2차시 제2장 국제매매계약 총칙과 계약성립

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  • Transactions covered in CISGInternational sale: A sale involving a buyer and seller with places of business in different states.Opting in and outChoice-of-law clause: Contractual provision that identifies the law to be applied in the event of a dispute over the terms or the performance of the contract.Sales definedSale: The exchange of goods for an amount of money or its equivalent.Goods definedGood: A movable, tangible object.Auction sales, sales on execution, and sales otherwise by authority of law are excluded because of the uniqueness of the transactions involved.Transactions in stocks, shares, investment securities, negotiable instruments, and money are excluded because a wide variety of local rules govern them.Sales of ships, vessels, hovercraft, aircraft, and electricity were also excluded from CISG because most domestic legal systems have special rules that apply to them.Mixed salesCISG looks upon mixed sales and services contracts as sales of goods, unless the preponderant part of the obligations of the seller consists in the supply of labor or other services.Contracts for goods to be manufactured are treated by CISG as sales of goods unless the buyer undertakes to supply a substantial part of the materials.
  • 2차시 제2장 국제매매계약 총칙과 계약성립

    1. 1. 1
    2. 2. 2
    3. 3. 1. 국제거래 중 국제물품매매(intl sales of goods)가 대표적2. 매매계약의 구체적 내용 당사자간 합의(合意) – agreemento 정형거래조건을 활용하기도 합의되지 않은 부분에 대해서는 국제물품매매법 적용3. 준거법 문제 각 국가마다 다른 국제물품매매법 동일 법률용어의 다른 해석 불확실성 초래318
    4. 4. 1. 통일국제매매법의 발전 UNIDROIT가 논의 시작2. 헤이그협약 UNIDROIT Principles라는 별칭3. 비엔나협약 UNCITRAL 주도 CISG라는 별칭 우리나라 2005년 3월 1일 발효 우리나라와 미국, 중국, 일본 등대부분의 중요 거래국과 국제물품매매거래에 적용되는 국내법이되었음419
    5. 5. 5• 출처 : Schaffer, International business law and its environment (7th ed)1. Sales contracts are the uniform method of conductingcommercial transactions: Set out parties‘ rights and duties. Terms and Conditions. Quantity and Price. Choice of Law and Forum.2. Law of Sales Body of law which governs contracts for the present or future sale ofgoods. National differences in Sales Law and Contractual Uncertainty. Unification of Sales Law: UNCITRAL.Schaffer’s view출처 : Richard Schaffer, International Business Law and Its Environment, 8판
    6. 6. 6 Country differences in approach to contract law. Response-CISG (Convention for the International Sale of Goods) negotiated in 1980became effective in 1988.CISG a compromise: tries to keep parties in bargain (compare with perfecttender). Applicability of CISG Commercial sale of goods. Between parties whose places of business are in different countries. The places of business are in countries that have ratified the CISG. Over 70 countries have ratified CISG.Schaffer’s view출처 : Richard Schaffer, International Business Law and Its Environment, 8판
    7. 7. 7
    8. 8. 81. PART I -- SPHERE OF APPLICATION AND GENERALPROVISIONS CHAPTER I -- SPHERE OF APPLICATION CHAPTER II -- GENERAL PROVISIONS2. PART II -- FORMATION OF THE CONTRACT3. PART III -- SALE OF GOODS (Obligations ; Remedies) CHAPTER I -- GENERAL PROVISIONS CHAPTER II -- OBLIGATIONS OF THE SELLER CHAPTER III -- OBLIGATIONS OF THE BUYER CHAPTER IV -- PASSING OF RISK CHAPTER V -- PROVISIONS COMMON TO THE OBLIGATIONS OFTHE SELLER AND OF THE BUYER4. PART IV -- FINAL PROVISIONS국제거래는 이행에장기간 소요되어중요하므로세부적으로 규정20%70%10%22
    9. 9. 91. BEING OF THE OPINION that the adoption of uniform rules whicho govern contracts for the international sale of goods ando take into account the different social, economic and legal systems wouldo contribute to the removal of legal barriers in international trade ando promote the development of international trade2. 공통법 채택 국제물품매매계약을 규율 상이한 사회적, 경제적, 법적 시스템을 반영o 작동하는 국제거래법을 도입하려면, 단순히 법의 문제라는 시각에서 탈피o 사회적 현상, 경제적 측면도 반영3. 추구하는 목표 국제무역에서의 법적 장애를 제거 국제무역 발전을 증진4. 규정상의 특징 국제무역의 특성을 반영 (이행과 구제 부분이 많음) 많은 규정이 거래 당사자의 협력을 장려 (클레임보단 협력!)참고
    10. 10. I. 직접적용II. 간접적용III. 적용배제IV. 합의에 의한 적용 배제V. 합의에 의한 적용1025
    11. 11. 11• Choice-of-law clauseOpting In and Out• CISG speaks of the seller’s and buyer’s obligationsSales DefinedGoods DefinedMixed SalesAugust’s view출처 : August외, International Business Law: Text, Cases, and Readings (6판)
