5.1 English Verbs• 5.1.1 Verb forms• 5.1.2 The syntactic environment• 5.1.3 The properties of co-occurrence: the perfect construction• 5.1.4 Projections: heads and phrases• 5.1.5 Infinitives and tensed verbs• 5.1.6 Structure of tensed clauses• 5.1.7The position of main verbs and auxiliaries in the clausal structure• 5.1.8 Summary of verbs distribution
Verbs function as the head of Verb Phrases (P.258) VP VP VP V V DP V PP DP laugh kiss Juliet give P DP flowers to Juliet
5.1 English Verbs 5.1.1 Verb FormsNon-finite verb formsInfinitive to use to showParticiples: past participle used shown passive participle used shown present participle using showing Finite verb forms Past tense used showed Present tense uses shows
• Verbs inflected for past or present tense and agreement are often referred to as finite verbs.• The other verb forms as non-finite verbs.
5.1.2 The syntactic environmentThe perfect auxiliary have co-occurs with a past participle. a. Many students have liked Romeo and Juliet.The passive auxiliary be co-occurs with a passive participle. a. Juliet was loved by Romeo.
5.1.2 The syntactic environment• Progressive be co-occurs with a present participle. a. Many students are reading Romeo and Juliet.
InfinitivesAs the complement of a modal a. Many students could read Romeo and Juliet.As the complement of a causative verb or a verb of perception. a. They let Romeo and Juliet die. b. They saw Juliet kiss Romeo.
Infinitives In different types of infinitival complementsto-infinitivals a. Many student try to read Romeo and Juliet.for-to infinitivals a. Many professors want very much for their students to read Romeo and Juliet.
Tensed clauses require tensed verbs inflected for past or present tense.
main clause a. Romeo loved Juliet. b.*Romeo loving/to love Juliet.embedded clause a. I believe that Romeo loved Juliet. b. I don‟t know if Romeo loved Juliet.
Generalizations• Particular verbal forms co-occur with particular auxiliaries.• Particular verbal forms co-occur with particular types of clauses.
5.1.3 The properties of co-occurrence : the perfect constructionR1 (first version) A sentence containing the perfect auxiliary have must contain a past participle.
5.1.3 The properties of co-occurrence : the perfect constructionCheck a. *Many students seen have Juliet. b. *Seen many students have Juliet. c. *Many students have see Juliet died . +V +pp The past participles must stay close to auxiliaries‟ right side.
5.1.3 The properties of co-occurrence : the perfect construction VP1 have VP2 V [+past participle] DP read Hamlet
5.1.3 The properties of co-occurrence : the perfect constructionR2 (second version) Have requires or demands a complement which contains a past participle.
5.1.3 The properties of co-occurrence : the perfect construction Bad case Good casehave VP VP = complement of have have = complement of have V VP V +past part V +past part Too Far
5.1.3 The properties of co-occurrence : the perfect construction This part of the structure must contain the past VP participle VP In other words, it needs a immediate complement .
5.1.3 The properties of co-occurrence : the perfect constructionR3 (third version) Have requires or demands a past participle in its “immediate” complement.
5.1.4 Projections: heads and phrases VP PP AP V P A Heads determine the category of their projection in syntax.
5.1.4 Projections: heads and phrases • Heads in morphology – Suffixes c-select the morpheme that they attach to. -ize c-selcets N change N to V symbol-ize -ment c-selcets V change V to N establish-mentThe category of the newly formed word is determinedby the right most suffix
5.1.4 Projections: heads and phrases V N A N V A N N A baby sit green house nation wide• Compound have heads• In English, compounds are head-final.
5.1.4 Projections: heads and phrases have VP [+past part] V [v see +past part] Since the past participle is the head of the VP complement, the VP projection is marked +past participle.
5.1.4 Projections: heads and phrasesR4 (final) Have requires or demands (=selects) a past participle complement.
Building Larger Structuresa. (Passive) be requires a [+passive participle] complement.b. (Progressive) be requires a [+present participle] complement.Example:This play should have been being read by the students.(perfect have, progressive be, passive be, main V)
VPV VP + past parthave V [+en] VP + present part been V [+ing] VP + passive part being V [+ed] DP read [e] this play
5.1.5 Infinitives and tensed verbsFor Kate to defy Petruccio takes courage. ThisThe for DP to VP stringacts as constituent isa single constituent. called infinitive CP
5.1.5 Infinitives and tensed verbs to VPTo is a realization To always combines of the category with an infinitival VP T (tense) to its right.
