152I. 일반 규정 (Articles 25–29)II. 매도인의 의무 (Articles 30–52)III. 매수인의 의무 (Articles 53–65)IV. 위험 이전 (Articles 66–70)
252관련 조항25. Definition of "Fundamental Breach”****26. Notice of Avoidance27. Delay or Error in Communications28. Requiring...
• 일반적 이행기준 부여• CISG imposes general standards of performance on both the buyer andseller.• 이행이익 보호• In general, both parti...
1. CISG의 계약위반 구체 원칙 일방이 계약 위반하면 상대방은o 손해배상 요구 (금전배상 원칙)o 계약해제o 자기의 의무이행 (인도나 인수)을 거절o 이미 인도받았다면 대체품 요구 구제수단의 수준이 다름o 손해배...
Article 49 Buyers Right to Avoid the Contract(1) The buyer may declare the contract avoided: if the failure by the seller ...
61. 본질적 위반 (Fundamental breach) 구성요소 기대이익 (expectation)의 침해 본질적 박탈 (Substantial depravity) 손해, 결과의 예측가능성 (foreseeabilit...
1. 어떤 것이 본질적인 위반인가는 구체적 상황에 따라 판단할 문제2. 그러나 다음과 같이 설명이 일반적 손해의 정도 문제가 아님 계약에서 기대되었던 (entitled to expect under the contra...
GERMANY: Bundesgerichtshof 3 April 1996 Case law on UNCITRAL texts (CLOUT) abstract no. 171Facts:• The Dutch plaintiff was...
1. 기대이익을 실질적으로 박탈할 정도의 손실이상대방에게 발생할 것에 대한 예측 가능성 존재2. 예측가능성 판단 기준 위반당사자를 기준으로 하는 주관적 기준 and 위반당사자와 동일 부류의 합리적 사람을 기준으로 하...
Article 26“A declaration of avoidance of the contract is effective only if made by notice tothe other party.”101. 상대방에게 통지...
Article 27 (Delay or Error in Communications)“Unless otherwise expressly provided in this Part of the Convention, if anyno...
Article 27“Unless otherwise expressly provided in this Part of the Convention, if anynotice, request or other communicatio...
1. 특정이행관련 협약의 기본원칙 협약은 대륙법계 계약법에 유사하게 특정이행을 규정함o 28조에 특정이행 허용 흔적 있고, 46, 62조에 각각 구체 규정o 46조 : (1) The buyer may require ...
Article 28 Requiring Performance and the Rules of the ForumIf, in accordance with the provisions of this Convention, one p...
Article 29 Modification of Contract; Writing Requirement(1) A contract may be modified or terminated by the mere agreement...
I. 소유권 이전II. 물품 인도III. 물품인도에 수반하는 의무IV. 서류교부V. 물품의 계약적합 의무VI. 권리의 계약적합 의무16
171. OBLIGATIONS OF THE SELLERSection I. Delivery of the goods and handingover of documentsSection II. Conformity of the g...
181. The seller must① deliver the goods,② hand over any documentsrelating to them and③ transfer the property inthe goods,2...
1. 소유권 이전의무2. 인도의무 기본적인 의무 그러나, 계약적합의무와는 구별됨o 계약 부적합 물품 인도한 때에도 일응 인도의무는 다한 것3. 인도의무의 내용 및 인도장소 (31조) 대부분 인도장소는 계약상 정해지...
201. Article 31 [Place of delivery]2. Article 32 [Shipping arrangements]3. Article 33 [Time for delivery]4. Article 34 [Do...
If the seller is not bound to deliver the goods at any other particular place,his obligation to deliver consists:(a) if th...
Article 32 (Shipping Arrangement)(1) If the seller, in accordance with the contract or this Convention, hands thegoods ove...
Article 33 (Time for Delivery)The seller must deliver the goods:(a) if a date is fixed by or determinable from the contrac...
24Article 34 (Documents relating to the Goods)If the seller is bound to hand over documents relating to thegoods, he must ...
251. 서류거래 계약2. B/L 발행4. 추심 의뢰(화환어음: B/L 첨부)3. B/L 추심 의뢰 or서류 매입 (discounting)5. 환어음 지급(or 인수);B/L 인도 (서류 거래발생)6. B/L 운송인앞 ...
1. 매도인이 제공하는 물품은 계약에 적합한 물품(conform with the K)이어야 하고, 그 물품에 대한 권리의 행사에 장애 없는 물품이어야 한다2. 계약적합의무의 중요성 대부분의 분쟁이 물품의 계약적합성...
271. 35 [Conformity of the goods]2. 36 [Damage to goods: effect on conformity]3. 37 [Right to cure up to date for delivery...
28(1) The seller must deliver goods• which are of the quantity, quality and descriptionrequired by the contract and• which...
UCC § 2-313. Express Warranties by Affirmation, Promise, Description,Sample.(1) Express warranties by the seller are creat...
30협약 35조 2항(2) Except where the parties have agreedotherwise, the goods do not conform with thecontract unless they:(a) ar...
UCC § 2-314. Implied Warranty: Merchantability; Usage of Trade.(1) Unless excluded or modified (Section 2-316), a warranty...
1. 계약에서 정한 수량, 품질, 종류의 물품 인도할 의무 협약 35조 1항o 계약에서 정한 조건 (명시적 조건)에 일치하는 물품 제공 협약 35조 2항 수량의 경우o But, 수량의 특례 : 상관례상 허용되는 과...
1. 품질에 대한 명시적 합의가 계약상 없는 경우 35조 2항의 보조적 판단기준이 적용1. 통상사용 목적에 적합한 물품 (a호)o 상거래에서 팔릴 수 있어야 할 정도의 수준o 실무상 매도인 국가 기준인지 혹은 매수인 ...
Article 36 (Damage to Goods: Effect on Conformity)(1)The seller is liable …. for any lack of conformity which exists at th...
35Article 37 (Right to Cure up to the date fordelivery)If the seller has delivered goods before the datefor delivery, he m...
1. 실무상 다양한 용어 하자 치유권 추완권 품질보장 (Quality Guarantee)2. 취지ㅣ Preserving the K, Saving the K 정신3. 내용 매도인은 부적합 치유할 권리(right)...
Article 38 (Time for examining Goods)(1) The buyer must examine the goods, or cause them to be examined,within as short a ...
[CISG Advisory Council Opinion No. 2] On Article 381. Although a buyer must examine the goods, or cause them to be examine...
1. 실행가능한 단기간 내 (a period as is practicable in thecircumstances)의 의미 독일 법원. Clout n. 285, n. 230. n. 284. (주64) “매수인은 물품이...
40신용장 통일규칙(UCP600)상 서류심사• 신용장거래는 신용장조건에 일치하는 서류 제시하는 경우 대금을지급하는 결제수단• 따라서 은행은 마치 서류를 검사대상으로 하여 검사후 일치하면지급하게 됨• 서류 불일치시 지급 ...
제69조 (매수인의 목적물의 검사와 하자통지의무) ①상인간의 매매에 있어서 매수인이 목적물을 수령한 때에는 지체없이 이를 검사하여야 하며 하자 또는 수량의 부족을 발견한경우에는 즉시 매도인에게 그 통지를 발송하지 아니...