    12. 12. Suggested ―choice of laws clause‖"Questions concerning the formation of this contract and the rights and obligations of Seller and Buyerthat are not settled by the terms stated in this document shall be settled in conformity with thoseprovisions of the United Nations Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods that donot conflict with the terms stated in this document." CISG Article 7조에 부합하는 표현임 출처 : DRAFTING CISG CONTRACTS AND DOCUMENTS by John P. McMahon(http://www.luyulei.net/drafting/M003-Drafting_CISG-Contracts.html)121. 당사자 합의에 의한 CISG 적용 실무상 가장 안전하고 바람직한 방법o 당사자 자치 원칙에 따라 당사자가 CISG를 적용하기로 명시적으로 합의한경우라면 원칙 적용 (거래의 성질에 반하지 않는 한) 좋은 변호사는 당사자간 가급적 CISG 적용을 계약서상 명시할 것권장할 것o 중립성 : 대륙법과 영미법을 조화시켜 만든 비교적 중립적이면서도,o 잘 만든 법 : 국제운송 등 거래 특성을 잘 반영한 법이라고 평가됨o 판례 등 풍부 : 많은 국가가 판례로 그 내용을 정립, 발전시키고 있으므로참조 가능35
    13. 13. (1) This Convention applies to contracts of sale of goods between partieswhose places of business are in different States:(a) when the States are Contracting States; or(b) when the rules of private international law lead to the application of the law of aContracting State.13• 명시적 합의 없는 경우 CISG가 적용되는 경우 강학상 소위 직접 적용과 간접 적용 있음I. CISG 직접 적용1. 영업소가 상이한 국가에 소재하고, 양쪽 모두 CISG체약국(contracting states)2. 물품 매매계약일 것o 매매계약일 것 – 교환은 대상 Xo 물품성 (movable goods)3. 국제성에 대한 인식• 별도로 세부적 설명25
    14. 14. 14•미국, 유럽연합, 중국, 일본 등 주요 교역국 대부분 가입•Cf. 주요 미 가입국은 영국, 인도, 베트남, 인도네시아, 브라질참고출처 : CISG database homepage
    15. 15. 15 “Contracts for the sale” Must be a commercial saleo ―Commercial‖ does not include consumer sales for personal, family, orhousehold use (2조)o ―Sale‖ does not include leases or licenses Seller must deliver the goods, hand over any documents relating to them, andtransfer the property in the goods Buyer must pay the price for the goods and take delivery of themo The CISG makes it clear that it covers the contractual aspects of the saleand not the property aspects (소유권 등은 규율 없음)참고
    16. 16. 16 “of goods” The CISG does not define ―goods,‖ but the term is generally understood tomean ―tangible movables‖o Does not apply to sales of ships, vessels, hovercraft, aircraft, or electricity (2조)o Probably applies to software, although this is uncertain. If the contract is for software, the parties should reach an agreement on the applicable lawand include a contract clause specifying the law that will control the relationship of thepartieso Does not cover contracts for services (e.g., construction contracts) If the contract is a mixed contract covering goods and services, the CISG willapply unless ―the preponderant part of the obligations of the party whofurnishes the goods consists in the supply of labour or other services.‖o If the contract is a mixed contract, the parties should reach an agreement on theapplicable law and include a contract clause specifying the law that will control therelationship of the parties (see Article 3)참고
    17. 17. 173. CISG 간접 적용 물품의 매매계약 영업소가 상이한 국가에 소재하는 당사자들간 국제사법 규칙에 의하여 체약국의 법이 준거법이 되는 경우 사례o 예컨대, 한국(체약국)의 기업과 영국(비체약국)의 기업이 거래하고,우리법원에서 재판 (법정지가 우리나라)하는 경우 준거법이 영국법이면 CISG 적용 안됨 준거법이 한국법이면 CISG 적용됨o 재판관할권 문제는 수업 마지막 부분 ―분쟁해결"에서 다룸(1) This Convention applies to contracts of sale of goods betweenparties whose places of business are in different States:(a) when the States are Contracting States; or(b) when the rules of private international law lead to the application ofthe law of a Contracting State.28
    18. 18. (2) The fact that the parties have their places of business in different States is to bedisregarded whenever this fact does not appear either from the contract or from anydealings between, or from information disclosed by, the parties at any time before or atthe conclusion of the contract."18 당사자가 거래의 국제성(Internationality)에 대한 인식 있어야o 조항 표현으로는 당사자가 서로 다른 국가에 소재한다는 사실이o 계약, 협상, 정보에 의해 드러나야 계약서상 주소 기재 (seller는 한국, buyer는 중국) 한국 바이어가 미국 바이어와 국제 trade show에 참여해서 협상 외국 주소의 상대방과 교신 (한국 판매자가 미국 바이어에게 이메일)o 인지 시기 : 계약체결시점이나 그 전에 알고 있어야 규정 취지:o 적어도 자신들이 하는 거래가 국제거래에 해당한다는 당사자들의 주관적 인식은 있었음이확인되어야 한다는 의미 당사자들이 의도하지도 않았는데 그 거래에 국제거래법을 적용하는 것은 불합리, 부당할 수 있으므로 예제o 매도인은 한국과 일본 양국에 영업소 보유, 매수인은 일본에 영업소 보유하는데, 계약체결시매수인이 매도인 갑(한국 영업소)이 한국에 영업소가 있다는 것을 몰랐다면 갑과 을간의거래는 국제성이 있는가? 설사 사안에서 한국 영업소가 거래와 밀접한 관련 있더라도, 을이 인식할 수 없었다면 동 거래는국제성이 없다 [최준선 로스쿨국제거래법 43면]27
