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Comparative Analyses of Exclusivism in Mongolia and East Asian Societies

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Comparative Analyses of Exclusivism in Mongolia and East Asian Societies

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Slide presented at the International Symposium “Contemporary Transformation of Socio-Economic Structure under Neoliberal Globalization in East Asia”

Slide presented at the International Symposium “Contemporary Transformation of Socio-Economic Structure under Neoliberal Globalization in East Asia”

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Comparative Analyses of Exclusivism in Mongolia and East Asian Societies

  1. 1. Comparative Analyses of Exclusivism in Mongolia and East Asian Societies Kunio Minato Ritsumeikan University International Symposium “Contemporary Transformation of Socio-Economic Structure under Neoliberal Globalization in East Asia” 14-15/March/2015 Ritsumeikan University, Kyoto, Japan
  2. 2. Outline 1. Background  Issues on exclusivism 2. Methodology  Data to be used, questions in focus, method of analyses 3. Results  Distribution of answers, result of clustering 4. Discussion 2
  3. 3. 1. Background Empirical analyses of exclusivism* have been increasing for the past two decades Most studies address what sorts of people are more/less likely to have exclusive attitude toward those with different culture or ethnicity * In this study “exclusivism” refers to attitude and behaviors that stigmatize a certain groups of people as “outsiders” and aim to exclude them 3
  4. 4. Two issues to be solved (1) 1. Exclusivism in non-Western societies  Studies of exclusivism tend to focus on Europe and/or North America (and sometimes on Japan, because of the availability of data) However, exclusivism should not be neglected, even in non-Western societies, esp. East Asia Ex. Exclusivist movements in Japan (Higuchi, 2014), anti-multiculturalists in South Korea (Lee, 2011; Garcia, 2012) 4
  5. 5. Two issues to be solved (2) 2. Target (in general) for exclusivism  Actual target of exclusivism usually differs among societies  But isn’t there any general tendency?  Difference from majority groups is often attracted and targeted by exclusivism  Then, difference in what? (ex. race, religion, language, etc.) 5
  6. 6. Research Questions 1. What are commonalities of exclusivism in East Asian societies? 2. What are differences of exclusivism among East Asian societies? 3. What sorts of cultural differences are more/less accepted in East Asian societies?  In order to discuss these issues, this study focuses on attitude of ordinary people in East Asia 6
  7. 7. Why Mongolia? 1. Uniqueness in East Asia  Experience of Soviet-style socialism, little influence of Confucianism, nomadic civilization, etc. might be a catalyst to reconsider “East Asianness” 2. Rise of Exclusivism in the country  Appearance of ultranationalist (and even neo-Nazi) groups (Branigan, 2010; Graaf, 2012 etc.)  Link between ultranationalism and environmentalism? (Ghosh, 2013; Land, 2013)  Prevalent anti-Chinese sentiment in Mongolia (Billé, 2015) 7
  8. 8. 2. Methodology  The following two data are to be analyzed: The sixth wave of the World Values Survey (WVS6) is used for analyses of exclusivism in China, Hong Kong, Japan, South Korea, and Taiwan Life in Transition Survey II (LiTS II) is used for analyses of exclusivism in Mongolia 8
