I       1c Air Mail                                  DISCOURSEPar AvionDISCOURSE MODE AND SYNTAX                Presented ...
Introduction Describing language in terms of  dichotomies Oral versus Written Unplanned versus Planned Informal versus...
Oral versus Written 01              WINTER Language for academic life               Template Oral               Written...
Unplanned versusPlanned                         02 Spontaneous languageunplanned – revised – polished – planned
Contextualized versusDecontextualized                03 Contextualized     Decontextualized Oral               Written...
Informal versus Formal     04 Informal      Formal Oral          Written Unplanned     Planned
BICS versus CALP                                  05 BICS                                 CALP(Basic Interpersonal      ...
Features of Planned and       unplanned language Ochs (1979) identified six features:1. Clausal or phrasal versus sentent...
page 01       page 02         page 03        page 04       page 05      page 06  1. Clausal or phrasal versus sentential o...
page 01     page 02        page 03         page 04      page 05   page 06  2. Left dislocation and topic-comment structure...
page 01     page 02       page 03     page 04       page 05      page 06   3. Nextness    Unplanned                       ...
page 01    page 02       page 03       page 04      page 05   page 06    4. Parallelism: phonological, lexical, and    syn...
page 01     page 02   page 03   page 04   page 05   page 06   5. Repair         In oral, repeating words or phrases is   ...
page 01    page 02     page 03    page 04     page 05    page 06   6. Conjoined versus embedded clauses    In some oral d...
Features of involvement and detachment Speech             Writing  Overlap, or      Literature shares  Simultaneous    ...
Features of involvement and           detachmentInvolvement                        DetachmentRitual side of communication:...
Identifying BICS versus CALP BICS shows the learner’s basic  interpersonal communication skills CALP reflects the learne...
Conclusion   This chapter discuss about the use of language in term of    dichotomies of how to produce (speaking and wri...
ReferenceHatch, Evelyn. (1992). Discourse and   language education. Los Angeles:   Cambridge University Press
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Mode and syntax

678 views

Published on

Published in: Education
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

Mode and syntax

  1. 1. I 1c Air Mail DISCOURSEPar AvionDISCOURSE MODE AND SYNTAX Presented by: Ahmad Ahlan, S.Pd. Kuntum Trilestari, S.Pd. Discourse Analysis Prof. Dr. Indawan Syahri, M.Pd. Drs. Akhyar Burhan, M.Pd.
  2. 2. Introduction Describing language in terms of dichotomies Oral versus Written Unplanned versus Planned Informal versus Formal Contextualized versus Decontextualized BICS versus CALP
  3. 3. Oral versus Written 01 WINTER Language for academic life Template Oral  Writtene.q.Student – TeacherSpeaking WritingListening Reading
  4. 4. Unplanned versusPlanned 02 Spontaneous languageunplanned – revised – polished – planned
  5. 5. Contextualized versusDecontextualized 03 Contextualized  Decontextualized Oral  Written Context  Lexicon and syntax Based on shared  Information is not necessarily share
  6. 6. Informal versus Formal 04 Informal  Formal Oral  Written Unplanned  Planned
  7. 7. BICS versus CALP 05 BICS  CALP(Basic Interpersonal (Cognitive AcademicCommunication Skills) Language Proficiency)  Differs in some respects from the others.  All have the same goal  Each serves as a heuristic
  8. 8. Features of Planned and unplanned language Ochs (1979) identified six features:1. Clausal or phrasal versus sentential organization2. Left dislocation and topic-comment structures3. Nextness4. Parallelism5. Repair6. Conjoined versus embedded clauses
  9. 9. page 01 page 02 page 03 page 04 page 05 page 06 1. Clausal or phrasal versus sentential organization Unplanned PlannedP: take a tape recorder an+that y’just To solve writer’s block use a tape punch+an:: y’work on the tape recorder as a partner. Tell the tape recorder+an:: y’talk to the tape recorder what you want to write. Then recorder. play back this messag. As you listen, type out your message. Continue thisC: mmhmm process until the block disappear.P: and the other thing you you+when y’wanna+when y’wanna ask+that++just play a little of the tape+n listen to yerself talk+an talk back to it the second time+on the typewriter
  10. 10. page 01 page 02 page 03 page 04 page 05 page 06 2. Left dislocation and topic-comment structures Unplanned Planned1. Uh, about money, uh he has a darn 1. As for money, we don’t have good job+makes good money. to worry because he has a2. ...y’know, things with the kids, they good job. need this, they need that. 2. ...and then there are the3. OK, let’s say like vacation++well, children who need so many y’know+I haven’t taken a things. vacation+I can’t tell you how many 3. A vacation is one example of years. what I would like to have..4. John he’s like about twice my age. 4. John is about twice my age
  11. 11. page 01 page 02 page 03 page 04 page 05 page 06 3. Nextness Unplanned Planned C: As I said+I can’t discuss-very C: There are very few things I can few things can I discuss with discuss with him. When I try, him++”I don’t want to talk he says that he doesn’t want to about it”+he walks outta the talk about it and leaves the room. room. P: All you do when you trap P: Animals, when you try to trap y’know an animal+they fight them, fight back. If you try to back+that you lie+get angry+ trap a man, he will become whatever. angry, say that you lie, and so forth.
  12. 12. page 01 page 02 page 03 page 04 page 05 page 06 4. Parallelism: phonological, lexical, and syntactic Poetry is the ultimate example of effective parallelism (rhythm, rhyme, alliteration, and lexical, phrasal, and syntactic parallelism).
  13. 13. page 01 page 02 page 03 page 04 page 05 page 06 5. Repair  In oral, repeating words or phrases is one way to give some correction (repair) for what the speaker has said.  In written text such repairs are edited.
  14. 14. page 01 page 02 page 03 page 04 page 05 page 06 6. Conjoined versus embedded clauses  In some oral data, it is difficult to tell whether “and” actually connects text or whether it serves some other system need, such as holding a turn againts interruption or continuing a turn when the addresses does not pick up his or her turn.  A planned written version would need to capture 5. REPAIR these functions in some other way: The “and” would probably be deleted, and subordinate or embedded clause constructions would be used to connect the clauses.
  15. 15. Features of involvement and detachment Speech Writing  Overlap, or  Literature shares  Simultaneous  The goal
  16. 16. Features of involvement and detachmentInvolvement DetachmentRitual side of communication: Types of complex structures1. Concreteness and imageability 1. Relative clauses2. Personal quality 2. Complement clauses3. Relationships highlighted 3. Sequences of prepositional4. Actions and agents phrases emphasized 4. Nominalizations5. Feelings and thoughts 5. Attributive adjectives6. Hedge and aggravated signal 6. Passive voice used 7. Subordinate conjunctions7. Feedback signals checked and 8. Complex morphosyntax repairs used where needed
  17. 17. Identifying BICS versus CALP BICS shows the learner’s basic interpersonal communication skills CALP reflects the learner’s cognitive academic language proficiency
  18. 18. Conclusion This chapter discuss about the use of language in term of dichotomies of how to produce (speaking and writing) and accept (listening and reading) language unplanned or planned. The terms of researchers, educators and sociolinguists, used in describing language, actually have the same goal but there is slightly difference based on the user understanding. In oral language, the context is being concerned rather than the lexicon and syntax. While in written language, it shares literature comprehensibly and certain goal to be caught by the reader.
  19. 19. ReferenceHatch, Evelyn. (1992). Discourse and language education. Los Angeles: Cambridge University Press

×