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Digital Communication Receivers: Synchronization, Channel Estimation, and Signal Processing
Heinrich Meyr, Marc Moeneclaey...
Digital Communication
Receivers
Synchronization,

Channel Estimation,
And Signal Processing

Heinrich Meyr
Marc Moeneclaey...
Copyright  1998 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.
No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in ...
To Nicole, Claudia, and Tarek
and to Mieke, Sylvia, and Bart
Contents

xix

Preface
Acknowledgments

...
XXIII

About the Authors

PART A

Introduction

Introduction and Preview

1

P...
. ..
VIII

CONTENTS

PART C

Baseband

Chapter 2

Communications

Baseband Communications
2.1 Introduction to Digital Base...
CONTENTS

2.5 Examples
2.51 Example 1: The Squaring
Synchronizer
2.5.2 Example 2: The Synchronizer with
Zero-Crossing Timi...
X

CONTENTS

Chapter 5 Synthesis of Synchronization Algorithms
5.1 Derivation of ML Synchronization Algorithms
5.2 Estimat...
CONTENTS

Bibliography
6.3 Tracking Performance of Carrier and Symbol
Synchronizers
6.3.1 Introduction
6.3.2 Tracking Perf...
xii

CONTENTS

6.5.6 Bibliographical Notes
Bibliography
Chapter 7 Bit Error Rate Degradation Caused by Random
Tracking Err...
CONTENTS

8.4.2 Performance in the Presence
of Noise
8.4.3 Miscellaneous Modifications of DA
Estimators
8.4.4 Example of a...
xiv

CONTENTS

10.5
10.6
10.7
10.8
10.9

10.10

PART E

10.4.7 Digital Phase-Locked Loop (DPLL)
for Phase Synchronization
...
CONTENTS

to Selective Fading Channel
Simulation
11.3.3 Main Points
11.4 Bibliographical Notes
Bibliography
Chapter 12

De...
xvi

CONTENTS

13.4.1 Modulator and Demodulator
Structure
13.4.2 Synchronization of Pseudorandom
Signals
13.5 Bibliographi...
CONTENTS

152.2

15.3

Maximum-Likelihood DA Snapshot
Acquisition
15.2.3 Example: DA Receiver for Uncoded
M-PSK
15.2.4 Exa...
Preface

This book is aboutreceiversfor digital communications. word digital carriesa
The
doublemeaning.It refersto the fa...
xx

PREFACE

3. Implementation:A very large portion of the receiverhardwareand softwareis
dedicatedto synchronizationand c...
xxi

PREFACE

PASSBAND COMMUNICATION

OVER TIME INVARIANT

CHANNELS

Chapter3 briefly reviewsthe fundamentals passband
of
...
xxii

PREFACE

DA snapshot
acquisitionandchannelinterpolation,arepresented discussed.
and
Bit
error results,both for uncod...
Acknowledgments

We wish to expressour gratitudeto anyonewho has helpedto write this book. We
(S. Fechtel,H. Meyr) are dee...
XXiV

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

One of us (M. Moeneclaey)wants to expresshis gratitude to Katrien Bucket,
GeertDe Jonghe,andMark Va...
About the Authors

Heinrich Meyr hasworked extensivelyin the areasof communicationtheory, synchronization, and digital sig...
DIGITAL COMMUNICATION
RECEIVERS
Digital Communication Receivers: Synchronization, Channel Estimation, and Signal Processing
Heinrich Meyr, Marc Moeneclaey...
Digital Communication Receivers: Synchronization, Channel Estimation, and Signal Processing
Heinrich Meyr, Marc Moeneclaey...
Introduction andPreview
r'-'----""-"""'"""'----I
e,(t)
1
I

,-

Source +
Encoder

Channel
Encoder

I x
:
1

I
I
I

;
I
I
v...
Introduction Preview
and

3

- in a noisy environment. The parameter adjustment block performs tasks such
as the computati...
Introduction andPreview

symbols, the channelparameters estimatedin the shadedbit streamsegments.
are
Conversely,during th...
Introduction andPreview

5

comparison among competing transmissiontechniques,we must define properly
normalized performan...
Introduction Preview
and

I

Signal Processing
Complexity

b

Bandwidth

Figure 4 The 3-Dimensional Design Space
power, un...
Digital Communication Receivers: Synchronization, Channel Estimation, and Signal Processing
Heinrich Meyr, Marc Moeneclaey...
Digital Communication Receivers: Synchronization, Channel Estimation, and Signal Processing
Heinrich Meyr, Marc Moeneclaey...
10

Basic Material

jointly stationary when they have jointly the same statistical properties as
Xl@ - to), x2@ - to), “‘,...
1.1 Stationary and Cyclostationary Processes