421. 개설 협약상 가장 중요한 규정 중 하나 매수인은 38조에 따라 물품 검사 후 부적합 발견하면 이를 매도인에게 조속히통지하도록 의무 부여 합리적 기간 내에 미통지시 부적합을 주장할 권리를 상실하도록 함2. ...
43Article 39 Notice for Lack of Conformity(1) The buyer loses the right to rely on a lack of conformity ofthe goods if he ...
 판례법Contents of notice; specificity required (1)• notice should indicate both the nature and the extent of the lack of co...
Article 39(1) if he does not give notice to the seller specifying the nature of the lack ofconformity within a reasonable ...
• 통지의 적시성은 구체적 상황요소에 영향 받음• 판례법상 몇 가지 고려 요소들 제시됨Timely notice the reasonable time for notice will vary with thecircumstan...
판례법Form of notice A buyer claiming to have given notice by telephone must proveo when the call took place,o to whom the ...
Case law on UNCITRAL texts (CLOUT) no. 253Facts:• An Italian buyer, plaintiff, bought from a Swiss seller, defendant, 300 ...
 Article 39 다시 회상The buyer loses the right to rely on a lack of conformity of the goods if hedoes not give notice to the ...
Article 40 Sellers Knowledge of Non-conformityThe seller is not entitled to rely on the provisions of articles 38 and 39 i...
Article 41 (Third Party Claims to Goods)The seller must deliver goods which are free from any right or claim of a thirdpar...
Article 42 (Third-Party Claims Based on a Patent or Other Intellectual Property)(1) The seller must deliver goods which ar...
Article 43 Notice of Third Party Claims(1) The buyer loses the right to rely onthe provisions of article 41 or article 42 ...
Article 44 Excuse for Failure to Notify• Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraph (1) of article 39 and paragraph (1) o...
이하의 판례법은 향후 참조용으로 포함시킨 것이므로본 과정을 다 마친 후 읽어보시거나실무에 활용시 검토해 보시기 바랍니다.55
판례상 44조의 적용은 제한적• 많은 경우 판례법상• 부적합 사실의 통지지연을 정당화할 합리적 사유가 없다는 경우가 대부분• “Article 44 has been invoked in a number of decision...
• 합리적 사유가 있다고 본 사례• 주 76 사례 참조1. 제3자가 검사했는데, 하자 발견하지 못한 경우• Q. 만약 그 제3자가 매수인이 지정한 대리인이었다면2. 도착항에서 물품검사가 곤란해 진 경우• 사안• a pr...
 부적합 통지 조항 일반적으로 하자 혹은 부적합 통지관련 조항을수출입자간 계약서에 포함하는 것이 일반적임 하자통지 특약 협약의 일반적인 내용과 다른 특약을 하는 것은6조에 의해 가능하며, 39조의 부적합 통지의방...
Art. 11 Non-conformity of the goods 11.1 The Buyer shall examine the goods as soon as possible after theirarrival at dest...
Art. 11 Non-conformity of the goods 11.3 Where goods are non-conforming (and provided the Buyer, havinggiven notice of th...
 11.4 The buyer will be entitled to liquidated damages as quantifiedunder article 10.1 for each complete week of delay be...
Art. 11 Non-conformity of the goods 11.6 Where the Buyer elects to retain non-conforming goods, he shall beentitled to a ...
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3차시 제2장 국제매매협약 매도인의 의무

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3차시 제2장 국제매매협약 매도인의 의무

  1. 1. 152I. 일반 규정 (Articles 25–29)II. 매도인의 의무 (Articles 30–52)III. 매수인의 의무 (Articles 53–65)IV. 위험 이전 (Articles 66–70)
  2. 2. 252관련 조항25. Definition of "Fundamental Breach”****26. Notice of Avoidance27. Delay or Error in Communications28. Requiring Performance and the Rules of the Forum29. Modification of Contract; Requirement of a Writing
  3. 3. • 일반적 이행기준 부여• CISG imposes general standards of performance on both the buyer andseller.• 이행이익 보호• In general, both parties are entitled to get from their contract what theyexpect.• 계약불이행 하면 계약 위반• A party that fails to perform accordingly is in breach of contract.• 위반시 피해자는 구제(해제, 특정이행) 청구 가능• When one party breaches, the other party may• avoid the contract or• make a demand for specific performance.3August’s view출처 : August외, International Business Law: Text, Cases, and Readings (6판)
  4. 4. 1. CISG의 계약위반 구체 원칙 일방이 계약 위반하면 상대방은o 손해배상 요구 (금전배상 원칙)o 계약해제o 자기의 의무이행 (인도나 인수)을 거절o 이미 인도받았다면 대체품 요구 구제수단의 수준이 다름o 손해배상이 아닌 극단적 구제수단인 계약해제, 이행 거절, 대체품요구 등은 오직 상대방의 위반이 25조의 본질적계약위반(Fundamental breach)에 이르는 경우에 한해 인정452
  5. 5. Article 49 Buyers Right to Avoid the Contract(1) The buyer may declare the contract avoided: if the failure by the seller toperform any of his obligations under the contract or this Convention amounts to afundamental breach of contract;Article 46 Buyers right to Compel Performance(2) If the goods do not conform with the contract, the buyer may require delivery ofsubstitute goods only if the lack of conformity constitutes a fundamental breachof contract..…Article 72 Avoidance prior to the date for Performance(1) If prior to the date for performance of the contract it is clear that one of theparties will commit a fundamental breach of contract, the other party may declarethe contract avoided.51. 손해배상 보다 극단적인 구제 - 본질적 계약위반 일반상황 :o 피해자는 매우 심한 위반인 본질적 위반이라 주장하고, 가해자는 경미한위반이라고 주장하는 대치상황 발생 본질적 계약위반에 해당하는 경우 아래 구제가 가능o 일반적 손해배상에 추가하여 (in addition to) 물품의 인도, 인수 거부** 계약해제권 (49조, 64조)**** 대체품 요구권(46조)53
  6. 6. 61. 본질적 위반 (Fundamental breach) 구성요소 기대이익 (expectation)의 침해 본질적 박탈 (Substantial depravity) 손해, 결과의 예측가능성 (foreseeability)Q. 왜 계약위반을 오직 본질적 위반인 경우로만 제한하여 계약해제권을 좁게 인정할까?53A breach of contract committed by one of the parties is fundamentaloifit results in such detriment to the other partyo as substantially to deprive him of what he is entitled to expect under the contract, 적극적 요건 기대이익의 상당한 수준의 박탈초래 피해 당사자 기준ounlessthe party in breach did not foresee and a reasonable person of the same kind in the same circumstances wouldnot have foreseen such a result. 위반자 기준 위반의 결과를 예측할 수 없었던 경우
