . . . 1. Why Net-hunter Pygmy women enjoy a higher social status than archer women. 2. Why Yanomamo women have much lower social status than Dobe !Kung women, or why they also have a lower social status than women in most other Amazonian societies. 3. Why Inuit (Eskimo) women have among the lowest social status of all women in hunter-gatherer societies. or . . .
  3. 3. . . . why the role of women and their status in both thedomestic and political economy changed dramaticallyamong the Plains Indians as they moved onto the GreatPlains and became increasingly dependent on mountedbison hunting. 1. Among the Sioux, the Cheyenne and other eastern tribes, the family structure changed from being matrilocal and matrilineal extended kin groups to individualized patrilocal and polygynous ones. 2. Among the western Plains Indians, such as the Blackfoot, which had previously been organized along extended patrilocal and patrilineal lines evolved male-focused independent polygynous households. or . . .
  4. 4. . . . why most of those executed for witchcraft inEurope and North America during the Great WitchCraze were women, whereas most of the Pueblo Indiansin the Southwest that were executed as witches by theearly Spanish Conquistadors were men. . . . or why most witches among the Pueblo, Apacheand Navajo in the American Southwest are believed tobe men. . . . or why among the Yoruba of Nigeria, not onlydo most men suspect their wives of witchcraft, but mostwomen suspect their co-wives and their mothers-in-lawof witchcraft. or . . .
  5. 5. . . . Or why . . . 1. 47% of the 95 societies she surveyed were "rape-free", while 17% proved to be "unambiguously rape-prone.” 2. The Ashanti of West Africa and the Mbuti Pygmies of the Ituri Forest are rape-free societies, whereas 47.2 rapes per 100,000 persons were recorded for the Gusii of Kenya. 3. The highest rape rate among Industrial societies occurs in the U.S. at 13.5 rapes per 100,000 inhabitants. In contrast, the incidence of rape in Japan, a more “patriarchal” society than the U.S., is far below that of the U.S. _________________________________________ SOUCE: B. L. Benderly, “Rape Free or Rape Prone” Science 82 (1982)
  6. 6. . . . why female income relative to male income in the U.S.increased from 59¢ to 60¢ per dollar between 1960 and 1980,whereas it increased from 60¢ to 73¢ per dollar between 1980and 1990 (during the politically conservative Reagan andBush administrations), and only increased from 73¢ to 76¢per dollar between 1992 and 2000, when Bill Clinton and AlGore were in office. . . . or why average female income increased 10% from1979 to 1990, while average male income decreased by 8%. . . . or why White female employment increased 72%between 1974 and 1977 at the same time that Black maleemployment declined by 11%.
  7. 7. . . . or why there was a dramatic increase during the 1970sand 1980s in the number of individuals in the U.S. claiming: 1. to have recovered memories of childhood sexual abuse by family members 2. to have recovered memories of sexual abuse by members of satanic cults 3. to believe that they possessed multiple personalities.. . . or why: 1. this was a distinctly American phenomenon 2. the overwhelming majority (over 90%) of these individuals were white middle class females.
  8. 8. . . . why M. Konner reports that 57 out of 94 studies ofaggression showed "statistically significant sex differences"in aggressive behavior. 1. in 52 of the 57 studies that showed gender differences in aggressive behavior,boys were more aggressive than girls. 2. In 5 of the studies, girls were more aggressive than boys. 3. In 37 studies there were no gender difference in aggression.