South indian cuisines


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South indian cuisines

  2. 2. • South Indian cuisine includes the cuisines found in the four southern states of India: AndhraPradesh, Karnataka, Kerala and Tamil Nadu.
  3. 3. Similarities and differences among cuisines • The similarities among the four states' cuisines include the presence of rice as a staple food, the use of lentils and spices, dried red chilies and fresh green chilies, coconut, and native fruits and vegetables including tamarind, plantain, snake gourd,garlic, and ginger • The four cuisines have much in common and differ primarily in the spiciness of the food. • Kerala, Tamil Nadu, south and coastal Karnataka and most parts of Andhra Pradesh use more rice.
  4. 4. Similarities and differences among cuisines • North Karnataka, on the other hand, consumes more ragi and jowar, while the Telangana region uses more jowar and bajra. • Consumption of rice is more common among certain Brahmin communities.
  5. 5. Andhra food
  6. 6. • The cuisines of Andhra are the spiciest in all of India. Generous use of chili powder and tamarind make the dishes tangy and hot. The majority of a diverse variety of dishes are vegetable- or lentil-based.
  7. 7. Regional variations • The three regions of Andhra Pradesh have their own variations. Telangana region shares some of the Central Indian and Vidharba region of Maharashtra. The area has more jowar- and bajra-based rotis in their main staple menu. • The Rayalaseema district shares borders with eastern Karnataka and Tamil Nadu, and its cuisine has similarities to that of those regions.
  8. 8. • The more fertile Andhra coastal region has a long coastline along the Bay of Bengal, and its cuisine has a distinctive flavor with various seafood. Hyderabad, the capital of Andhra Pradesh, has its own characteristic cuisine, which is considerably different from other Andhra cuisines. • The Nizams patronise the Hyderabadi cuisine, which is very much like the Nawabs of the Avadh and Lucknowi cuisine. • The only difference is that the Nizams of Hyderabad prefer their food to be spicier, resulting in the Hyderabadi cuisine, which includes kacche gosht ki biryani, dum ka murgh, baghara baingan, and achaari subzi during the reign of the Nizams.
  9. 9. Popular Andhra dishes
  10. 10. Vegetarian • Tiffins: pesarattu (mung bean pancake), attu, bobbatlu, pulihora or pulihaara (tamarind & lemon rice), upma • Pickles (pachhallu): cut raw mango) pickle, maaghaya, gongura pachadi, pandumirapakayala pachadi, tomato pachadi, allam (ginger) pachadi, dosakaya pachadi, dosavakaya, chintakaya (tamarind) • [Curry|Curries]] (kooralu): gutti vankaya, bendakaya fry, dondakaya fry, cabbage pesara pappu, carrot fry • Pappu (lentils)( varieties: thotakura (amaranth – pigeon pea stew) pappu, chukkakoora pappu, menthikura pappu, palakura pappu (spinach – pigeon pea dal), dosakaya (yellow cucumber – pigeon pea stew), tomato, beerakaya, sorakaya
  11. 11. vegetarian • Pulusu: palakoora pulusu, sorakaya pulusu, thotakoora pulusu, anapakaya pulusu, gongura pulusu koora • Chaaru: tomato chaaru, miriyala chaaru (pepper), ulava chaaru • Chaaru and curd variations: perugupachadi/majjiga chaaru with potlakaya (snake gourd), sorakaya (bottle gourd) • Snacks: sakinalu, chekkalu, murukulu, jantikalu, chakkil alu • Sweets: pootarekulu, kaaja, ravva laddu, boondi laddu, pesara laddu, sunnundalu, thokkudu laddu, ariselu, nuvvula laddu
  12. 12. Chutney and pickles • Raw pachadi-vankaya pachadi, dosakaya vanakaya pachadi, tomato pachadi, cabbage pachadi, pickles of avakaya (mango), usirikaya (Indian gooseberry), ginger, citroen, gongura, t omato, garlic
  13. 13. Non-vegetarian • Hyderabadi biriyani and various Hyderabadi meat dishes make up part of Hyderabadi cuisine. The rest of Andhra cuisine has a various versions of lamb and chicken, and the coastal region has extensive varieties of seafood. Dishes include kodi iguru (chicken stew), kodi pulusu (chicken gravy), chepa pulusu (fish stew), fish fry and prawn curry.
