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Philosophy--definition, developments, divisions and its difference with science and religion

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Philosophy--definition, developments, divisions and its difference with science and religion

  1. 1. PHILOSOPHY<br />
  2. 2. PHILSOPHY<br />XXzimkv{Xw<br />‘DHARSHANAS’<br />
  3. 3. ?????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????<br />? PHILOSOPHY ?<br />???????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????<br />What are the own activities of men?<br />
  4. 4. Plant like activities <br />Drinking <br />Eating<br />Respiration<br />
  5. 5. Animal like activities<br />Jumping <br />Running<br />climbing<br />
  6. 6. Mental activities<br />Imagination <br />Thinking<br />
  7. 7. Thinking and Imagination<br />Thinking"- To have a conscious mind, to some extent of reasoning, remembering experiences, making rational decisions.<br />"Imagination"-The faculty of producing ideal creations consistent with reality, as in literature, as distinct from the power of creating illustrative or decorative imagery<br />
  8. 8. PHILOSOPHY is the higher form of thought and related activities<br />Why do we think for? <br />Get Information or knowledge<br />When do we think?<br />Face contradiction <br />What we think about?<br />
  9. 9. What do you do when you discover and an endangered animal that only eats endangered plants?<br />If the "black box" survives every plane crash, why not make the entire plane out of that stuff?<br />Why is lemon juice mostly artificial ingredients but dishwashing liquid contains real lemons?<br />If the universe is everything, and scientists say that the universe is expanding, what is it expanding into?<br />
  10. 10. What do you do when you discover and an endangered animal that only eats endangered plants?<br />If the "black box" survives every plane crash, why not make the entire plane out of that stuff?<br />Why is lemon juice mostly artificial ingredients but dishwashing liquid contains real lemons?<br />If the universe is everything, and scientists say that the universe is expanding, what is it expanding into?<br />
  11. 11. What is the nature of the universe?<br />Where does it come from? <br />Of what is it made? <br />How did it come to exist? <br />What is its purpose? <br />By what process does it change?<br />Is it evolving or devolving?<br />Does it function by itself or would it degenerate to chaos without some kind of intelligent control?<br />
  12. 12. What is reality?<br />What is mind?<br />what is thought?<br />Is thought real?<br />Which is superior: mind or matter?<br />Has mind created matter or has matter evolved mind?<br />Where do ideas come from?<br />Does thought have any importance--does it make any difference in our lives--or is it just fantasy?<br />What is Truth?<br />Is there a universal Truth, true for all men forever, or is Truth relative or individual?<br />
  13. 13. Is there a Supreme Being?<br />If so, what is His nature? <br />Did He create the universe?<br />Does He continue to control it personally and if so, at what level?<br />What is his relationship with man?<br />Does he intervene in the affairs of man?<br />Is this Being good?<br />If this Being is good and all-powerful, how can evil exist?<br />
  14. 14. What is the meaning of life?<br />Why is the sky blue?<br />What is beauty?<br />What is true love?<br />What is truth?<br />Define success?<br />Define a great relationship?<br />What is commitment?<br />Define a great life?<br />
  15. 15. Assignment . Try to answer any one of the questions above?<br />
  16. 16. What is the meaning of life?<br />Why is the sky blue?<br />What is beauty?<br />What is true love?<br />What is truth?<br />Define success?<br />Define a great relationship?<br />What is commitment?<br />Define a great life?<br />
  17. 17. ‘The spirit of creation is simply the spirit of contradiction.’— Jean Cocteau<br />World is filled with contradictions<br />
  18. 18. Why it is? <br /> How it is? <br />What it is for?<br />Philosophy originate from contradictions<br />
  19. 19. Three stages philosophical quest passed<br />He looked the force of nature with awe<br />He understand the secret of nature<br />He control and exploit nature<br />
  20. 20. DEFINITION<br />Non academic use of the term Philosophy<br />To show Personal attitude<br />To show detachment in life<br />To show universal perspective <br />Origin of the term<br />Greek word<br />Phelin - to love<br />Philosophy - Love of wisdom<br />Sophia - wisdom<br />Pythagoranwho used this term first<br />Plato in his Dialogue used this to distinguish the act of thinking that lead to the foundations or root of thing and issues and convictions or ideas resulting from this kind of thinking<br />