  7. 7. 1. 어떤 것이 본질적인 위반인가는 구체적 상황에 따라 판단할 문제2. 그러나 다음과 같이 설명이 일반적 손해의 정도 문제가 아님 계약에서 기대되었던 (entitled to expect under the contract)o 구체적 (개별) 계약의 내용에 따라 기대되는 것이 달라질 수 있으므로 실무팁. 계약서에 구체적이고 명시적인 기재를 할 수록 더 보호받을 수 있음 예컨데, time of essence 조항 피해 당사자에게 이익 침해 (to the other party)o 손실의 중대성은 피해 당사자 기준으로 판단3. 본질적 박탈인 경우 물품 미인도 (non-delivery)o 매도인의 물품 미인도나 이행 불능 일정한 인도지연o 계절성 상품의 인도 지연 매수인의 대금지급 지체 매수인의 물품수령 거절 혹은 불능4. 본질적 박탈 아닌 경우 경미한 계약 위반 (인도일자의 지연 등) 물품의 하자가 있으나 통상목적엔 사용 가능753
  8. 8. GERMANY: Bundesgerichtshof 3 April 1996 Case law on UNCITRAL texts (CLOUT) abstract no. 171Facts:• The Dutch plaintiff was the assignee of a Dutch company, which had sold four different quantities ofcobalt sulphate to the [buyer], a German company.• It was agreed that the goods should be of British origin and that the plaintiff should supplycertificates of origin and of quality.• After the receipt of the documents, the [buyer] declared the contracts to be avoided since the cobaltsulphate was made in South Africa and the certificate of origin was wrong. The [buyer] also claimedthat the quality of the goods was inferior to what was agreed upon. The plaintiff demanded payment.Analysis• The German Supreme Court held that there were no grounds for avoidance of the contract and thusfound for the plaintiff.• According to the Court, the declaration of avoidance could not be based on article 49(1)(b) CISGsince the plaintiff had effected delivery. The delivery of goods which do not conform with thecontract either because they are of lesser quality or of different origin does not constitute non-delivery.• 설사 계약과 다른 물품 인도했다면 미인도는 아니고 부적합 인도이며,• 일응 계약해제보다는 하자 치유, 부가기간 지정 등 더 경미한 구제수단을 강구할 수 있음• The Court also found that there was no fundamental breach of contract since the [buyer] failed toshow that the sale of the South African cobalt sulphate in Germany or abroad was not possible(article 49(1)(a) CISG). Thus, the [buyer] failed to show that it was substantially deprived of what itwas entitled to expect under the contract (article 25 CISG).• Lastly, the Court held that the delivery of wrong certificates of origin and of quality did not amountto a fundamental breach of contract since the [buyer] could obtain correct documents from othersources. Accordingly, the [buyer] could not refuse payment under article 58.8출처: http://www.cisg.law.pace.edu
  9. 9. 1. 기대이익을 실질적으로 박탈할 정도의 손실이상대방에게 발생할 것에 대한 예측 가능성 존재2. 예측가능성 판단 기준 위반당사자를 기준으로 하는 주관적 기준 and 위반당사자와 동일 부류의 합리적 사람을 기준으로 하는 객관적기준에 부합해야3. 예측가능성 증명 책임 위반 당사자의 면책 근거이므로 위반 당사자가 예측가능성 없었음을 증명해야 [이기수]954
  10. 10. Article 26“A declaration of avoidance of the contract is effective only if made by notice tothe other party.”101. 상대방에게 통지되어야 함 별도의 통지 없이 계약위반이 있는 경우 당연히 계약이 해제되도록 하는 것은불확실성 증가시키므로 통지하여야만 취소가능하도록 한 취지 :o “Preserving the K” (all-time favorite!) CISG의 가장 기본적인 정신 국제거래는 일단 성립시켜 이행이 개시되면 계약 해제시 손해의 정도가국내거래에 비하여 큼 “Please talk to each other when problem arises.”2. 계약해제 통지는 발신주의o 세부 규정 및 이유 다음 페이지 참조54
  11. 11. Article 27 (Delay or Error in Communications)“Unless otherwise expressly provided in this Part of the Convention, if anynotice, request or other communication is given or made by a party inaccordance with this Part and by means appropriate in the circumstances, a delayor error in the transmission of the communication or its failure to arrive does notdeprive that party of the right to rely on the communication.11 해석이 어려워요.o 통지에 의지할 권리가 있다 → 통지한 대로 효과 있음 의미o So, 계약해제 통지하면 발신한 때 효력 발생 (27조) Cf. 계약 성립(formation of the K)에선 도달주의 원칙 발신주의 이유o 대부분 계약해제는 본질적 피해를 받은 피해 상대방(aggrieved party)이 하게 되므로피해자를 보호하고자 하는 취지에서 발신한 것만으로도 효력 발생하도록 함 이기수 55면 발신주의의 유사한 경우o 물품하자통지(39조) – 매수인이 통지하면 효력 발생55
  12. 12. Article 27“Unless otherwise expressly provided in this Part of the Convention, if anynotice, request or other communication is given or made by a party in accordancewith this Part and by means appropriate in the circumstances, a delay or error inthe transmission of the communication or its failure to arrive does not deprive thatparty of the right to rely on the communication.12 발신주의가 아닌 도달주의로 하는 경우o 발신주의는 피해 상대방을 위한 규정이므로, 계약을 위반한 당사자가 하는통지는 굳이 발신주의 필요 없이 도달주의로 복귀함이 타당o 피해 당사자 보호o 각 규정에서 명시적으로 도달주의로 표시되어야 (expressly provided) 도달주의 사례o 계약 위반 매도인의 부가기간 내 불이행의 통지 (47조 제2항)o 계약 위반 매도인의 하자치유의 통지 (48조 4항)o 매도인의 사양지정 통지 (65조 2항)o 불가항력 장애의 통지 (79조 4항)56
  13. 13. 1. 특정이행관련 협약의 기본원칙 협약은 대륙법계 계약법에 유사하게 특정이행을 규정함o 28조에 특정이행 허용 흔적 있고, 46, 62조에 각각 구체 규정o 46조 : (1) The buyer may require performance by the seller of his obligations ….. (2) If the goods do not conform with the contract, the buyer may require deliveryof substitute goods only if the lack of conformity constitutes a fundamental breachof contracto 62조 The seller may require the buyer to pay the price, take delivery or perform his otherobligations…. Cf. 영미법은 손해배상 원칙이므로 특정이행은 매우 제한적2. 국내법에의 예양 영미법계 등 일부 국가는 특정이행을 원칙 허용하지 않는법제임을 감안하여 CISG에 가입하더라도 특정이행 판결 하지않을 수 있는 재량권 부여 (28조) – 다음 면 참조.1357-58
  14. 14. Article 28 Requiring Performance and the Rules of the ForumIf, in accordance with the provisions of this Convention, one party is entitled to requireperformance of any obligation by the other party,• 특정 이행 허용a court is not bound to enter a judgment for specific performance unless the court would doso under its own law in respect of similar contracts of sale not governed by this Convention.14 특정이행 명령할 지 여부에 대한 법원의 재량 허용• 국내법이 특정이행을 꼭 명하는 판결을 해야 하는 것이 아닌 한,특정이행을 명할 필요 없음 규정• So, 법원은 재량에 의해 특정이행을 명하거나, 혹은 기타 다른구제수단으로 명할 수 있음 28조는 강행규정이므로, 이와 다르게 규정 못함58-59