    19. 19. 19(3) Neither the nationality of the parties nor the civil or commercialcharacter of the parties or of the contract is to be taken into considerationin determining the application of this Convention.1. 아래사항은 협약의 적용과 무관 당사자의 국적 (nationality) 당사자의 법적 성격 : 상인, 기업 여부 거래계약 성격 : 상사계약인지 민사계약인지 여부 등
    20. 20. Article 2. This Convention does not apply to sales:(a) of goods bought for personal, family or household use, unless the seller, at anytime before or at the conclusion of the contract, neither knew nor ought to have knownthat the goods were bought for any such use;(b) by auction;(c) on execution or otherwise by authority of law;(d) of stocks, shares, investment securities, negotiable instruments or money;(e) of ships, vessels, hovercraft or aircraft;(f) of electricity.20• 협약은 아래 대상물의 매매에 적용 안됨 (2조) 품목에 상관없이 거래방식에 의한 제외1. 소비자 구매 – 상사거래만 해당2. 경매,3. 강제집행, 기타 법정 매매 등 거래대상 물품의 종류에 의한 제외1. 유가증권 등2. 선박, 항공기 등3. 전기29
    21. 21. Article 3. Goods to be Manufactured; Services(1) Contracts for the supply of goods to be manufactured or produced are to be considered sales //unless the party who orders the goods undertakes to supply a substantial part of the materialsnecessary for such manufacture or production.o 매수인이 원재료의 주된 부분을 공급하기로 하는 경우 제외o 도급계약으로 보는 것이 타당 제외(2) This Convention does not apply to contracts in which the preponderant part of the obligations ofthe party who furnishes the goods consists in the supply of labour or other services.―o 주된 의무가 노무, 기타 서비스인 경우 제외211. 협약은 일정한 주문계약과 서비스계약을 적용 제외 (unless 이하) So, 제외되지 않는 주문계약, 서비스계약은 결국 sale of goods가 될 수 있음 유의!2. Mixed Sales 주문생산계약 (3조 1항) – 3조1항 단서에 의해 협약 적용 배제o 필요한 원료의 중요한 부분 (substantial part)을 매수인이 공급하는 경우o 매수인은 결국 위탁생산 시키는 것이므로 법률상 도급계약으로 볼 수 있는 거래임o 즉, 원재료의 중요한 부분 판단이 중요 이슈 실무상 우리나라의 많은 기업이 중국, 베트남 등에 위탁생산 시켜 그 물품을수입하는 경우가 많은 바, 이런 거래는 본조에 의해 협약 적용 제외 대상이 될것임3. Service K 서비스 공급이 주된 경우 (3조 2항) 주된 의무 (Preponderant part)32
    22. 22. 제 4조 – Validity; Effect on Property Interests of 3rd PersonsThis Convention governs only the formation of the contract of sale and the rights andobligations of the seller and the buyer arising from such a contract. In particular, exceptas otherwise expressly provided in this Convention, it is not concerned with:(a) the validity of the contract or of any of its provisions or of any usage;(b) the effect which the contract may have on the property in the goods sold.221. 계약의 효력, 소유권 이전 (4조) 협약은 모든 영역 규율하는 법은 아님o 오직, 계약성립, 이행 및 구제에 국한 계약의 유효성, 적법성, 소유권은 규율 X33
    23. 23. Article 5 Exclusion of Liability for Death or Personal Injury; "ProductLiability”This Convention does not apply to the liability of the seller for death or personalinjury caused by the goods to any person.231. 인적 손해에 적용 X 협약은 계약법이므로 불법행위에 기한 손해배상책임은 적용않함은 당연 주의. 계약법적으로도 물품 하자로 인한 인적 손해에 대한매도인의 책임도 협약은 적용 않됨2. 제조물 책임 적용 X33
    24. 24. To determine if CISG applies to a particular contractual issue, one mustlook to the convention itself, not to domestic law.• If the convention does apply, domestic law is preempted.• That is, the remedies provided in CISG are the only remedies available.• This result is the consequence of the convention‘s basic function:• to establish uniform rules for international sales contracts.적용• Under CISG, a remedy is available if the goods failed to conform tothe contract (Article 35) and damage resulted from the defect(Article 74).• Despite the fact that local law may require a third proof element toestablish product liability, this does not mean that a tort remedy isavailable.• The only permissible remedy is the one provided by CISG.24August’s view출처 : August외, International Business Law: Text, Cases, and Readings (6판)
