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  1. 1. Niambi’ E MuhammadDevanique DeanShizhu HuangKundai NangatiIMAGE:
  2. 2. • Philosopher, Statesman and Political Theorist• Born in Florence Italy on May 3, 1469• Referred to as the “father of modern political theory”• 1492 Becomes a disciple of Girolamo Savonarola• Appointed as head of second chancery• 1494 The Medici Family loses power• In 1498, began his political career
  3. 3. Machiavelli the Writer• 1499 Discourse on Pisa• 1502 Provision of Money• 1503The Way to Deal with the Rebelsubjects of Valdichiana• 1513 The Prince• 1520 The Art of War
  4. 4. The Medici Family Regains Power• 1512 Florentine Republic is Overthrown• Machiavelli is dismissed from his post∙Authors The Prince∙Makes reference to Savonarola as “unarmedprophet” who must fail
  5. 5. Machiavelli the Historian• 1520 Lucca, Italy∙Employed by Cardinal Giulio de’ Medici∙The Life of Castruccio Castracani of Lucca• Official historian of Florence∙Pope Leo X commissions Machiavelli to write onthe history of• Florence
  6. 6. Government Reform• 1525 Florentine Histories• 1526 Superintendent of Florence’s fortifications• 1527 The Medici are again forced to leave Florence as well as Rome• Machiavelli dies in June of the same year
  7. 7. Quotes from The Prince• “Since love and fear can hardly exist together, If we must choose between them, it is far safer to be feared than loved.”• “The first method for estimating the intelligence of a ruler is to look at the men he has around him”.• “Where the willingness is great the difficulties cannot be great.”
  8. 8. • Born in Germany in 1904• Holistic approach to IR• “Founding Fathers" of the realist school• Political scientist• Works include– Scientific Man vs. Power Politics– In Defense of the National Interest– The Purpose of American Politics
  9. 9. • Politics Among Nations (1948)-He sought to define the core principles of politics andinternational politics-Declared war on legalistic and moralisticinterpretations• Six principles of political realism• Legitimacy of international relations• Domestic & International politics
  10. 10. Carl von ClausewitzGerman-Prussian soldier andmilitary theoristBorn on June 1, 1780 in Burgbei Magdeburg, Kingdom ofPrussiaEntered the Prussian military, service at 12 years oldServed in the RhineCampaigns (1793-1794)Entered the German War, School in Berline in 1801 (age21)Served during the JenaCampaign as aide-de-camp toPrince AugustHeld prisoner in France from1807 to 1808 when he was 26
  11. 11. Carl’s Works• —• —Married Marie von Brühl on December 10, 1810• —Left Prussian army, served in Russian army from 1812-13 during the Russian Campaign• Helped negotiate the Convention of Tauroggen (1812)• Re-entered Prussian service• Served at the Battle of Ligny and Battle of Wavre during the Waterloo Campaign in 1815 Image:• Promoted to Major-General in 1818 & appointed director of the German War School• Appointed chief of staff of the only army—
  12. 12. On War• Published magnum opus on the philosophy of war in 1832• —A study of the Waterloo campaign and the Duke of Wellington’s detailed 1842 response to it• — Three stand out to Clausewitz’s concepts:1. War must never be seen as having any purpose in itself, butshould be seen as an instrument of policy and politics2.—The military objectives in war that support ones politicalobjectives fall into two broad types: war to achieve limitedaims and war to "disarm” the enemy3. All else being equal, the course of war will tend to
  13. 13. Key Ideas discussed in On War• the dialectical approach to military analysis• the methods of "critical analysis"• the uses and abuses of historical studies• the nature of the balance-of-power mechanism• the relationship between political objectives and military• objectives in war• the asymmetrical relationship between attack and defense• the nature of "military genius"• the "fascinating trinity" of war• philosophical distinctions between "absolute or ideal war,"• and "real war"• in "real war," the distinctive poles of a) limited war and b)• war to "render the enemy helpless"
  14. 14. Fundamentals• —"war" belongs fundamentally to the social realm, rather than the realms of art or science• "strategy" belongs primarily to the realm of art• "tactics" belongs primarily to the realm of science• the essential unpredictability of war• the "fog of war"• "friction"• strategic and operational "centers of gravity"• the "culminating point of the offensive"• the "culminating point of victory"—
  15. 15. Thomas Hobbes 1588-1679• English political philosopher• Wrote Leviathan• Fundamentals of European Liberal thought
  16. 16. Brief History• Premature• Studied Greek and Latin• Tutor
  17. 17. Life Experiences• Physics• Manuscripts• English Civil War• Leviathan
  18. 18. Leviathan• State as a monster• Value, moral-free• War can be necessary but not inevitable Image:
  19. 19. Realism• States are basic units• Anarchy• Contrast to Hobbes
  20. 20. Works Cited• -• Machiavelli• -• -• E2%80%93-cunning-critic-political-reason• -• -• http://www.timoroso.• com/philosophy/machiavelli/introduction#background•• Machiavelli/354571suppinfo/Supplemental-Information•• and-thomas-hobbes/