  15. 15. Article 29 Modification of Contract; Writing Requirement(1) A contract may be modified or terminated by the mere agreement of the parties.(2) A contract in writing which contains a provision requiring any modification ortermination by agreement to be in writing may not be otherwise modified or terminated byagreement. However, a party may be precluded by his conduct from asserting such aprovision to the extent that the other party has relied on that conduct.151. 협약상 단순 합의에 의한 계약변경 또는 종료 [29조 1항] 영미법인 약인 없는 한 변경 무효여서, 혼란이 예정됨 따라서 협약은 약인 없이 합의만으로 계약 변경가능함을 선언2. 변경에 관한 계약상의 제한 [29조 2항] 서면에 의한 계약변경을 요구하는 계약조항하에서 서면 외방식으로 계약을 변경한 경우 – 서면으로 변경해야 (2항 전문) 그러나, 비록 서면 요건 충족 않는 변경이라도 상대방이 이에의존하였다면 그 변경은 효력 있음 (2항 후문)o 영미법상 금반언의 원칙(estoppel doctrine)59-61
  16. 16. I. 소유권 이전II. 물품 인도III. 물품인도에 수반하는 의무IV. 서류교부V. 물품의 계약적합 의무VI. 권리의 계약적합 의무16
  17. 17. 171. OBLIGATIONS OF THE SELLERSection I. Delivery of the goods and handingover of documentsSection II. Conformity of the goods and thirdparty claimsSection III. Remedies for breach of contract bythe seller2. OBLIGATIONS OF THE BUYERSection I. Payment of the priceSection II. Taking deliverySection III. Remedies for breach of contract bythe buyer
  18. 18. 181. The seller must① deliver the goods,② hand over any documentsrelating to them and③ transfer the property inthe goods,2. as required by the contract and this Convention.o 설사 계약에서 명시적으로요구하지 않았더라도,협약상 요구되는 인도를해야 함 주의!61
  19. 19. 1. 소유권 이전의무2. 인도의무 기본적인 의무 그러나, 계약적합의무와는 구별됨o 계약 부적합 물품 인도한 때에도 일응 인도의무는 다한 것3. 인도의무의 내용 및 인도장소 (31조) 대부분 인도장소는 계약상 정해지므로 인도장소를 정하지 않는 경우를 상정한 31조의 실익은 적음4. 인도에 수반하는 의무 (32조) 운송, 보험계약 등에 필요하게 되는 정보의 제공5. 인도시기(33조)6. 서류교부의무 (34조)7.물품의 계약적합의무 (35조, 41조)**** 문제 발생 가능성 가장 많은 부분1961-69
  20. 20. 201. Article 31 [Place of delivery]2. Article 32 [Shipping arrangements]3. Article 33 [Time for delivery]4. Article 34 [Documents relating to the goods]
  21. 21. If the seller is not bound to deliver the goods at any other particular place,his obligation to deliver consists:(a) if the contract of sale involves carriage of the goods - in handing the goodsover to the first carrier for transmission to the buyer;(b) if, in cases not within the preceding subparagraph, the contract relates tospecific goods, or unidentified goods to be drawn from a specific stock or to bemanufactured or produced, and at the time of the conclusion of the contract theparties knew that the goods were at, or were to be manufactured or produced at,a particular place - in placing the goods at the buyers disposal at that place;(c) in other cases - in placing the goods at the buyers disposal at the place wherethe seller had his place of business at the time of the conclusion of the contract.211. 특정 이행장소 지정 없는 경우 31조 적용 대부분 배달장소 지정하므로 본 조 적용은 희박2. 본조가 시사하는 몇 가지 운송되는 경우 - 최초의 운송인(first carrier) 운송되지 않는 경우 - 매수인 처분하에 두는 방식
  22. 22. Article 32 (Shipping Arrangement)(1) If the seller, in accordance with the contract or this Convention, hands thegoods over to a carrier and if the goods are not clearly identified to the contractby markings on the goods, by shipping documents or otherwise, the seller mustgive the buyer notice of the consignment specifying the goods.(2) If the seller is bound to arrange for carriage of the goods, he must make suchcontracts as are necessary for carriage to the place fixed by means oftransportation appropriate in the circumstances and according to the usual termsfor such transportation.(3) If the seller is not bound to effect insurance in respect of the carriage of thegoods, he must, at the buyers request, provide him with all available informationnecessary to enable him to effect such insurance.221. 운송에 필요한 정보 제공해야 국제무역거래의 특수성 반영 국내거래와 달리 장기간 국제운송에 필요한 각종 정보등 사전 제공이 필수o 선적항, 선적일, 물품 특정, 해상보험에 필요
  23. 23. Article 33 (Time for Delivery)The seller must deliver the goods:(a) if a date is fixed by or determinable from the contract, on that date;(b) if a period of time is fixed by or determinable from the contract, at any time withinthat period unless circumstances indicate that the buyer is to choose a date; or(c) in any other case, within a reasonable time after the conclusion of the contract.231. 인도기일에 인도 원칙2. 위반의 효과 인도기일 이전에 인도하면o 매수인은 인수거절 가능 인도기일 이후에 인도하면,o 계약위반이 됨
  24. 24. 24Article 34 (Documents relating to the Goods)If the seller is bound to hand over documents relating to thegoods, he must hand them over at the time and place and in theform required by the contract.• 서류인도의무도 수행해야If the seller has handed over documents before that time, he may,up to that time, cure any lack of conformity in the documents, ifthe exercise of this right does not cause the buyer unreasonableinconvenience or unreasonable expense.However, the buyer retains any right to claim damages asprovided for in this Convention.• 서류 불일치 등 미비사항 보완 가능• (향후 기술하는 신용장 거래에서 중요 이슈)68
  25. 25. 251. 서류거래 계약2. B/L 발행4. 추심 의뢰(화환어음: B/L 첨부)3. B/L 추심 의뢰 or서류 매입 (discounting)5. 환어음 지급(or 인수);B/L 인도 (서류 거래발생)6. B/L 운송인앞 제시;(현물 인도)추심 절차(은행 활용)CarrierSeller BuyerSeller’sBankBuyer’sBank
  26. 26. 1. 매도인이 제공하는 물품은 계약에 적합한 물품(conform with the K)이어야 하고, 그 물품에 대한 권리의 행사에 장애 없는 물품이어야 한다2. 계약적합의무의 중요성 대부분의 분쟁이 물품의 계약적합성과 관련됨 물품의 상태에 관한 사실의 문제라서 분쟁도 많고 해결도 곤란 특히 장시간의 긴 운송이 국제간 이루어지는 국제무역에선 더욱중요3. 협약의 접근 매도인의 계약적합 의무에 대해 비교적 상세히 규정 미국 통일상법전 (U.S. Uniform Commercial Code)상 물품매매에서매도인의 담보의무(Warranty)규정을 모범으로 규정2669
  27. 27. 271. 35 [Conformity of the goods]2. 36 [Damage to goods: effect on conformity]3. 37 [Right to cure up to date for delivery]4. 38 [Time for examining the goods]5. 39 [Notice for lack of conformity]6. 40 [Sellers knowledge of non-conformity]7. 41 [Third-party claims to goods]8. 42 [Third-party claims based on a patent or otherintellectual property]9. 43 [Notice of third-party claim]10.44 [Excuse for failure to notify]물품의 계약적합물품검사 기간부적합 통지69