  9. 9. Outline of the surveys Note: Response rates are calculated by: (full productive interview) / {(total number of starting names/addresses) - (addresses which could not be traced at all) – (addresses established as empty, demolished or containing no private dwellings)}. Therefore this rate might be different from the one announced from the principal investigators. 9 Survey Year Response rate China WVS6 2012 65.8% Hong Kong WVS6 2013 n.a. Taiwan WVS6 2012 23.9% Japan WVS6 2010 61.0% South Korea WVS6 2010 55.4% Mongolia LiTSII 2010 n.a. China Hong Kong Taiwan Japan South Korea Mongolia Interview Interview Men & women aged 18-85 Men & women aged 18-79 Both sexes, full 19 and more years Men & women aged 18 years or more Survey method Interview Sampling Stratified multi-stage random Multi-stage random Three-stage stratified (20-79 yrs old) Stratified multi-stage random (18-19 yrs old) Random walk with quota n.a. Interview Interview & placement Target Men & women aged 18-75 National population Both sexes 18 and more years Multi-stage random Purposive Quota Sampling
  10. 10. Question in Focus 10 Original (WVS6) Hong Kong Question On this list are various groups of people. Could you please mention any that you would not like to have as neighbors? 列表上是各組的人群。請你説出不願意跟 哪組成為鄰居的? People of a different race 不同種族的人 Immigrants / foreign workers 移民/外籍勞工 People of a different religion 不同宗教信仰的人 People who speak a different language 說不同語言的人 Answer Mentioned / Not mentioned 提到/沒提到 Japan Taiwan Question 次にあげるような人々のうち、あなたが 近所に住んでいて欲しくないのはどの 人々ですか。 在以下各種人當中,請問您不願意跟誰作 鄰居? 人種の異なる人々 不同種族的人 移民や外国人労働者 移民/外籍勞工 宗教の異なる人々 不同宗教信仰的人 普段から外国語を話す人々 說不同語言的人 Answer 近所に住んでいて欲しくない/近所に住 んでいてもよい 願意/不願意 Question Answer Items Items Original (LiTS II) On this list are various groups of people. Could you please mention any that you would not like to have as neighbors? Please just read out the letter that applies. People of a different race Immigrants / foreign workers People of a different religion People who speak a different language 讲不同方言的人 出示答案卡、可选多项 South Korea 아럐의 사람들 중에서 00님이 이웃으로 삼고 싶지 않은 사람들을 ✔표 해주십시 오. Items China 在下列种人中,您不愿意和那些人做邻 居? 不同种族/民族的人 外国移民/来华工作的外国人 不同宗教信仰的人 ХАМААРАЛТАЙ БҮГДИЙГ Х-ээр ТЭМДЭГЛЭ 다른 인종인 사람 외국인 노동자 / 이민자 종뎌사 다른 사람 다른 언어를 사용하는 사람 삼고 싶지 않다 / 삼고 싶다 Mongolia CROSS ALL THAT APPLY Цагаач / гадаадын ажилчид Өөр шашинтан Өөр хэлээр ярьдаг хүмүүс Янз бүүрийн бүлэг хүмүүсийг нэрлэсэн доорх жагсаалтад таны хөрш байхыг хүсэхгүй байгаа хүмүүс байвал дурдана уу? Та хариултын өмнө байгаа үсгийг сонгож болно. Өөр өнгөтэй арьстан
  11. 11. 3. Results 1. Percentage of mentions “not like to have as neighbors” in the six societies 2. Result of cluster analysis 3. Percentage of mentions “not like to have as neighbors” from respondents in each cluster 11
  12. 12. Percentages of mentions 12 Average score of mentions: South Korea 35.7%; Japan 27.8%; Mongolia 22.5%; Hong Kong18.3%; Taiwan 10.0%; China 9.6%;
  13. 13. Cluster analyses Non-hierarchical cluster analyses are conducted K-means method is adopted (one of the standard methods in cluster analysis) The number of the clusters is determined as three, so that respondents can be categorized based on the level of exclusive attitude (“high,” “middle,” and “low”) 13
  14. 14. Clusters in six societies It is not still clear which cluster contains people with high/middle/low level of 14
  15. 15. Mentions from clusters 15
  16. 16. Clusters in six societies (rev.) 16 Note: Bars in Green denote “Low,” Orange denote “Middle,” and Red denote “High” level of
  17. 17. Features of clusters: China [Low] Second largest share of Rs No mention to “different language” [Middle] Second smallest share of Rs All Rs mention to “different language” [High] Second smallest share of Rs Low percentage of mention to “different language” 17
  18. 18. Features: Hong Kong [Low] Larger share of Rs compared with other East Asian societies Slightly higher percentage in “immigrants/FWs” [Middle] All Rs mention to “different race,” but except that percentages of mention are close to “low” [High] Medium share of Rs Slightly lower percentage in “different race” 18