    25. 25. • Article 7. Interpretation of the Convention• Article 8. Interpretation of Statements or OtherConduct of a Party• Article 9. Usages and Practices Applicable toContract• Article 10. Definition of "Place of business"• Article 11. Inapplicability of Domestic Requirementthat Contract be in Writing• Article 12. Declaration by Contracting StatePreserving Its Domestic Requirements as to Form• Article 13. Telegram and Telex as a "Writing"2535
    26. 26. Article 7 (1) In the interpretation of this Convention, regard is to be had• to its international character and• to the need to promote uniformity in its application and the observance ofgood faith in international trade.261. 통일적 해석 (협약의) 국제적 성격 (협약) 적용상의 통일성 증진할 필요 & 국제거래에서의 신의의준수 필요성 : 각 체약국 법원이 협약을 자국 국내매매법에 근거해 편의적 해석하는 것 금지 오히려, 협약 자체의 입법과정 자료를 면밀히 검토 고려하여 그 의미 파악 국내 판례가 아니더라도 타국의 CISG 판례도 참조할 필요 (CLOUT, UNILEX)35
    27. 27. 출처: http://www.cisg.law.pace.edu/cisg/text/digest-art-07.html#aInterpretation of the Convention in general1. Because national rules on sales diverge sharply in conception and approach, in interpreting theConvention it is important for a forum to avoid being influenced by its own domestic sales law.[1] Article7, paragraph 1 therefore provides that, in the interpretation of the Convention, "regard is to be had to itsinternational character and to the need to promote uniformity in its application".The Conventions international character2. According to a number of courts, article 7(1)s reference to the Conventions international character [2]forbids cts from interpreting the Convention on the basis of national law;[3] instead, courts must interpretthe Convention "autonomously".[4]Nevertheless, some courts have stated that case law interpreting domestic sales law, although not per seapplicable, may inform a courts approach to the Convention where the language of the relevant articles of theConvention tracks that of the domestic law.[5]According to case law, reference to the Conventions legislative history,[6] as well as to internationalscholarly writing, is admissible in interpreting the treaty.[7]Promoting uniform application3. The mandate imposed by article 7(1) to regard the need to promote uniform application of theConvention has been construed to require fora interpreting the CISG to take into account foreign decisionsthat have applied the Convention.[8] In one case, a court cited 40 foreign court decisions and arbitralawards.[9] Two decisions have each cited two foreign cases,[10] and several cases have cited a singleforeign decision.[11] More recently, a court referred to 37 foreign court decisions and arbitral awards.[12]4. Two courts have stated that foreign court decisions have merely persuasive, non-binding authority.[13]27• CISG 조항별 판례법을요약하고 각국의 판례를주석으로 볼 수 있는방대한 공신력 있는자료집• 인터넷 공개 자료출처: http://www.cisg.law.pace.edu
    28. 28. Article 7(2) Questions …. are to be settled in conformity with the general principles onwhich it is based or, in the absence of such principles, in conformity with thelaw applicable by virtue of the rules of private international law.282. (일반원칙을 통한) 법률 흠결의 보완 CISG 조항 참조만으로는 명시적인 해결이 곤란한 경우o 협약이 근거하고 있는 법률원칙 (7조2항) 협약 입법 자료 (협약 외굑관 회의 자료 등) 협약에 근거한 타국 판례에 나타난 원칙도 참조 가능 일반적인 무역거래의 상인법(merchant law)도 참조 가능o 그런 원칙이 없는 경우 국제사법에 의해 적용되는 법에 따라 해결37
    29. 29. 29 8조는 당사자 의사의 존중을 원칙 규정 1항 소위 Subjective intent of the party 2항 소위 Objective interpretation 3항 소위 Standard contract terms and the language of statementsArticle 8 Interpretation of Statements or Other Conduct of a Party(1) For the purposes of this Convention statements made by and other conduct of a partyare to be interpreted according to his intent where the other party knew or could nothave been unaware what that intent was.(2) If the preceding paragraph is not applicable, statements made by and other conduct of aparty are to be interpreted according to the understanding that a reasonable person ofthe same kind as the other party would have had in the same circumstances.(3) In determining the intent of a party or the understanding a reasonable person wouldhave had, due consideration is to be given to all relevant circumstances of the caseincluding the negotiations, any practices which the parties have established betweenthemselves, usages and any subsequent conduct of the parties.
