BICS versus CALP 05 BICS CALP(Basic Interpersonal (Cognitive AcademicCommunication Skills) Language Proficiency) Differs in some respects from the others. All have the same goal Each serves as a heuristic
Features of Planned and unplanned language Ochs (1979) identified six features:1. Clausal or phrasal versus sentential organization2. Left dislocation and topic-comment structures3. Nextness4. Parallelism5. Repair6. Conjoined versus embedded clauses
page 01 page 02 page 03 page 04 page 05 page 06 1. Clausal or phrasal versus sentential organization Unplanned PlannedP: take a tape recorder an+that y’just To solve writer’s block use a tape punch+an:: y’work on the tape recorder as a partner. Tell the tape recorder+an:: y’talk to the tape recorder what you want to write. Then recorder. play back this messag. As you listen, type out your message. Continue thisC: mmhmm process until the block disappear.P: and the other thing you you+when y’wanna+when y’wanna ask+that++just play a little of the tape+n listen to yerself talk+an talk back to it the second time+on the typewriter
page 01 page 02 page 03 page 04 page 05 page 06 2. Left dislocation and topic-comment structures Unplanned Planned1. Uh, about money, uh he has a darn 1. As for money, we don’t have good job+makes good money. to worry because he has a2. ...y’know, things with the kids, they good job. need this, they need that. 2. ...and then there are the3. OK, let’s say like vacation++well, children who need so many y’know+I haven’t taken a things. vacation+I can’t tell you how many 3. A vacation is one example of years. what I would like to have..4. John he’s like about twice my age. 4. John is about twice my age
page 01 page 02 page 03 page 04 page 05 page 06 3. Nextness Unplanned Planned C: As I said+I can’t discuss-very C: There are very few things I can few things can I discuss with discuss with him. When I try, him++”I don’t want to talk he says that he doesn’t want to about it”+he walks outta the talk about it and leaves the room. room. P: All you do when you trap P: Animals, when you try to trap y’know an animal+they fight them, fight back. If you try to back+that you lie+get angry+ trap a man, he will become whatever. angry, say that you lie, and so forth.
page 01 page 02 page 03 page 04 page 05 page 06 4. Parallelism: phonological, lexical, and syntactic Poetry is the ultimate example of effective parallelism (rhythm, rhyme, alliteration, and lexical, phrasal, and syntactic parallelism).
page 01 page 02 page 03 page 04 page 05 page 06 5. Repair In oral, repeating words or phrases is one way to give some correction (repair) for what the speaker has said. In written text such repairs are edited.
page 01 page 02 page 03 page 04 page 05 page 06 6. Conjoined versus embedded clauses In some oral data, it is difficult to tell whether “and” actually connects text or whether it serves some other system need, such as holding a turn againts interruption or continuing a turn when the addresses does not pick up his or her turn. A planned written version would need to capture 5. REPAIR these functions in some other way: The “and” would probably be deleted, and subordinate or embedded clause constructions would be used to connect the clauses.
Features of involvement and detachment Speech Writing Overlap, or Literature shares Simultaneous The goal
Features of involvement and detachmentInvolvement DetachmentRitual side of communication: Types of complex structures1. Concreteness and imageability 1. Relative clauses2. Personal quality 2. Complement clauses3. Relationships highlighted 3. Sequences of prepositional4. Actions and agents phrases emphasized 4. Nominalizations5. Feelings and thoughts 5. Attributive adjectives6. Hedge and aggravated signal 6. Passive voice used 7. Subordinate conjunctions7. Feedback signals checked and 8. Complex morphosyntax repairs used where needed
Identifying BICS versus CALP BICS shows the learner’s basic interpersonal communication skills CALP reflects the learner’s cognitive academic language proficiency
Conclusion This chapter discuss about the use of language in term of dichotomies of how to produce (speaking and writing) and accept (listening and reading) language unplanned or planned. The terms of researchers, educators and sociolinguists, used in describing language, actually have the same goal but there is slightly difference based on the user understanding. In oral language, the context is being concerned rather than the lexicon and syntax. While in written language, it shares literature comprehensibly and certain goal to be caught by the reader.
ReferenceHatch, Evelyn. (1992). Discourse and language education. Los Angeles: Cambridge University Press