Presented by:Ahmad Ahlan, S.Pd.Kuntum Trilestari, S.Pd. Discourse Analysis Prof. Dr. Indawan Syahri, M.Pd. Drs. Akhyar Burhan, M.Pd.
Universal Constraints Communication ConstraintsSystem Constraints Ritual Constraints
The components required for all communication systems. For example: open/close conversation, turn- taking signals, repair message, bracketing and so forth. Natural conversational data Conversational analysis
1. Overlap symbols a. Slash : // or / b. Bracket : [ c. An asterisk : * d. Equal : =2. Elapsed time a. Numbers in parenthese : (.2) (elapsed time in tenths of a second) b. Dot in parenthese : (.) (micropause) c. Plus : +, ++, or +++ (short, longer or long pause)3. Punctuation for Intonation a. Question mark : ? (rising intonation) b. Comma : , (a slight rise) c. Collon : :, ::::: (lengthened or more prolonged syllable)4. Stress (pitch and volume) a. Uppercase type : e.q A: to my BOYfriend ann NOTHING else.
5. Talk softly a. Degree : (○)6. Aspiration a. h in parenthese : (h) (explosive aspiration) b. h without parenthese : h (audible breathing) c. Dot : . (in-breath)7. Unsure of accuracy a. Single parenthese : ()8. Nonverbal sounds a. Double parenthese : (( ))9. Part of the transcript relevant to the analyst’s description a. A right arrow : b. Underline :_
The spellings of words are altered to try to capture some of the detail of natural speech. For example: “see you in ten minutes” “see yuh „n ten minutes” “give me the key” “gimme the key”
Channel open/close signals Backchannel signals Turnover signals Acoustically adequate and interpretable message Bracket signals Nonparticipant constraints Preempt signals Gricean norms for communication
Open Signals 1. Summon-answer sequence 3. Greeting sequenceExample: Example:((phone ringing)) ((phone ringing))A: Hello:, E: Hello?B: Hi. S: Hi,((phone ringing)) E: Hi, Sue.C: Hello:, S: Hi, Mom,D: Smith Residence, 2. Identification sequence 4. How-are-you sequenceExample: Example:((phone ringing)) ((phone ringing))E: Hello:, E: Huh-lo?C: Dr. Hatch? S: He-LO!((phone ringing)) E: Hi, Sue, How are yuh.S: hh Hello, S: Fine, how’re you.D: Hi Sue, E: hhhh Oh, not so good. I hadda a run-inS: Hi. = with B.D: = It’s Denise. =S: = ohh HI, Denise
Close signals Pre-closing signals Such as: “well”, “so”, and “okay” used with falling intonationExample:E: okay. So::S: Yeh.E:Yeh. so I’ll call yuh tomorrow then.S: Okay mom, talk to you later.E: Bye.S: Bye.
Eye contact, head nods, smiles, body alignment, and make noises like “umhmm,” “uhhuh,” “yeh,” “yerright” are the examples of backchannel signals. Backchannel signals encourages the speaker to continue. Backchannel or feedback signals differ across settings and according to the roles of speakers.
Slowing tempo Vowel elongation Falling intonation A change in gaze direction
Collaborative turn completion:Example 1: Teacher : Who did that land already belong to? Students: Spain ((a few students respond at the same time)) Teacher : And now + explores coming + and claiming it for? Students: England ((several students respond at the same time))Example 2: M: Mmhmm sometimes it dangerous because if you go out of chair = chair is name of it? S: Yeah the saddle M: Maybe you die because if you (pause) S: Yeah you hit your head. ((completes turn for Miguel))
Communication requires ungarbled and interpretable message. TWO ways in dealing with difficulty adequate and interpreting message because of their language level competence : 1. Fake it 2. Use backchannel cues
Pretending to understand and continuing to interact in the hope that we will catch the theme or focus of the conversation. Communication can continue fairly smoothly, but it may also break down completely since information that allows the participants to build a common theme or focus is missing
Use backchannel cues to let the speaker know we do not understand. The speakers then repairs the message. The message becomes comprehensible during the repair process, but both the native speaker and language learner may find the need for constant negotiation of repairs too burdensome to make the conversation worth-wile
To overcome communication breakdowns when one partner is not yet proficient in the language or in the content of the material being talked about, we may use : a fill in the blank cooperative completion. rephrase questions so that less language is demanded of the learner. supply answers. model the learner‟s response. model better forms of answer.
Signals to show that parts of the message, “side sequences” , are not right on-line with the message of the moment. For example:LF: (reading a lecture paper) ... to the total – ((looks up and directly at audience)) I’m reading this as fast as I can because I bet you’re as hungry as I am. I didn’t eat any breakfast this morning – ((audience laughter; looks back down and continues reading the text))...
one strategy used to move from non participant to participant status is to repeat parts of what one overhears in the ongoing communication. Laughter (non-verbal signals) can be used as a cue to move from non participant to participant status Eye contact Hand waving.
to interrupt an ongoing channel message in conversation, nonverbal signals are used such as: leaning forward, shifting forward in our seats, opening our eyes wide raising eyebrows, waving a pencil in the air
Communication cannot truly work unless participants generally observe four major norms of cooperation: relevance, truthfulness, quantity, and clarity. These norms, called maxims, were proposed by Grice (1975) as criteria for cooperative communication.
Communication messages cannot be random, but must relate to what has gone before. Topics in a conversation are dynamic and are negotiated as a conversation progress. In writing, only one person is building the text, trying to put information into appropriate sequence so that the pieces most highly related to each other come together.
When we violate truthfulness, we often do so using special intonation for sarcasm, for testing, or for playfulness. Learning how to move in and out of “truthfulness” with appropriate marking may be acquired early in in life, but the successful execution and recognition of irony, teasing, and joking is not an easy matter.
In conversation, everyone should have his or her “fair” share of talk time. No one should “hog” the floor without permission. In writing, some of us are very long winded, while others too brief.
We should avoid obscurity and ambiguity. Our message should be constructed in an orderly way.
Hatch, E. (1992). Discourse and language education. Los Angeles: Cambridge University Press.