5.1.5 Infinitives and tensed verbs• Conclude that TP contains two layers of structure:a. one layer in which the head combines with a complement to its right, forming a constituent T‟.b. a higher layer where T‟ combines with a specifier forming TP
5.1.5 Infinitives and tensed verbs CPFor TP DP T‟ to VP
5.1.5 Infinitives and tensed verbsAccusative subject pronouns can only appear if for is present. a. For her (*she) to be loved.
5.1.5 Infinitives and tensed verbs• heads demand certain types of complements.• the complement is the sister of the head.
Tensed clausesA tensed clause demands a finite verb. - main clause a. Katherina defied (*defy/*to defy) Petruccio. -embedded clause a. Many students concluded that katherina defied (*defy/*to defy) Petruccio.
Tensed clauses CP What does this revealthat VP [+T] about the mental grammar? Katherina defied Petruccio
Main clauses require tensed verbs CP The C node happens to be silentC + decl, +main VP [+T] in main tensed clause DP A silent head exists Katherina V+T DP in English defied Petruccio
C [+decl, +main], c-selects +Tense, C is not pronounced.C[+decl, +embedded], c-selects +Tense, C is pronounced as that.
Languages with an overt complementizer in all declarative clausesKorean (nom= nominative, dec= declarative) romio-ka culiet-kwa kicaŋ-e ka-ss-ta Romeo-nom Juliet-with theater-to go-past-decl (matrix) „Romeo went with Juliet to the theater.‟The building blocks of syntax are heads which can be either silent or overt.
Comparing infinitives and tensed clauses CP CP [cthat] VP[+T[cfor] TP ] DP V‟ DP Katherina V+T DP [+to] VPKatherina V DP defies P defy P
Comparing infinitives and tensed clausesa. Infinitive to is a free standing morpheme in T.b. Finite tense is expressed as a suffix on the verb.c. The subject in the infinitival is located in a different structural position than the subject of a tensed clause.
Enriching the structure of tensed complements CP CP that TP[+Tfor TP[+T] ] T‟ DP T‟ DP VP[+T] [Tto] Katherina R+Tense VP[+inf]Katherina V DP V+T DP defy P defies P
5.1.6 on the structure of tensed clausesAuxiliaries: a. Juliet has gone to the nunnery. b. Juliet is sad.Modals a. Juliet will go to the garden.Main verbs a. Juliet wrote to Romeo.
5.1.6 on the structure of tensed clausesAuxiliaries and modals can precede the subject in yes-no questions. a. Is she going to the garden? b. Should she go the garden? c. Has she gone to the garden?
VP ellipsisAlthough Regan has not been a good daughter to Lear, Cordelia has. (been a good daughter to Lear) This process that allows the VP to be silent is referred as VP ellipsis
VP ellipsisAlthough Regan has not been a good daughter to Lear, Cordelia has. (been a good daughter to Lear) The pronounce part is referred as the remnant of VP ellipsis
VP ellipsis TP [+tense] It needs support !! DP T‟ VP ellipsis [+T-ed] VP V DP This isincorrect defy P
Do-support TP [+tense] DP T‟ VP ellipsis [ do+ [t-ed] ] VP Insert do to DP Vsupport (=save)a stranded suffix defy P in T.
Affix-hoping Input Affix-hoping OutputT VP T VP-ed V V defy defy +ed
VP ellipsis for VP2• [TPEmilia [[T-s] [VP1 be [VP2 listening to Iago]] too]] It is impossible to VP ellipsis of VP2 ellipsis of VP1
a. Finite forms of HAVE and BE are in tensed T.b. Finite forms of MAIN VERBS are in VP.
5.1.7 The position of main verbs and auxiliaries in the clausal structure• Not – not/n’t – finite forms of the auxiliaries have, be, and do must precede not (and n’t) – non-finite forms of the auxiliaries follow not
5.1.7 The position of main verbs and auxiliaries in the clausal structure Non-finite form auxiliary (have) follow notHe won’t have climbed the mountain yet The Finiteauxiliary (will)precedes not
Distribution of adverbials• certain adverbials intervene between T and the main V in English:a. Olivia will probably leave tomorrow. T Adv V(inf)b. You must recently have read Macbeth. T Adv V (pp)
Distribution of adverbials• When the main verb is inflected, these adverbs precede the main verb:a. Olivia probably left yesterday. Adv V+Tb. You recently read Macbeth. Adv V+T
Yes-no questions: Subject-Aux Inversion matrix yes-no questions start with either a modal, or a finite auxiliary (have, be or do)a. Has Othello died?b. Is Othello dying?c. Did Othello die?