  19. 19. Features: Taiwan [Low] Largest share of Rs Percentage higher in “immigrants/FWs” [Middle] Smallest share of Rs No mention to “different religion” All Rs mention to “different language” [High] Smallest share of Rs Half of Rs do not mention “different language” 19
  20. 20. Features: Japan [Low] Smaller share of Rs High percentage in “different religion” [Middle] Slightly higher share of Rs All Rs mention to “different religion” [High] Second largest share of Rs High percentage of mention to 20
  21. 21. Features : South Korea [Low] Smallest share of Rs No mention to “different religion” [Middle] Second largest share of Rs All Rs mention to “different religion” [High] Largest share of Rs Low percentage of mention to “different religion” 21
  22. 22. Features: Mongolia [Low] Second smallest share of Rs No mention to “immigrants/FWs” [Middle] Largest share of Rs All Rs mention to “immigrants/FWs” No mention to “different language” [High] Medium share of Rs All Rs mention to “different language” 22
  23. 23. Discussion  Level and type of exclusivism vary among East Asian societies, specifically …  Chinese and Taiwanese Rs hardly show exclusive attitude toward people with different culture  People with different culture are less welcomed in South Korea, Mongolia, and Japan While the cluster of Rs with high level of exclusivism is the largest in South Korea, Mongolia has the largest cluster of Rs with middle level of exclusivism 23
  24. 24. Discussion (2)  On the other hand, similarities can also be found: Majority of people in East Asia hardly show exclusive attitude toward people with different culture  Immigrants / foreign workers are least accepted as neighbors in East Asian societies Difference in culture might not be a trigger of exclusivism by itself The problem lies in reluctance to live together with people with different background 24
  25. 25. Remaining issues 1. What sorts of people are categorized into each of the three clusters? 2. Isn’t there any change between the point of the survey and now? 3. What are effective solutions to exclusivism? These should be elucidated in further researches 25
  26. 26. References Billé, F. (2015). Sinophobia: Sinophobia: Anxiety, violence, and the making of Mongolian identity. University of Hawai‘i Press: Honolulu, HI. Branigan, T. (2010, August 2) Mongolian neo-Nazis: Anti-Chinese sentiment fuels rise of ultra-nationalism. Gardian. Retrieved from http://www.theguardian.com/world/2010/aug/02/mongolia-far-right Garcia, C. R. A. (2012, April 2). Anti-multicultural group in Korea criticizes Pinay candidate. ABS-CBNnews.com. Retrieved from http://www.abs- cbnnews.com/global-filipino/04/02/12/anti-multicultural-group-korea-criticizes- pinay-candidate Ghosh, P. (2013, July 2). Mongolian neo-Nazis switch from nationalism to environmentalism by attacking foreign mining companies. International Business Times. Retrieved from http://www.ibtimes.com/mongolian-neo-nazis- nationalism-environmentalism-attacking-foreign-mining-companies-1331817 Graaf, N. (2012, April 17) Rampant racism a growing problem in Mongolia. DW. Retrieved from http://www.dw.de/rampant-racism-a-growing-problem-in- mongolia/a-15888287 Higuchi, N. (2014) Nihongata haigaishugi: Zaitokukai, gaikokujin sanseiken, Higashi Ajia chiseigaku [Japanese style of exclusivism: Zaitokukai, voting right for and geopolitics of East Asia]. Nagoya University Press: Nagoya, Japan. Land, G. (2013, July 3). White swastika: Mongolia’s eco-Nazis. Asian Correspondent.com. Retrieved from swastika-mongolias-eco-nazis/üd 26
  27. 27. Acknowledgements This research was supported by JSPS KAKENHI (Grant-in-aid for Scientific Research, Grant Number 25870905). I am grateful to the EBRD for providing the Mongolian version of the questionnaire of LiTS II. Анхаарал хандуулсан танд баярлалаа! (Thank you for your attention!) 27

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