  14. 14. Karnataka food
  15. 15. • Karnataka cuisine is very diverse. • Described as the mildest in terms of spice content of these four states' cuisines, there is a generous use of Jaggery, palm sugar and little use of chilli powder. • Since the percentage of vegetarians in Karnataka is higher than other southern states, vegetarian food enjoys widespread popularity. • Udupi cuisine forms an integral part of Karnataka cuisine.
  16. 16. North Karnataka cuisine • In north Karnataka the staple grains are jowar and bajra. • Rottis made out of these two grains along with side dishes made of eggplant, fresh lentil salads, spiced and stewed lentils are popularly consumed. • They also consume a variety of spicy condiments like chutney powders and pickles. • Of all the other regional cuisines in Karnataka, this is known for its fiery spice level and heat. • Eateries called Khanavallioften run by families serve inexpensive but tasty home style food. • Most of them are run by Veerashaivaa are therefore vegetarian but Khanavallis serving non-vegetarian food are not uncommon.
  17. 17. Coastal Karnataka cuisine • The cuisine of coastal Karnataka is marked by widespread use of seafood, coconut and coconut oil. • Rice is the staple grain and is the centerpiece of every meal. • Gravies called 'Gassi' made from chicken, fish, meats are served with rice. • Lentils and vegetables cooked with coconut, spices and tempered with mustard, curry leaves, generous asafoetida, called Huli, is also served with rice • A Rasam-like preparation is called Saaru, which again is served with rice.
  18. 18. Coastal Karnataka cuisine • The meal will also contain vegetable side dishes called Palya. • Other accompaniments include curd-based Tambli, sweet-tangy Gojju, pickles and Happala, Sandige(Fryums) or Papads. • Some of the distinct breakfast foods served here include Bun, Biscuit rotti, Goli Bajji, and Patrode • Chutney and pickles: Pickles popularly are Appemidi(found in Dandeli forest), Bettada nelli, lemon, Amateykai, and Mixed vegetables. Chutneys: Ground nut Chutnety, Cocnut Chutney, Onion Chutney,
  19. 19. Coorgi cuisine • Coorgi cuisine is very distinct from the other regional cuisines of Karnataka, much like their culture. The hallmark of Coorgi cuisine is the widespread use of pork, game, and meats. • They also use kokum generously in their cooking. While the staple food remains rice and rice-based preparations like kadambattu, steamed rice dumplings and rice rottis, their expertise in cooking non-vegetarian foods is unmatched.
  20. 20. South Karnataka cuisine • The south Karnataka or the old Mysore cuisine is dominated by Ragi or finger millet and rice. Ragi in the form of Ragi mudde of dumplings or steamed rice is the centerpiece of a meal. • Often served with these two dishes are vegetable sides or Palya, Gojju, pickles, Tovve – mildly spiced lentils laced with Ghee, Huli – the lentil curry and Tili Saaru, a peppery thin watery curry almost likeRasam. • Certain preparations like Bas saaru, which is a spiced lentil with vegetable or greens' stock along with seasoned vegetables or greens, Upp Saaru which is another lentil stock based accompaniment to rice or mudde, Mosoppu, which is mashed spiced greens, Maskai, which is mashed spiced vegetables, are typical home style food from this region.
  21. 21. South Karnataka cuisine • Avare Kal (or Indian beans) is a popular vegetable consumed during winter. They are used in a variety of dishes like Usali, Upma, Huli, Hitakida Bele Saaru, etc.Rice preparations usually served as the second course of a traditional meals include Bisi bele baath, Chitranna, Hulianna, etc. • Yogurt is a typical part of every meal in all the regions of Karnataka and is probably the most popular dairy product. Generally yogurt with rice constitute the final course of a meal. Buttermilk laced with spices and curry leaves is also popularly served with meals especially during summer. • Ghee and butter are also popular cooking mediums for those who can afford them, and are mostly reserved for festivals and special occasions.
  22. 22. Udipi hotels • The credit for popularising these foods elsewhere in India goes to Udupi hotels. • In fact, in north India, Udupi hotels are often synonymous with south Indian food, even though the range of foods they serve is mostly restricted to the Karnataka cuisine. • These small establishments serve inexpensive vegetarian breakfast dishes throughout the day, all over India. • These were mostly run by people native to the Canara region. • The famous Masala Dosa traces its origin to Udupi cuisine and was subsequently popularised by Udupi restaurants.