11

functions:
Ro*z(-U)

= lqz(t)

z(t - u)] = E[z(t)

z(t + u)] = R,tz( u)
...
12

Basic Material

1.1.2 Continuous-Time

Cyclostationary Processes

A complex-valued continuous-time random process z(t)...
1.1 Stationary and Cyclostationary Processes
where the Fourier coefficients (T~,~(u)} and {~,*,,k(2d)}

13

are given by

...
Basic Material

14

process x(t) is given by

--CO

(l-27)

= (R&J)),

=
-03

Sometimes, &,0(w) and r,,a(O) are also refer...
1.1 Stationary and Cyclostationary Processes
T, and can be expanded into the following
(l-14), (l-18), and (1-19):

15

Fo...
16

Basic Material

Consequently,

(l-32)-(

l-34)

reduce to

my(t) = H(O) %I!,0

%(tJ + u) = ~I,o(u),
Ry’&, t + u) =

wi...
17

1.1 Stationary and Cyclostationary Processes

A complex-valued random sequence {zk} is wide-sense stationary when its
...
Basic Material

18

where S,(w) and Ss+J (w ) are the spectrum of s(t) and the cross spectrum of s* (t)
and s(t), respecti...
1.1 Stationary and Cyclostationary Processes

19

the Dirac impulse. As in practice the receiver contains a filter which r...
20

Basic Material

-w
-3

-1

1

Figure l-l

4-PAM

3

ak

Constellation

both belong to the alphabet f 1; f3, . .. , +zF...
1.1 Stationary and Cyclostationary Processes

21

IrnLakl
3
.---y-------y
I
I
I
I
I

I
I
I
I
I

I
I
I
I
I
I

I
I

I

I

I
...
22

Basic Material

pulse g(t) does not exceed 1/2T, the signal s(t) is wide-sense stationary. In the
case of independent ...
23

I. 1 Stationary and Cyclostationary Processes

As the autocorrelation function of z(t) does not depend on t , it follo...
24

Basic Material

that H(w) = 0 for ]w > n/T], the Fourier series coefficients vy,k ( U) with k # 0
in (l-33) are identi...
25

1.2 Complex Envelope Representation

with period 2’. The (wide-sense) cyclostationarity
is preserved by time-invariant...
26

Basic Material

random processes. Also, some statistical properties of the complex envelope of
wide-sense stationary a...
27

1.2 Complex Envelope Representation
This definition implies that (a/2)
XL (w - ~0) consists of the positive-frequency
...
28
(l-86)

Basic Material
into the frequency domain yields

X,(w) - (X(u+wo) jqw +wo))
=7
+
where k(w)

is the Fourier tra...
1.2 Complex Envelope Representation

29

Figure l-8 Decomposition of the Block Diagram from Figure l-6 into Real-Valued
Op...
30

Basic Material

Figure l-6 and taking into account that IX(w) 1 is symmetric about w = 0, we
easily obtain

dt-CO
=J
J...
31

1.2 Complex Envelope Representation

4nB

4nB

4x8

4xB

41~8

4xB

-27cB

0

2nB

Figure l-10 Determination of XL(~) ...
32

Basic Material

the demodulation (i.e., translation to baseband) of the bandpass signal z(t),
performed in most receiv...
33

1.2 Complex Envelope Representation

Phase
Splitter

I
w(-jo

&I

I-Y,(t)

Figure

where HE,c(w)
respectively:

l-12

...
34

Basic Material

Figure l-13

Determination

An important
to be real-valued,
for Iw1 > wc. For
complex conjugate

of ye...
1.2 Complex Envelope Representation

35

IH(

t

/

0

-00

00

4x8

4nB

Figure l-14 Amplitude

and Phase Characteristics...
Basic Material
form X(w) of z(t). From eq. (l-85) we derived z~(t) from z(t) by performing
on x(t) either the filtering an...
1.2 Complex Envelope Representation

37

For a wide-sense stationary process v(t), it can be shown that v(t) has its frequ...
38

Basic Material

(t), which are the Fourier transforms of RA (u) and RA+ A(u), are easily derived
from (l-11) and (1-12...
39

1.2 Complex Envelope Representation

when taken at the same instant of time. From (l- 119) we derive

q&t)] = R,,(O) =...
40

Basic Material

When the positive-frequency
content of the spectrum S,(w)
about the center frequency we, i.e.,

is sym...
1.2 Complex Envelope Representation
5.

41

The complex envelope zr;,e(t) of z(t), with respect to fi cos (wet + O), has
t...
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
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Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
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Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
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Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
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Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
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Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
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Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
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Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
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Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
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Digital communication receivers   synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing
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