  28. 28. 28(1) The seller must deliver goods• which are of the quantity, quality and descriptionrequired by the contract and• which are contained or packaged in the mannerrequired by the contract.(2) Except where the parties have agreed otherwise, thegoods do not conform with the contract unless they:(a) are fit for the purposes for which goods of the samedescription would ordinarily be used;(b) are fit for any particular purpose expressly or impliedly madeknown to the seller at the time of the conclusion of the contract,…(c) possess the qualities of goods which the seller has held out tothe buyer as a sample or model;(d) are contained or packaged in the manner usual for such goodsor, where there is no such manner, in a manner adequate topreserve and protect the goods.(3) The seller is not liable under subparagraphs (a) to (d) ofthe preceding paragraph for any lack of conformity of thegoods if at the time of the conclusion of the contract thebuyer knew or could not have been unaware of such lackof conformity.69
  29. 29. UCC § 2-313. Express Warranties by Affirmation, Promise, Description,Sample.(1) Express warranties by the seller are created as follows:(a) Any affirmation of fact or promise made by the seller to the buyer whichrelates to the goods and becomes part of the basis of the bargain creates anexpress warranty that the goods shall conform to the affirmation or promise.(b) Any description of the goods which is made part of the basis of the bargaincreates an express warranty that the goods shall conform to the description.(c) Any sample or model which is made part of the basis of the bargain createsan express warranty that the whole of the goods shall conform to the sample ormodel.(2) It is not necessary to the creation of an express warranty that the selleruse formal words such as "warrant" or "guarantee" or that he have a specificintention to make a warranty, but an affirmation merely of the value of thegoods or a statement purporting to be merely the sellers opinion orcommendation of the goods does not create a warranty.291. 협약 35조 1항 (계약에서 요구한 조건) (1) The seller must deliver goods which are of the quantity, quality anddescription required by the contract and which are contained orpackaged in the manner required by the contract.69
  30. 30. 30협약 35조 2항(2) Except where the parties have agreedotherwise, the goods do not conform with thecontract unless they:(a) are fit for the purposes for which goods of the samedescription would ordinarily be used;(b) are fit for any particular purpose expressly orimpliedly made known to the seller at the time of theconclusion of the contract, …(c) possess the qualities of goods which the seller hasheld out to the buyer as a sample or model;(d) are contained or packaged in the manner usual forsuch goods or, where there is no such manner, in amanner adequate to preserve and protect the goods.69
  31. 31. UCC § 2-314. Implied Warranty: Merchantability; Usage of Trade.(1) Unless excluded or modified (Section 2-316), a warranty that the goods shallbe merchantable is implied in a contract for their sale if the seller is a merchantwith respect to goods of that kind. …(2) Goods to be merchantable must be at least such as(a) pass without objection in the trade under the contract description; and(b) in the case of fungible goods, are of fair average quality within the description;and(c) are fit for the ordinary purposes for which such goods are used; and(d) run, within the variations permitted by the agreement, of even kind, quality andquantity within each unit and among all units involved; and(e) are adequately contained, packaged, and labeled as the agreement may require;and(f) conform to the promise or affirmations of fact made on the container or label if any.(3) Unless excluded or modified (Section 2-316) other implied warranties mayarise from course of dealing or usage of trade.UCC § 2-315. Implied Warranty: Fitness for Particular Purpose.Where the seller at the time of contracting has reason to know any particularpurpose for which the goods are required and that the buyer is relying on thesellers skill or judgment to select or furnish suitable goods, there is unlessexcluded or modified under the next section an implied warranty that the goodsshall be fit for such purpose.3169
  32. 32. 1. 계약에서 정한 수량, 품질, 종류의 물품 인도할 의무 협약 35조 1항o 계약에서 정한 조건 (명시적 조건)에 일치하는 물품 제공 협약 35조 2항 수량의 경우o But, 수량의 특례 : 상관례상 허용되는 과부족 (곡물 등 거래)은 계약적합의무 위반 아님 품질의 경우o 품질의 차이가 있으면 계약 위반 그 품질 차이가 용도나 가격에 영향을 미칠 정도에 이를 것이 요구되지는 않음3269
  33. 33. 1. 품질에 대한 명시적 합의가 계약상 없는 경우 35조 2항의 보조적 판단기준이 적용1. 통상사용 목적에 적합한 물품 (a호)o 상거래에서 팔릴 수 있어야 할 정도의 수준o 실무상 매도인 국가 기준인지 혹은 매수인 국가 기준인지 여부에 대하여 분쟁 가능2. 특별사용 목적에 적합한 물품 (b호)o 매수인이 사용할 목적을 표시함으로써 혹은 그런 목적을 합리적인 매도인이 당연히예측할 수 있는 경우, 매도인은 그에 적합한 물품을 제공할 의무를 부담 매수인은 매도인 대비 물품에 대한 지식이 부족한 경우 많음을 고려하여 비록 명확한명세를 계약에 포함시키지 않더라도 원하는 물품을 인도받을 수 있도록 한 배려o 특별한 용도 등 표시나 인지는 계약체결 시 기준. 사후 통지는 불인정 (이기수)3. 견본 및 모형에 적합한 물품 (c호)o Sample은 당해 매매 목적물인 물품에서 추출한 것, Model은 검사를 위해 제시한 목적물아닌 물품4. 포장 (d호)o 포장도 계약에 적합하여야 하므로, 매도인은 포장의무도 있음3371-74