Yes-no questions: Subject-Aux Inversion embedded yes-no questions start with a particular C (complementizer), either if or whether:(89)a. I wonder if Othello died quickly.b. I wonder whether Othello died quickly.
Yes-no questions: Subject-Aux Inversion• Subject-Aux-Inversion: – Subject-Aux-Inversion must apply in matrix yes- no questions. – Subject-Aux-Inversion cannot apply when there is an overt complementizer present in the C node.
Yes-no questions: Subject-Aux Inversion a. *I wonder if did Othello die quickly. No Need !!! Incorrect !! C selects values of T
Yes-no questions: Subject-Aux Inversion• The lexical complementizer if/whether and the inverted T are in complementary distribution
The C level: properties of individual complementizersa. Othello thought THAT Desdemona lied. C –Qb. Othello wondered IF Desdemona can be It lied. silent C+Q It is overt
Why main Vs fail to move to +Qa. Main verbs cannot appear in T[+T].b. Main verbs cannot appear in C[+Q].•main V to T is a prerequisite for further movement to C
5.1.8 Summary of distribution of English verbs• the distribution of verbs• C is a zero morpheme in main clause declaratives and questions.• C is that in embedded declaratives.• C is whether or if in embedded yes-no questions.
5.2 Cross-Linguistic Variation: Beyond English
• 5.2.1 The nature of linguistic variation• 5.2.2 Language variation and parameters• 5.2.3 C, T, and V across languages• 5.2.4 Other languages• 5.2.5 Languages with no visible change in word order: VP ellipsis• 5.2.6 Further extensions: The noun system: DP
5.2.1 The nature of linguistic variation• Heads ( = morphemes) – the building blocks of syntactic structures – pronounced (overt material) silent – lexical categories (N, V, A, P) functional categories (T, C, Q, …)
• Structure – local head-complement relations – Spec-head relations• Movement – co-courrence restrictions between positions
(102)Whati hasT Juliet [Te]T [ve]t said [DPe]i - the VP level - the T level - the CP level
• head-initial languages– ordering the head before the complement– VSO / SVO• head-final languages– ordering the head after the complement– SOV
• parameters– options available to the language learners
• Movement• Japanese: wh-in-situ• English: wh to Spec, CP
• wh-in-situ wh-phrases occur in the same positions where DPs appear
• Chinese have in situ wh-elements• "John bought what?" "John bought bread"• with what in the same position in the sentence as the grammatical object would be in its affirmative counterpart
English (E) and French (F)• the ordering of pre-VP adverbials and finite verbs (109) a. Romeo carefully words his letters b. *Roméo soigneusement formule ses lettres (110) a.*Romeo words carefully his letters b.Roméo formule soigneusement ses lettres• E: Adv-finite main V• F: Finite main V- Adv
English (E) and French (F)(111)• English: Finite main V in VP [TPDP[Te] Adv [VP [V T] ]• French: Finite main V in tensed T [TPNP[T V T] Adv [VP[ve] ]
English (E) and French (F)When the sentence contains a finiteauxiliary, they show the same order:(112)a. Romeo has carefully worded his letters.b. Roméo a soigneusement formulé ses lettres.English: Finite-AUX-Adv-ParticipleFrench: Finite-AUX-Adv-Participle
English (E) and French (F)(113)• a. Romeo is often sick.• b. Jean est souvent malade.(114)• a. In French, finite auxiliaries and main vs are in [+T]• b. (i) In English, finite auxiliaries are in [+T] (ii) In English, finite main verbs are in [+T]
English (E) and French (F)• verb in different positions:• ( [ve] indicates the original position of V)(115) [T vsisite] [ve] ses voisins]• a. Roméo [Te] [visits his neighbors]• b. Romeo
English (E) and French (F)negative sentences• (116)• c. Roméo ne visite pas[ve] ses voisins] [• the V raises to T over negation pas
English (E) and French (F)• the differences in word-order patterns result from the position finite verbs occupy; they are in +T in French, but in T in English.• (117) The position a particular head occupies is one source of language variation.
English and Germanic languages(118)matrix: [ [ CVf] [DP …embedded: [ [ CC [DP Vf• In matrix clauses, all finite verbs would raise to the C position.• Embedded clauses always have an overt C, with the finite verb remaining in T.