  23. 23. Most famous food items • People from Karnataka are notorious for their sweet tooth. Mysore Pak, Obbattu/Holige, Dharwad pedha, Pheni, Chiroti are popular sweets. Apart from these sweets there are other lesser known sweets like 'Hungu', Kajjaya, Coconut Mithai, karjikai, Rave Unde, sajapa, Pakada Pappu, Chigali, a variety of Kadubus, Tambittu, Paramanna, and Hayagreeva. Most of these sweets are not milk-based, unlike the popular sweetmaking tradition elsewhere in India. Most of these sweets are made using Jaggery and not refined sugar. • Some typical Breakfast dishes include Masala Dosa, Ragi rotti, Akki rotti, Vangi Baath, Menthya Baath, Tamato Baath, Khara Baath, Kesari Baath,Shavige Baath, Davanagere Benne Dosa, Uppittu, Plain and Rave Idli, Mysore Masala Dosa, Kadubu, Poori, Avalakki etc. Lunch items include (sambar)Huli, (rasam)thili, Kootu, Gojju and a delicacy called Bisi bele baath, Chitranna, Kosambri(Salad), Pachadi or Mosaru bajji • Snack Items: Kodabale, Chakkali, Nippatu, Maddur Vade, Aamb Vade, Golli Bajji, Mangalore Bun,
  24. 24. Kerala food
  25. 25. • Kerala cuisine is quite diverse. • The diversity is best classified on the basis of the various communities. • Most of the food is vegetarian but with the higher Christian and Muslim population than other states, non-vegetarian dishes are also common. • The Hindus, especially the Namboodris and Nairs have a predominantly vegetarian cuisine, whilst the Christian and the Muslim communities have a largely non-vegetarian cuisine. • The Syrian Christian dishes and Malabari Muslim dishes are famous. Since Kerala's main export is coconuts, almost all of the dishes, irrespective of the variety in the cuisines of the different communities, have coconuts associated with them, either in the form of shavings or oil extracted from the nut. Seafood is also very popular in the coastal regions and eaten almost every day.
  26. 26. Most famous food items • Vegetarian: olan, paalpradaman, nendarangai chips, aviyal, pulissery, erucherri, sambar, rasam, kalan, upperis, pachady, kichadi. • Non-vegetarian: shrimp coconut curry, fish curry (various versions depending on the region), fish fry, chicken fry with shredded coconuts, fish pickle, podimeen fry, meen thoran (fish with coconut), Karimeen (pearl spot fish) pollichathu, shrimp masala, chicken stew, mutton stew, duck curry, malabari fish curry, kakka (shells) thoran, kalllumekka, crabs, malabar biriyani, thalassery biriyani, pearl spot fish, jewel fish, mussels, squid, kappa boiled, kappa (tapioca) vevichathu with non- vegetarian curries. • Malabar biriyani is a rice cuisine the difference is it uses Khyma rice instead of basmati rice. • The main variants are Thalassery biriyani and Kozhikode biryani.[1] • Pidi with mutton curry or chicken curry. • Porotta with chicken curry or mutton curry.
  27. 27. • Snacks: upperi, payasam, banan fry (ethaykkappam or pazham pori), ullivada, kozhukkatta, avalosunda, unniyappam, neeyyappam, unnaykka, thira, churuttu, boli, modhakam, paal vazhaykka, cutlets, halwas, cakes, vattayappam, kinnathappam, irattymadhuram. • Breakfast: Puttu (with banana or kadala curry, egg curry, or beef fry). • Appam (velayappam, palappam) with curry, vegetable stew, fish molee, chicken or mutton stew, beef curry, duck roast, pork masala. Idiyappam also with same curries. • Pidi with mutton curry or chicken curry.
  28. 28. • Idli, dosai with chutney. • Kanji with dry beans, pickle, pappad and made with coconut. • Typical Indian masala dosa (Kerala style): It is a combination of shredded, cooked, and fried vegetables with Indian sauce and a lot of spices as the basic stuffing, enveloped by a thick brown dosa made out of a dal and rice batter. To embellish this unique preparation, it is served with hot sambhar and coconut chutney.