  34. 34. Article 36 (Damage to Goods: Effect on Conformity)(1)The seller is liable …. for any lack of conformity which exists at the timewhen the risk passes to the buyer,•계약적합 여부 판단시기는 위험이전 시기(2) The seller is also liable for any lack of conformity which occurs after thetime indicated in the preceding paragraph and which is due to a breach of any ofhis obligations, including a breach of any guarantee that for a period of time thegoods will remain fit for their ordinary purpose or for some particular purpose orwill retain specified qualities or characteristics.•위험이전 이후에 발생한 부적합 이라도, 통상사용목적 및 특별사용목적에맞을 것이라는 보증을 한 경우엔 그 보증기간까지는 계약 적합 해야.341. Conformity of Goods는 위험이전시기에 적합 해야2. 보증시 예외 보증기간 내에는 계약 적합해야73
  35. 35. 35Article 37 (Right to Cure up to the date fordelivery)If the seller has delivered goods before the datefor delivery, he may, up to that date, deliver any missing part or make up any deficiencyin the quantity of the goods delivered, or deliver goods in replacement of any non-conforming goods delivered or remedy any lack of conformity in the goodsdelivered,provided that the exercise of this right does notcause the buyer unreasonable inconvenience orunreasonable expense.• 매수인에게 불합리한 손해 없도록However, the buyer retains any right to claimdamages as provided for in this Convention. 손해배상은 별도로 청구 가능!74
  36. 36. 1. 실무상 다양한 용어 하자 치유권 추완권 품질보장 (Quality Guarantee)2. 취지ㅣ Preserving the K, Saving the K 정신3. 내용 매도인은 부적합 치유할 권리(right) 보유하므로, 그 범위 내에서 매수인은 45조이하의 구제권 (계약해제, 대금감액 등) 행사 불가o 인도기일 이전이면, 본질적 위반에 이르는 정도의 부적합의 경우에도 치유권 인정 손해배상은 별도로 가능4. 하자보완권의 한계 매수인에게 부당한 불편 혹은 비용 야기하지 말아야o 예. 매수인이 인도된 기계를 이미 생산라인에 설치하였는데, 장기간 수리를 통해생산을 지연시키는 것은 부당o 매수인은 치유를 거절할 수도 있음 계약적합의무 면책o 부적합 사실이 명백한 경우3674
  37. 37. Article 38 (Time for examining Goods)(1) The buyer must examine the goods, or cause them to be examined,within as short a period as is practicable in the circumstances.(2) If the contract involves carriage of the goods, examination may bedeferred until after the goods have arrived at their destination.371. 개설 39조의 부적합통지의무를 위한 기초o 취지 : 물품검사 및 부적합 통지를 통해 매도인에게 부적합 치유할 기회를 제공하기위한 것2. 물품의 검사의무 38조 1항에 규정o 협약은 검사의 시기와 장소만 정하며 검사의 종류, 방법에 대해서는 언급 없음o Cf. 또한 이 검사의무는 제58조 제3항에 정한 매수인의 검사할 권리와는 구별해야.76
  38. 38. [CISG Advisory Council Opinion No. 2] On Article 381. Although a buyer must examine the goods, or cause them to be examined, within as shorta period as is practicable in the circumstances, there is no independent sanction for failure todo so. However, if the buyer fails to do so and there is a lack of conformity of the goods thatan examination would have revealed, the notice period in article 39 commences from thetime the buyer "ought to have discovered it".• 검사의무 불이행에 대한 별도의 제재 없음• 검사할 수 있었던 시기로 부적합 통지기간의 기산이 소급되는 간접적 효과2. Whether and when it is practicable, and not just possible, to examine the goods dependson all the circumstances of the case. It is often commercially practicable to examine thegoods immediately upon receipt. This would normally be the case with perishables. In othercases, such as complicated machinery, it may not be commercially practicable to examinethe goods except for externally visible damage or other non-conformity until, for example,they can be used in the way intended. If the goods are to be re-sold, the examination willoften be conducted by the sub-purchaser. Another example is dealt with in article 38(3).• 검사기간은 구체적 상황에 따라 다름3. The period for examining for latent defects commences when signs of the lack ofconformity become evident.• 잠재하자에 대한 검사의무는 그 부적합의 표시가 명백해지는 때부터 시작됨38출처: http://www.cisg.law.pace.edu
  39. 39. 1. 실행가능한 단기간 내 (a period as is practicable in thecircumstances)의 의미 독일 법원. Clout n. 285, n. 230. n. 284. (주64) “매수인은 물품이 인도된 후 1주일 이내에 물품검사를 해야 함”2. 운송되는 경우 검사기간의 연장 핀란드 법원, 29. Jan 1998o 계약상 비록 인도조건이 “FOB 탈린” 이지만o 매수인은 물품이 아부다비에 도착한 후까지 검사를 연기할 수 있다.(주65)3977
  40. 40. 40신용장 통일규칙(UCP600)상 서류심사• 신용장거래는 신용장조건에 일치하는 서류 제시하는 경우 대금을지급하는 결제수단• 따라서 은행은 마치 서류를 검사대상으로 하여 검사후 일치하면지급하게 됨• 서류 불일치시 지급 거절• 거절통지의 근거가 된 개별불일치 사항 통지하여야Article 14 Standard for Examination of Documentsa. A nominated bank acting on its nomination, a confirming bank, if any, and the issuing bank mustexamine a presentation to determine, on the basis of the documents alone, whether or not the documentsappear on their face to constitute a complying presentation.b. A nominated bank acting on its nomination, a confirming bank, if any, and the issuing bank shall eachhave a maximum of five banking days following the day of presentation to determine if a presentation iscomplying. This period is not curtailed or otherwise affected by the occurrence on or after the date ofpresentation of any expiry date or last day for presentation.Article 16 Discrepant Documents, Waiver and Noticec. When a nominated bank acting on its nomination, a confirming bank, if any, or the issuing bank decidesto refuse to honour or negotiate, it must give a single notice to that effect to the presenter.The notice must state:o i. that the bank is refusing to honour or negotiate; ando ii. each discrepancy in respect of which the bank refuses to honour or negotiate; and…..참고
  41. 41. 제69조 (매수인의 목적물의 검사와 하자통지의무) ①상인간의 매매에 있어서 매수인이 목적물을 수령한 때에는 지체없이 이를 검사하여야 하며 하자 또는 수량의 부족을 발견한경우에는 즉시 매도인에게 그 통지를 발송하지 아니하면 이로 인한계약해제, 대금감액 또는 손해배상을 청구하지 못한다. 매매의목적물에 즉시 발견할 수 없는 하자가 있는 경우에 매수인이6월내에 이를 발견한 때에도 같다. ②전항의 규정은 매도인이 악의인 경우에는 적용하지 아니한다.41참고
  42. 42. 421. 개설 협약상 가장 중요한 규정 중 하나 매수인은 38조에 따라 물품 검사 후 부적합 발견하면 이를 매도인에게 조속히통지하도록 의무 부여 합리적 기간 내에 미통지시 부적합을 주장할 권리를 상실하도록 함2. 통지의 내용3. 통지의 시기4. 통지의무 불이행의 효과78Article 39 Notice for Lack of Conformity(1) The buyer loses the right to rely on a lack of conformity of thegoods if he does not give notice to the seller specifying the nature ofthe lack of conformity within a reasonable time after he has discovered itor ought to have discovered it.