    30. 30. 4. 관행 및 관례의 존중30Article 9 Usages and Practices Applicable to the Contract(1) The parties are bound by any usage to which they have agreed and byany practices which they have established between themselves. Usages agreed to and practices established between the partieso 이기수. 당사자간 관례에 구속력 부여한 것은 신의성실의 한 표현(2) The parties are considered, unless otherwise agreed, to haveimpliedly made applicable to their contract or its formation ausage of which the parties knew or ought to have known andwhich in international trade is widely known to, andregularly observed by, parties to contracts of the typeinvolved in the particular trade concerned. Binding international trade usages (Article 9(2))o 위 1항에 추가하여 명시적 합의가 없더라도 널리 알려진 관행은구속력 있음. Letters of confirmation, Incoterms, and the UNIDROITPrinciples38
    31. 31. 1. 읽기 자료• 2012 UNCITRAL Digest of case law on the United NationsConvention on the International Sale of Goods Digest of Article 9 caselaw• 출처: http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cisg/text/digest-2012-09.html#iv2. 요약서 제출 2페이지 이내로 내용 요약 및 본인의 평가 요약 및 분량은 1:1 정도 권장.31
    32. 32. 321. 영업소 정의 필요성 거래가 협약 적용대상이 되는 국제거래가 되기 위해서는 거래당사자가 서로 다른 영업소에 소재하여야 하므로 협약은 영업소를 구체적으로 정의Article 10 Definition of "Place of business"For the purposes of this Convention:(a) if a party has more than one place of business, the place of business is that whichhas the closest relationship to the contract and its performance, having regard to thecircumstances known to or contemplated by the parties at any time before or at theconclusion of the contract;(b) if a party does not have a place of business, reference is to be made to his habitualresidence.
    33. 33. 331. 11조 계약의 방식 서면거래의 원칙 불 채택o 주로 영미법계 일부 국가들은 물품매매거래에 대해 서면 입증 요구하는점을 고려하여 혼선 방지 위해 명시적으로 동 원칙 불채택 Cf. 미국 통일상법전은 500불 이상 동산매매거래에서 서면에 이한 입증 요구 96조에서 체약국의 서면계약원칙 고수 선언 허용Article 11 Inapplicability of Domestic Requirement that Contract be inWritingA contract of sale need not be concluded in or evidenced bywriting and is not subject to any other requirement as to form. Itmay be proved by any means, including witnesses.
    34. 34. Article 14. Criteria for an OfferArticle 15. When Offer Becomes Effective; Prior WithdrawalArticle 16. Revocability of OfferArticle 17. Rejection of Offer Followed by AcceptanceArticle 18. Acceptance: Time and Manner for AssentArticle 19. Acceptance With ModificationsArticle 20. Interpretation of Offeror’s Time-Limits for AcceptanceArticle 21. Late Acceptances: Response by OfferorArticle 22. Withdrawal of AcceptanceArticle 23. Effect of Acceptance; Time of Conclusion of ContractArticle 24. When Communication "Reaches" the Addressee3439
    35. 35. 1. 학습범위 청약의 요건 효력발생시기 철회 거절3539
    36. 36. 3640• Indication of the Goods• Fixing or Determining the Quantity• Fixing or Determining the PriceArticle 14 Criteria for an Offer(1) A proposal for concluding a contract addressed to one or more specific personsconstitutes an offer if it is sufficiently definite and indicates the intention of theofferor to be bound in case of acceptance. A proposal is sufficiently definite if itindicates the goods and expressly or implicitly fixes or makes provision fordetermining the quantity and the price.•
    37. 37. Article 14 Criteria for an Offer(1) A proposal for concluding a contract addressed to one or more specificpersons constitutes an offer if it is sufficiently definite and indicates the intentionof the offeror to be bound in case of acceptance. A proposal is sufficientlydefinite if it indicates the goods and expressly or implicitly fixes or makesprovision for determining the quantity and the price.37• Relevance of Price Formula in Article 55 (관련 부분에서 학습)• 55조와 함께 해석해야 함• 두번째 문장에서 가격을 정하지 않은 청약은 불명확을 이유로 계약 불성립한다하였지만, 55조에서는 확정되지 않은 open price contract를 허용하고 있어 문제발생• Interplay of articles 14 and 55• With regard to the constitution of the offer, article 14 requires the price to be fixed or madedeterminable while article 55 provides a formula for establishing the price where a contract hasbeen validly concluded but does not expressly or implicitly fix or make provision for determiningthe price of the goods sold.• Article 55 provides a price formula that applies "[w]here a contract has been validly concludedbut does not expressly or implicitly fix or make provision for determining the price".[47]• The price supplied by article 55 is "the price generally charged at the time of the conclusion of thecontract for such goods sold under comparable circumstances in the trade concerned.―• 출처: http://www.cisg.law.pace.edu41