Dutch– verb-second: the finite verb always follows a constituent in first position (the finite verb therefore is in second position in this clause type)– (119)a. Morgen goat Juliet met Romeo naar de film Tomorrow goes Juliet with Romeo to the movies
Dutch– XP first in matrix clauses: the initial position of certain types of root clauses in Dutch (say, Spec, CP) must always be filled with some constituent (otherwise the verb would be first!)– XP first in matrix clauses:Spec, CP (Matrix) must contain an overt constituent
5.2.4 Other languages• language variation is due to variation in movement – Vata in Vata, V movement is quite transparent, because it results in word-order differences.
5.2.5 Languages with no visible change in word order: VP ellipsis• the strict head-final nature of the projections in strictly head-final languages, like Japanese or Korean for example, no material can intervene between C, T, and V positions
Irish• Irish shows VSO order in both matrix and embedded tensed sentences Dúirt sé go dtiocfadh sé say(past) he C come(condit) he „He said that he would come‟
Irish• VSO order is a characteristic property of finite clauses: non- finite clauses show either SVO order(125) or even SOV order(126)• (125) SVO orderBhreathnaigh mé uirthi agus í ag imeacht uaimlooked I on-her and her leave(prog) from-me„I watched her as she was leaving me.• (126) SOV orderNíor mhaith liom iad a chéile a phósadhI-would-not-like them each-other marry(inf)„I would not like them to marry each other.‟
Irish• This suggests that the word order in tenses clauses is derived, with the verb in finite clauses moving out of the VP, to some position higher than the subject. As a result of this movement, the subject intervenes between the finite verb and its object.• The finite verb cannot be in C, since it co- occurs with the finite complementizer: VSO order is a property of all tensed clauses, main or embedded. Therefore it is in T.
Irish• (127) The finite verb in Irish is in T.
Irish• Support for V being outside VP comes from the process of VP ellipsis in Irish. Irish has no words for yes, or no.• (128)Question:Ar chuir tú isteach air?InterC put[PAST] you in on-it„Did you apply for it?‟Answer:Chuir Níor chuirput[PAST] NEG put[PAST]„Yes‟ ‟No‟
Irish• The part that disappeared is understood in the answer. Elliptical sentences occur in roughly the same range of contexts as English VP ellipsis:
• (129)Dúirt mé go gceannóinn é agus cheannaighsaid I C buy [Condit:S1] it and bought„I said that I would buy it and I did.‟• (130)A: Chennaigh siad teach buy[PAST] they house „They bought a house.‟B: Níor cheannaigh NEG[PAST] bought „They did not.‟
• Tag questions• (131)Chennaigh siad teach, nár cheannaighbought they house NEG INTERR C buy[PAST]„They bought a house, didn‟t they?‟
• Thus, this looks like VP ellipsis, except for the fact that the remnant contains the finite main V! This situation can arise if the V is outside of the constituent on which silence is imposed.• Since the V is not within the VP, but in T, it must be pronounced.• The subjects in Irish must be silent as well.
English VS. IrishEnglish: they did! CP C TP DP They VP T (do) -ed V DP buy the house
English VS. IrishIrish : bought CP C TP DP T VP buyi -ed DP they V DP [e]i the house
• VP ellipsis thus provides an excellent argument for V to T movement in Irish!
DP occurs in different position TP English subjectsDP T VP Irish subjects DP
5.2.6 Further extensions: The noun system: DP• Just like clauses, DPs come in different kinds as well: – as definite (or specific) DPs (the men, these women) – quantified DPs (two men, every man) – generic DPs (people) • We can consider D as being the head of an NP
• (140)a. the frequent visits to his parents (E)b. les visites fréquentes á ses parents (F)
The N moves to Num in French, but not in English DP French Nouns D NumP NP English Nouns Num visites AP NP frequent visits
The Hebrew nouns move to D DP Hebrew Nouns D NumP French Nounsbeyt NP English Nouns Num visites AP NP frequent visits
• the syntactic input consists of words, silent morphemes, and some inflectional morphemes• the head-complement relation regulates the distribution of verbal forms, and forms the basic backbone of a clause.
• the property that distinguishes declarative clauses, questions, etc, is located at the C level• TPs fall into different types depending on properties of the T head (-T=to, +T=tense)
• in English, tensed main verbs occur in VP, tensed auxiliaries and modals in +T, or, in certain contexts, in C• languages have quite similar structures, with differences arising from ordering parameters, and lexical parameters