  21. 21. DEFINITION<br />It is the rational, systematic and critical enquiry into the basic principles or aspect of any dimension of reality or reality as a whole<br />What Philosophy seek? How? For what?<br />* Basic reality <br />^# Introspection <br />Know thyself- Socarties<br />*Existence <br /># Rational synthesis<br />*Knowledge <br />Atmajnanam– Indian saints<br />*Values etc<br />Quench thirst for knowledge<br />^Looking into one's own mind, to find what one thinks and feels. The idea that this process is rather like that of perception, only turned inwards, is rejected by most current philosophers of mind. <br />
  22. 22. EWF Tomlin- Philosophy of East and West - says<br />“The great Philosophers are merely those for whom the impulse to enquire into the nature of things has become a passion. Thought is the profession from which they never retire….For philosophy is essentially the flower of solitude: it is the unstill and unstillable small voice in each of us which we can ignore at our peril”<br />
  23. 23. Functional meaning<br />Encarta Dictionary<br />*Examination of basic concepts - like truth, existence, reality, causality, freedom etc<br />*System of thought - egGandihism<br />*Guiding or underlying principle - eg Philosophy of History, Philosophy of science etc.,<br />*Calm resignation - restraint or calmness and rationality in persons behavior <br />
  24. 24. Philosophy<br /># More than a technical subject that analyses words, concepts and logical procedures.<br /># More than a game played by academic specialist<br /># It is an efforts to achieve organized view of themselves and the universe.<br />“Philosophy I an activity undertaken by human being who are deeply concerned about who they are and what everything means” - Honer Hunt and Okholm<br />
  25. 25. USES<br />+ Grasp the fundamental assumption of the area of study<br />+ Inculcate the tendency of questioning<br />+ Improve our personal life - make aware of the vastness of reality.<br />+ Grasp the root of our convictions and commitments.<br />+ Give proper vision to life.<br />+ Realize the meaning of life.<br />
  26. 26. Classification of Philosophy<br />Asian<br />Geographical norm<br /> African <br />European<br />Ancient<br /> Medieval<br />Modern<br />Historical norms<br />Existentialism<br /> Idealism<br />Materialism<br />System norm<br />Philosophy<br /> Essentialism<br />Empiricism<br />Maxims<br /> Pragmatism<br />Rationalism<br />
  27. 27. Distinct areas of philosophy<br />Metaphysics Epistemology Axiology<br />metaphysics : The branch of philosophy that investigates principles <br /> of reality transcending those of any particular science, traditionally including ontology, cosmology .<br />Ontology : The branch of metaphysics dealing with the philosophical theory of reality, number of entities that compose the universe .<br />Monism – recognizing one and only one ultimate reality<br />Dualism–recognizing two components of ultimate reality<br />Pluralism– recognizing ultimate reality as composed of many elements <br />
  28. 28. Distinct areas of philosophy<br />Metaphysics Epistemology Axiology<br />Epistemology the branch of philosophy that studies the origin, nature, methods, validity, and limits of human knowledge. <br />Axiology The study of the origin, nature, functions, types and interrelations of value : value theory<br />
  29. 29. Philosophy and Science<br />Show passion for knowledge<br />Both<br />complementary <br />Differ<br />Philosophy<br />Science<br /> Origin <br />Latin word – Scire – ‘to know’<br />Greek work – Philosophia _ Love of wisdom<br />Divide in to Epistemology, Metaphysics and Axiology<br />Natural science, Physical <br />science and life science<br />Field<br />Observation and Experiment<br />Means<br />Introspection and Rational synthesis<br />Theme<br />Concrete<br /> Abstract<br />Descriptive<br />Presen<br />tation<br />Prescriptive<br />
  30. 30. Religion<br />Religion is the belief in and worship of a superhuman controlling power, especially a personal God or gods<br />
  31. 31. Religion<br />individual inner obligation to ritual and reverence<br />Latin word <br />“religio” -<br />Origin <br />Sacred engagement with what is taken to be spiritual reality - a. creator b. controller c. transcendental power <br />Different religious faith<br />1. Polytheism - belief in many God<br />2. Monotheism - belief in one God<br />3. Monism - belief in one and only one divine principle <br />
  32. 32. Religion<br />individual inner obligation to ritual and reverence<br />Latin word <br />“religio” -<br />Origin <br />Sacred engagement with what is taken to be spiritual reality - a. creator b. controller c. transcendental power <br />Different religious faith<br />1. Polytheism - belief in many God<br />2. Monotheism - belief in one God<br />3. Monism - belief in one and only one divine principle <br />
  33. 33. Religion<br />individual inner obligation to ritual and reverence<br />Latin word <br />“religio” -<br />Origin <br />Sacred engagement with what is taken to be spiritual reality - a. creator b. controller c. transcendental power <br />Different religious faith<br />1. Polytheism - belief in many God<br />2. Monotheism - belief in one God<br />3. Monism - belief in one and only one divine principle <br />

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