    38. 38.  Three different interpretations have been adopted in case law with regard to themeaning to be ascribed to the preliminary requirement in article 55, which gives riseto the difficulty of reconciling article 14 — which requires, for the constitution of theoffer, a fixed or determinable price — with article 55. Liberal viewo by commencing the performance of a contract whose price was not contractuallyestablished, the contracting parties wished to derogate from the requirement of a fixed ordeterminable price, as set forth in article 14. Several courts have so ruled with respect to contracts whose performance had been commencedby the parties.[10] View given precedence to article 14 over article 55o the contract had not been formed since no price had been specified by the parties. In one famous case, a court held that a proposal to sell aircraft engines did not meet therequirements of article 14 of the Convention because it did not include the price for all the typesof aircraft engines from which the buyer could choose, and that the contract allegedly resultingfrom the proposal could not come into being.[12] 다음 페이지 참조 third positiono the question of the validity of a contract without a price is governed by domestic law, inaccordance with CISG article 4. It should therefore be ascertained whether the national law applicable by virtue of choice-of-lawrules allows the conclusion of a contract of sale without a fixed or determinable price beforeCISG article 55 can be implemented.[13]3841출처: http://www.cisg.law.pace.edu
    39. 39. HUNGARY: Supreme Court 25 September 1992Case law on UNCITRAL texts (CLOUT) abstract no. 53• The [seller], an American manufacturer of aircraft engines, further to extensivenegotiations with the [buyer], a Hungarian manufacturer of Tupolev aircraft, made twoalternative offers of different types of aircraft engines without quoting an exact price.• The [buyer] chose the type of engine from the ones offered and placed an order.• At issue was whether a valid contract was concluded.• The court of first instance held that a valid contract had been concluded on the groundthat the offer indicated the goods and made provision for determining the quantity andthe price.• The Supreme Court found that the offer and the acceptance were vague and, as such,ineffective since they failed to explicitly or implicitly fix or make provision fordetermining the price of the engines ordered (Article 14(1) CISG).• The Supreme Court considered that the acceptance was a mere expression of theintentions of the [buyer] to conclude a contract for the purchase of the engines chosenand, as such, the acceptance could not operate as a counter-offer.• The Supreme Court therefore overturned the decision of the first instance and held thatthere was no valid contract concluded.39105출처: http://www.cisg.law.pace.edu
    40. 40. Article 14 Criteria for an Offer(2) A proposal other than one addressed to one or more specific persons is tobe considered merely as an invitation to make offers, unless the contrary isclearly indicated by the person making the proposal.40• 소위 청약의 유인• 청약 유인한 자가 유인을 넘어 확약한 경우엔 청약이 될 수도• 청약의 유인을 넘어 청약이 되는 경우• 일반적인 광고는 청약의 유인에 해당하나,• 만약 광고 자체에서 명확히 청약이라 하거나• 홈쇼핑 광고• 전자무역 사이트에서 가격을 정하여 다수의 매수인을 대상으로 광고한 경우• 특정 인원들에게 한정하여 광고하던가• 특정 회사 직원을 대상으로 판촉• 승락하면 계약이 성립되는 것으로 의도한 것이 명확한 경우 (광고 내용에대해 수락하여 송금하면, 수량 제한 없이 물품을 공급하기로 하는 경우)
    41. 41. 41Article 15 When Offer Becomes Effective; Prior Withdrawal(1) An offer becomes effective when it reaches the offeree. 도달주의(2) An offer, even if it is irrevocable, may be withdrawn if thewithdrawal reaches the offeree before or at the same time as theoffer.• 청약의 회수(withdrawn) 가능 –• 청약이 아직 도착하지 않아 효력이 발생하지 않았으므로 회수라는용어 사용• Cf. 청약이 도달하여 발효한 경우엔 청약의 철회(16조, revocation)로구분하여 칭함42
    42. 42. 42Article 16 Revocability of Offer(1) Until a contract is concluded an offer may be revoked if therevocation reaches the offeree before he has dispatched an acceptance.[청약의 철회]• 승락기간을 지정(fixing time for acceptance)했다 하더라도 철회는 가능(영미법계의 특성)• 그러나 승락기간 정하면서 그 동안 청약이 철회불능(irrevocable)임을명시하면 그 기간 동안 철회 불능(2) However, an offer cannot be revoked: [철회의 제한](a) if it indicates, whether by stating a fixed time for acceptance orotherwise, that it is irrevocable; oro 승락기간의 지정이 청약을 철회불능한 것으로 하는 한 방법이 될 수는 있음.이기수.(b) if it was reasonable for the offeree to rely on the offer as being irrevocableand the offeree has acted in reliance on the offer.o 신뢰보호 (신뢰 및 그에 기반한 행동, 예, 선적준비 등)42