  43. 43. 43Article 39 Notice for Lack of Conformity(1) The buyer loses the right to rely on a lack of conformity ofthe goods if he does not give notice to the seller specifying thenature of the lack of conformity within a reasonable timeafter he has discovered it or ought to have discovered it.o 하자내용을 세부적으로 적시해야o 발견 후 합리적 기간 내에 통지해야o 통지하지 않으면 부적합 주장 못함(2) In any event, the buyer loses the right to rely on a lack ofconformity of the goods if he does not give the seller noticethereof at the latest within a period of two years from the dateon which the goods were actually handed over to the buyer,unless this time-limit is inconsistent with a contractual periodof guarantee.o 인도일 이후 2년 이내에 제기해야o 계약상 보증기간이 있고 2년 이상인 경우라면 그 기간으로 함
  44. 44.  판례법Contents of notice; specificity required (1)• notice should indicate both the nature and the extent of the lack of conformity, and should convey theresults of the buyer’s examination of the goods;[53]• notice should be specific enough to allow the seller to comprehend the buyer’s claim and to takeappropriate steps in response, i.e., to examine the goods and arrange for a substitute delivery orotherwise remedy the lack of conformity;[54]• the purpose of the specificity requirement is to enable the seller to understand the kind of breachclaimed by the buyer and to take the steps necessary to cure it, such as initiating a substitute oradditional delivery;[55]• each claimed non-conformity must be specifically described, and the fact that notice may besufficiently specific as to one defect does not mean that the notice requirement for other claimeddefects is satisfied.[60] (See the case)• In the case of machinery and technical equipment, it has been found that the specificity requirement issatisfied by a description of the symptoms of a lack of conformity, and that an explanation of theunderlying causes is not required.[64]o see also [CISG Advisory Council Opinion No. 2] On Article 39]44 물품과 서류 모두 포함하여 관련된 부적합 통지해야 (이기수) 부적합의 특정 정도o 부적합의 성질과 정도를 구체적으로 알려줘야 [Specific]79
  45. 45. Article 39(1) if he does not give notice to the seller specifying the nature of the lack ofconformity within a reasonable time after he has discovered it or ought to have discoveredit.(2) In any event, the buyer loses the right to rely on a lack of conformity of thegoods if he does not give the seller notice thereof at the latest within a period oftwo years from the date on which the goods were actually handed over to the buyer,unless this time-limit is inconsistent with a contractual period of guarantee.45 거절통지시 합리적인 기간의 기산점o 발견할 수 있었던 때부터 起算 (ought to have discovered)o 합리적인지 여부는 구체적인 계약의 내용과 상황 감안 제척기간 (39조2항)o 어떤 경우라도 물품 인도일부터 2년 초과 못함o 다만, 장기간 보증(warranty) 설정시는 초과 가능(39조2항 단서)o 선적시기부터가 아닌 인도일을 기준으로 한 이유 장기간 운송이나 창고 적치시 동 기간 산입을 막기 위함 (이기수)80
  46. 46. • 통지의 적시성은 구체적 상황요소에 영향 받음• 판례법상 몇 가지 고려 요소들 제시됨Timely notice the reasonable time for notice will vary with thecircumstances of the particular case.[116]Factors influencing reasonable time for notice A patent, easily noticeable defect tends toshorten the period for notice.[117]o 외관상 명시적 하자는 빨리 통보해야o Cf. latent defect The nature of the goods is another frequently-cited factor:[118]o goods that are perishable [119] or seasonal [120] require earliernotice of defects;o notice with respect to durable or non-seasonal goods, incontrast, is subject to a longer notice period.[121]4680출처: http://www.cisg.law.pace.edu
  47. 47. 판례법Form of notice A buyer claiming to have given notice by telephone must proveo when the call took place,o to whom the buyer spoke, ando what was said during the conversation; the buyer’s failure to prove these elements prevented it from establishing that thearticle 39 notice requirement was satisfied.[22]To whom must notice be given? Notice given to an employee of the seller who was not authorized to receive suchcommunications but who promised to transmit the information to the seller was foundto be insufficient when the employee in fact did not inform the seller; the court notedthat, when notice is not given to the seller personally, the buyer must ensure that theseller actually receives the notice.[29]Burden of Proof the buyer bears the burden of proving that it gave the required article 39 notice ofnon-conformity. This position has been adopted both expressly [13] and byimplication.[14]4781출처: http://www.cisg.law.pace.edu
  48. 48. Case law on UNCITRAL texts (CLOUT) no. 253Facts:• An Italian buyer, plaintiff, bought from a Swiss seller, defendant, 300 tons of [cocoa] beanswhich were shipped from Ghana.• The beans were to contain fat of at least 45 per cent and acidity of no more than 7 per cent.• As provided in the contract of sale, payment was made against documents, which included acertificate of conformity.• Tests of the beans after delivery in Italy, however, revealed that their values were not as hadbeen certified.• In litigation commenced by the buyer in Switzerland for recovery of the purchase price, itwas not possible to determine whether the goods were already defective when handed overto the carrier.Analysis• On the issue of which of the parties had to bear the burden of proof, the court stated that, asa matter of principle, attribution of the burden of proof is to be determined by the lawapplicable on the merits, which, in this case, was the CISG.• The court noted that the CISG does not contain any particular rule on the burden of proof asto the conformity of goods.• Furthermore, it noted that views on this matter as expressed by scholars are divided:according to some, the CISG implies that the buyer should bear the burden, whereas otherswould attribute the burden in accordance with domestic law.• The court was able to leave the issue open because, under the law of the forum as well asunder the CISG, the buyer had to bear the burden of proof. 48출처: http://www.cisg.law.pace.edu
  49. 49.  Article 39 다시 회상The buyer loses the right to rely on a lack of conformity of the goods if hedoes not give notice to the seller…49 매수인은 불이행 관련 권리 상실o the right to require the seller to repair the goods,[7]o the right to claim damages,[8]o the right to reduce the price,[9] ando the right to avoid the contract.[10]81
  50. 50. Article 40 Sellers Knowledge of Non-conformityThe seller is not entitled to rely on the provisions of articles 38 and 39 if the lackof conformity relates to facts of which he knew or could not have been unawareand which he did not disclose to the buyer.50 매도인이 부적합 사실을 이미 안 경우 (악의)o 매도인은 매수인의 부적합 통지의무 위반을 주장 못함o 즉, 40조에 의해 악의의 매도인을 보호하지 않으므로o 결과적으로 매수인은 권리 상실하지 않음. 이유 : 악의적인 매도인이 하자를 숨겨 매수인이 그 하자를 발견 못해 하자통지 못하였다면 매수인을 보호할 필요가 발생o 예. 매도인이 기망행위를 한 경우 (주 74) 물품의 수량의 부족한 경우 등 하자가 명백한 경우 (주 74)82
  51. 51. Article 41 (Third Party Claims to Goods)The seller must deliver goods which are free from any right or claim of a thirdparty, unless the buyer agreed to take the goods subject to that right or claim.However, if such right or claim is based on industrial property or other intellectualproperty, the sellers obligation is governed by article 42.511. 배경 취지 :o 매수인이 매수물품에 대한 소유권 등 분쟁에 휘말리지 않도록 보호할 필요 제3자의 권리(확정된) 및 권리주장(claim, 아직 비확정된 것의미)으로부터 보호될 필요2. 관련조항 41조 (Third Party Claims to Goods) 42조 (Third-Party Claims Based on a Patent or Other Intellectual Property) 43조 (Notice of Third Party Claims)83
  52. 52. Article 42 (Third-Party Claims Based on a Patent or Other Intellectual Property)(1) The seller must deliver goods which are free from any right or claim of a thirdparty based on industrial property or other intellectual property, of which at thetime of the conclusion of the contract the seller knew or could not have beenunaware, provided that the right or claim is based on industrial property or otherintellectual property:o (a) under the law of the State where the goods will be resold or otherwise used, if itwas contemplated by the parties at the time of the conclusion of the contract that thegoods would be resold or otherwise used in that State; oro (b) in any other case, under the law of the State where the buyer has his place ofbusiness.521. 규정 취지 지적재산권은 영토적 제한 있는 권리이므로, 전매되거나 사용될 국가의지적재산권만이 문제가 됨. 따라서 다른 권리 제한과 구별하여 별도로규정 지적재산은 물품이 재판매되거나 기타 방식으로 사용될 국가의지적재산권법에 근거한 권리주장으로부터 제한받지 않을 것 요구84