    43. 43. 431. 청약 거절은 통지되어야Article 17 Rejection of OfferAn offer, even if it is irrevocable, is terminated when a rejection reaches theofferor.43
    44. 44. 441. 승낙의 의의 청약과 내용적 일치 의사표시의 전달2. 협약은 승낙 관련 조항들 자세히 규정 이하 참조Article 18. Acceptance: Time and Manner for AssentArticle 19. Acceptance With ModificationsArticle 20. Interpretation of Offeror’s Time-Limits for AcceptanceArticle 21. Late Acceptances: Response by OfferorArticle 22. Withdrawal of AcceptanceArticle 23. Effect of Acceptance; Time of Conclusion of Contract
    45. 45. 45Article 18 Acceptance: Time and Manner for Indicating Assent(1) A statement made by or other conduct of the offeree indicating assent to anoffer is an acceptance. Silence or inactivity does not in itself amount toacceptance.• 청약에 동의하여 구속되고자 하는 의사를 표시하는 경우만 해당.• 단순한 수령, 관심 표시는 승낙이 아님• 진술(statement) 및 행동 (conduct) 포함• 물품의 인도• 대금의 지급• 신용장의 개설• 침묵 혹은 부작위는 무조건 승낙으로 간주되는 것은 아님 유의• 다만, 당사자간 관행(practices) 혹은 관례(usage) 상 승낙으로 보는 것이 타당한 경우도 있음(3항 참조)• 청약과의 내용적 일치• 변경을 동반한 청약에 대한 예외는 19조 참조44
    46. 46. 46• 승낙의 효력 발생• 도달한 승낙은 계약 성립시킴 (23조)• 승낙의 청약자 앞 도달주의• 청약에서 정한 기간 내 혹은 합리적인 기간 내에 승낙이 도달하여야• 구두청약에 대한 승낙은 특별한 사정이 없는 한 즉시 승낙되어야Article 18 Acceptance: Time and Manner for Indicating Assent(2) An acceptance of an offer becomes effective at the moment the indication ofassent reaches the offeror. An acceptance is not effective if the indication of assentdoes not reach the offeror within the time he has fixed or, if no time is fixed,within a reasonable time, due account being taken of the circumstances of thetransaction, including the rapidity of the means of communication employed by theofferor. An oral offer must be accepted immediately unless the circumstancesindicate otherwise.47
    47. 47. 47Article 18 Acceptance: Time and Manner for Indicating Assent(3) However, if,• by virtue of the offer or• as a result of practices which the parties have established between themselves or ofusage,• the offeree may indicate assent by performing an act,• such as one relating to the dispatch of the goods or payment of theprice, without notice to the offeror,the acceptance is effective at the moment the act is performed, providedthat the act is performed within the period of time laid down in the precedingparagraph.• 예를 들어 ―즉시 선적요‖라는 내용을 포함한 청약에 대해 선적한 경우• 이전 10번 이상의 거래에서 동일 제품을 선적해 온 경우• 행위에 의한 승낙의 경우에는 ―발신주의‖• 승낙기간의 기산점은 20조 참조
    48. 48. 중국 운남성 **현 수입자앞 수출 사례 ‗12. 1. 수출입자간 이메일 등으로 견적 등 오고 감 ‗12. 2. 수입자가 방한해 방문도 하였고, 긍정적으로 계약하자고 언급함 ‗12. 3. 수출자가 Proforma invoice 보냄 ‗12. 4. 수출자가 국내 여러 업체로부터 품목을 수집 구매해 인천항에서선적하고 거래은행 통해 선하증권 등을 구매자에게 송부 ‗12. 5. 구매자는 자기 은행 통해 물품을 인도받아 자기 거래처들에재판매 ‗12. 11. 180일 만기가 되었으나, 구매자는 품질에 하자 있어 자기도돈을 못받았다며 지급 거절기본 질문1. Q. 본건 계약이 성립했는가?2. Q. 매수인은 계약서를 작성하지 않았으므로 계약이불성립하였고, 따라서 지급책임 없다고 항변하는데 타당한가?48참고
    49. 49. 49제 (3) 항 규정 내용 (행위를 통한However, if,by virtue of the offer oras a resultof practices which the parties have established between themselves orof usage,the offeree may indicate assentby performing an act, such as one relating to the dispatch of the goods or payment of the price, without notice to the offeror,the acceptance is effective at the moment the act is performed,provided that the act is performed within the period of time laid down in the preceding paragraph. 청약이 행동으로 승낙하라고 요구한 경우o 예컨데, 매수인인 ..월..일 선적하라고 요구한 경우 당사자간 계속적인 거래관계에서의 관례(practices) 혹은 업계의 관행(usage)상 행동으로 승낙하는경우에o 예컨데, 몇번의 선적이 있었고 요번에도 이메일로 급히 선적을 요구 행동으로 승낙 가능하고 그 행위시에 승낙 효력 발생o 물품의 선적o 대금의 지급 (보통 선금지급)참고
    50. 50. 1. Sales of Goods K [Accepted Goods]******* For a sale of goods, part payment or acceptance and receipt of part ofthe goods takes the K out of the Statute to the extent of the partpayment or partial acceptance and receipt of goods .2. (eg) S orally agrees to sell 2,000 widgets to B for $10,000 . S delivers 600widgets. S sues B for payment for the 600 widgets that have beendelivered. Is the Statute of Frauds satisfied, i.e., has S provided therequisite proof?--- Yes, SOF satisfied to the extent performed . S/F isspecial proof rule. (* 당사자간 500불이 넘는 물품매매계약을 구두로 하여, Statute ofFrauds 위반인 경우라도, 매도인이 인도한 물품에 대하여 매수인이수령하고 이의제기를 하지 않았다면 이 인도된 물품에 한하여는SF가 만족된 것으로 간주하여 the K is enforceable 하다.50참고
    51. 51. 51Article 19 Acceptance With Modifications(1) A reply to an offer which purports to be an acceptance but containsadditions, limitations or other modifications is a rejection of the offerand constitutes a counter-offer.• 변경한 승낙은 새로운 반대청약(2) However, a reply to an offer which purports to be an acceptance butcontains additional or different terms which do not materially alter theterms of the offer constitutes an acceptance, unless the offeror, withoutundue delay, objects orally to the discrepancy or dispatches a notice tothat effect. …e offer materially.• 경미한 변경의 승낙은 일반 승낙으로 보아 계약 성립 (승낙자 보호)• 경미한 변경에 대한 이의제기 허용 (청약자 보호)Q. 실질적 변경을 가하는 승낙은 무엇인가?• 3항에 열거 (다음 페이지 참조)
    52. 52. 52Article 19 Acceptance With Modifications(3) Additional or different terms relating, among other things, tothe price, payment, quality and quantity of the goods, placeand time of delivery, extent of one partys liability to the other orthe settlement of disputes are considered to alter the terms of theoffer materially. 위 사항들은 예시적 기타 본질적인 청약 변경 내용으로는 (이기수)o 담보의 요구o 위약금o 철회권o 포장, 인도방식
    53. 53. 53Article 20 Period of Time for Acceptance(1) A period of time for acceptance fixed by the offeror in a telegram or aletter begins to run from the moment the telegram is handed in fordispatch or from the date shown on the letter or, if no such date isshown, from the date shown on the envelope. A period of time foracceptance fixed by the offeror by telephone, telex or other means ofinstantaneous communication, begins to run from the moment that the offerreaches the offeree.• 전보에 부친 때• 서류에 표시된 일자• 봉투에 표시된 일자• 구두청약은 청약 도달시(2) Official holidays or non-business days occurring during the period foracceptance are included in calculating the period. However, if a notice ofacceptance cannot be delivered at the address of the offeror on the last dayof the period because that day falls on an official holiday or a non-businessday at the place of business of the offeror, the period is extended until thefirst business day which follows.• 말일이 공휴일이면 최초 영업일로 순연
    54. 54. Article 21. Late Acceptances: Response by Offeror(1) A late acceptance is nevertheless effective as anacceptance if without delay the offeror orally soinforms the offeree or dispatches a notice to that effect.• 청약자가 구두로 그 취지 통보하거나 혹은통지하는 경우 (승인통지)• 청약자의 일방적 결정권 있어 남용 가능• 그 승인통지는 지체 없이 이루어 져야(2) If a letter or other writing containing a lateacceptance shows that it has been sent in suchcircumstances that if its transmission had been normalit would have reached the offeror in due time, the lateacceptance is effective as an acceptance unless,without delay, the offeror orally informs the offereethat he considers his offer as having lapsed ordispatches a notice to that effect.5449-50
    55. 55. 1. 관련규정 23조o 승낙의 효력이 발생한 때 성립 24조2. 계약장소 규정 없음 협약은 별도의 규정 없음 일반적으로 다음 장소에서 계약이 체결된 것으로 볼 수 있음[이기수]o 승낙의 통지가 청약자에게 도착한 장소o 승낙으로서의 행위를 한 장소55
    56. 56. 56Article 23 (Effect of Acceptance; Time of Conclusion ofContract)A contract is concluded at the moment when an acceptance of anoffer becomes effective in accordance with the provisions of thisConvention.
    57. 57. 57Article 24 (When Communication "Reaches" the Addressee)For the purposes of this Part of the Convention, an offer,declaration of acceptance or any other indication of intention"reaches" the addressee when it is• made orally to him or• delivered by any other means• to him personally,• to his place of business or mailing address or,• if he does not have a place of business or mailing address, to hishabitual residence.
    58. 58. 3. CISG may apply even if the buyer‘s and seller‘s places of business are notin a contracting state.4. Sales transactions involving electricity are excluded from the CISG.6. Transactions involving auction sales come under the purview of the CISG.7. Contracts for goods to be manufactured are treated by the CISG as sales ofgoods unless the buyer undertakes to supply a substantial part of the materials.8. CISG deals with the questions related to the legality of a contract.10. Article 8 of the CISG establishes rules for interpreting the statements andconduct of the parties.58

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