  53. 53. Article 43 Notice of Third Party Claims(1) The buyer loses the right to rely onthe provisions of article 41 or article 42 if he does notgive notice to the seller specifying the nature of the right or claim of the third party within areasonable time after he has become aware or ought to have become aware of the right orclaim.(2)The seller is not entitled to rely on the provisions of the preceding paragraph if he knewof the right or claim of the third party and the nature of it.531. 합리적 기간내 통지 39조와 유사2. 제척기간 미존재 물품 부적합의 경우엔 장시간 경과시 입증 등의 곤란 문제가 있어제척기간을 두고 있으나 권리 제한에 따른 부적합 통지의 경우엔 시간 경과가 큰 장애가안되기 때문임 (이기수)85
  54. 54. Article 44 Excuse for Failure to Notify• Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraph (1) of article 39 and paragraph (1) ofarticle 43,• the buyer may reduce the price in accordance with article 50 or claim damages,except for loss of profit,• if he has a reasonable excuse for his failure to give the required notice.541. 매수인 미통지에 합리적 이유 있는 경우 구제 39조 및 43조의 통지의무 불이행하였어도 보호2. 구제의 한계 구제수단중 대금감액과 손해배상 청구만 가능o 손해배상시 이익의 상실(loss of profit)은 불포함o 특정이행 청구나 계약해제는 불가o 제척기간은 그대로 지속 제척기간이 바로 이 의미
  55. 55. 이하의 판례법은 향후 참조용으로 포함시킨 것이므로본 과정을 다 마친 후 읽어보시거나실무에 활용시 검토해 보시기 바랍니다.55
  56. 56. 판례상 44조의 적용은 제한적• 많은 경우 판례법상• 부적합 사실의 통지지연을 정당화할 합리적 사유가 없다는 경우가 대부분• “Article 44 has been invoked in a number of decisions, but seldom successfully: in asubstantial majority of decisions, the deciding tribunal found that the "reasonable excuse"requirement was not satisfied.[21]”• 즉, 동 통지 지연한 경우 매수인은 부적합을 이유로 계약해제 등 권리행사를할 수 없게 됨• 합리적 사유가 없다고 본 사례• a buyer argued that• it had a reasonable excuse for failing to give timely notice of a non-conformity because thegoods had been held up in customs when they arrived in the buyers country, and• the installation of processing machinery needed for a trial run of the goods had beendelayed.• The court, however, ruled that• the buyer had failed to show that it could not have gotten access to the goods in order toexamine them when they first arrived in the port of destination;• furthermore, the buyer had failed to show that the delay in the installation of the processingmachinery was not due to its own neglect.[22]56참고출처: http://www.cisg.law.pace.edu
  57. 57. • 합리적 사유가 있다고 본 사례• 주 76 사례 참조1. 제3자가 검사했는데, 하자 발견하지 못한 경우• Q. 만약 그 제3자가 매수인이 지정한 대리인이었다면2. 도착항에서 물품검사가 곤란해 진 경우• 사안• a provision of the contract required claims of non-conformity to be brought forward within50 days of the date stamped on a bill of lading issued when the goods were dispatched.• Inspection of the goods at the port of shipment became unfeasible, and the buyer did notexamine the goods until they arrived at their destination.• As a result, the buyer did not give notice of lack of conformity within the 50-day deadline,• the court found that• the buyer had a reasonable excuse for the delay and applied article 44 to permit the buyerto reduce the price of the goods pursuant to article 50 of the Convention.57참고출처: http://www.cisg.law.pace.edu
  58. 58.  부적합 통지 조항 일반적으로 하자 혹은 부적합 통지관련 조항을수출입자간 계약서에 포함하는 것이 일반적임 하자통지 특약 협약의 일반적인 내용과 다른 특약을 하는 것은6조에 의해 가능하며, 39조의 부적합 통지의방법도 특약에 의해 다르게 약정할 수 있음 판례법o Agreements relating to notice Article 39 is subject to the parties’ power (under article 6) toderogate from or vary the effect of any provision of theConvention. Agreements between parties have generally been enforced, andbuyers have several times lost the right to complain of a lack ofconformity because they failed to comply with the terms of suchan agreement.[31] 실무적으로는 수출입자간 계약서상 특약 넣어 해결o 참고 : 다음 면에서, ICC 표준계약서상 부적합 통지관련 조항 설명함58참고출처: ICC, ICC Model International Sale Contract (manufactured goods intended for resale
  59. 59. Art. 11 Non-conformity of the goods 11.1 The Buyer shall examine the goods as soon as possible after theirarrival at destination and shall notify the Seller in writing of any lack ofconformity of the goods within 15 days from the date when the Buyerdiscovers or ought to have discovered the lack of conformity. In any casethe Buyer shall have no remedy for lack of conformity if he fails to notifythe Seller thereof within 12 months from the date of arrival of the goodsat the agreed destination.o 하자통보방법 관련 특약 가능 서면으로 할 것 15일 이내에 통보 최대 청구기간을 12개월로 낮춤 11.2 Goods will be deemed to conform to the Contract despite minordiscrepancies which are usual in the particular trade or through courseof dealing between the parties but the Buyer will be entitled to anyabatement of the price usual in the trade or through course of dealing forsuch discrepancies.o 경미한 하자는 업계 관행, 당사자간 협의 비추어 허용됨o 단 가격의 인하(abatement) 요청 가능59참고출처: ICC, ICC Model International Sale Contract (manufactured goods intended for resale
  60. 60. Art. 11 Non-conformity of the goods 11.3 Where goods are non-conforming (and provided the Buyer, havinggiven notice of the lack of conformity in compliance with article 11.1does not elect in the notice to retain them), the Seller shall at his option:o (a) replace the goods with conforming goods, without any additional expenseto the Buyer, oro (b) repair the goods, without any additional expense to the Buyer, oro (c ) reimburse to the Buyer the price paid for the non-conforming goods andthereby terminate the Contract as regards those goods. 매도인은 3 R 해야 함o Replace 교환,o Repair 수리,o Reimburse(refund) 환급60참고출처: ICC, ICC Model International Sale Contract (manufactured goods intended for resale
  61. 61.  11.4 The buyer will be entitled to liquidated damages as quantifiedunder article 10.1 for each complete week of delay between the date ofnotification of the non-conformity according to article 11.1 and thesupply of substitute goods under article 11.3(a) or repair under article11.3(b) above. Such damages may be accumulated with damages (if any)payable under article 10.1 but can in no case exceed in the aggregate 5%of the price of those goods. 11.5 Where the Contract is terminated under article 11.3(c) or article11.4, then in addition to any amount paid or payable under article 11.3as reimbursement of the price and damages for any delay, the Buyer isentitled to damages for any additional loss not exceeding 10% of theprice of the non-conforming goods.61참고출처: ICC, ICC Model International Sale Contract (manufactured goods intended for resale
  62. 62. Art. 11 Non-conformity of the goods 11.6 Where the Buyer elects to retain non-conforming goods, he shall beentitled to a sum equal to the difference between the value of the goods atthe agreed place of destination if they had conformed with the Contract andtheir value at the same place as delivered, such sum not to exceed 15% ofthe price of those goods. 11.7 Unless otherwise agreed in writing, the remedies under this article 11are exclusive of any other remedy for non-conformity. 11.8 Unless otherwise agreed in writing, no action for lack of conformitycan be taken by the Buyer, whether before judicial or arbitral tribunals, after2 years from the date of arrival of the goods. It is expressly agreed that afterthe expiry of such term, the Buyer will not plead non-conformity of thegoods, or make a counter-claim thereon, in defense to any action taken bythe Seller against the Buyer for non-performance of this Contract.62참고출처: ICC, ICC Model International Sale Contract (manufactured goods intended for resale

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