  29. 29. Tamil food
  30. 30. • A typical Tamil meal consists of many spicy and nonspicy dishes.Except Brahmins and a couple of nonBrahmin castes, tamils eat more non-vegetarian. • Many of these dishes are typically mixed and eaten with steamed rice, which is the staple food of the region. • Tamil cuisine groups dishes under five slightly overlapping categories. First are the dishes that necessarily are mixed with rice; various Kuzhambu, Sambhar, Paruppu, Rasam, Thayir, K adaiyalsand the likes belong to this category.
  31. 31. • Tamil cuisine groups dishes under five slightly overlapping categories. • First are the dishes that necessarily are mixed with rice; various Kuzhambu, Sambhar, Paruppu, Rasam, Thayir, K adaiyalsand the likes belong to this category. • The second are the side dishes that accompany such mixtures; Kootu, Kari, Poriyal, Pickles, Papads fall into this category. • Third are the short snacks and their accompaniments; vadai, bonda,bajji, soups, various ch utneys, thayir pachadi and the likes belong to this category.
  32. 32. • The fourth category is usually the rich, sweet dishes that serve as desserts; Payasam, Kheer, Kesari and a plethora of Indian sweets belong to this category. • The fifth category includes "tiffin", or light meals. • This include various types of idlis, various types of dosai, poori, types of pongal, types ofuppma, idiyappam, aappam, adai, parotta, paniyaram etc. • Preparations from the fifth category are served for breakfast and dinner, usually not as midday meal. • Tamil cuisine mainly offers light breakfast, lighter dinner, a heavy midday meal and evening snacks, often served with tea or coffee. • Third to follow will be the Rasam again, mixed with rice, one usually eats this accompanied by crisps. • The last of the courses will invariably be rice with curd or yoghurt; this is usually taken along with pickles
  33. 33. • • • • • Throughout the meal, the side dishes are served and eaten with the courses, depending upon one's taste or choice; side dishes are constantly replenished during any meal. As a last course, the desserts are served. Finally guestsIn eitherto the typical meal (Lunch conclude the meal with retire case, a living room and or Dinner) banana and freshlyserved on a banana leaf. Mealsbetel leaves, betel nuts will be made paanconsisting of are and lime. paan is considered a digestive aid. and often accompanied by various pickles The situationappalams. with Tamil non-vegetarian meals, except that is similar the first and second courses are usually replaced by various Biryanis and non-vegetarian gravies. In either case, a typical meal (Lunch or Dinner) will be served on a banana leaf. Meals are often accompanied by various pickles and appalams.
  34. 34. • Food is generally classified into six tastes – sweet, sour, salt, bitter, pungent and astringent and traditional Tamil cuisine recommends that you include all of these six tastes in each main meal you eat. • Each taste has a balancing ability and including some of each provides complete nutrition, minimises cravings and balances the appetite and digestion. • Sweet (Milk, butter, sweet cream, wheat, ghee (clarified butter), rice, honey) • Sour (Limes and lemons, citrus fruits, yogurt, mango, tamarind) • Salty (Salt or pickles) • Bitter (Bitter gourd, greens of many kinds, turmeric, fenugreek) • Pungent (Chili peppers, ginger, black pepper, clove, mustard) • Astringent (Beans, lentils, turmeric, vegetables like cauliflower and cabbage, cilantro)
  35. 35. Chettinad cuisine • Chettinad cuisine is famous for its use of a variety of spices used in preparing mainly non-vegetarian food • The dishes are hot and pungent with fresh ground masalas, and topped with a boiled egg that is usually considered an essential part of a meal. • They also use a variety of sun-dried meats and salted vegetables, reflecting the dry environment of the region. • The meat is restricted to fish, prawn, lobster, crab, chicken and mutton. Chettiars do not eat beef and pork. • Most of the dishes are eaten with rice and rice based accompaniments such as dosais, appams, idiyappams, adais and idlis. The Chettinad people through their mercantile contacts with Burma, learnt to prepare a type of rice pudding made with sticky red rice.
  36. 36. • Chettinad cuisine offers a variety of vegetarian and non-vegetarian dishes. Some of the popular vegetarian dishes include idiyappam, paniyaram, vellai paniyaram, karuppatti Most famous food items paniyaram, paal paniyaram, kuzhi paniyaram, kozhakattai, masala paniyaram, adikoozh, kandharappam, seeyam, masala seeyam, kavuni arisi and athirasam.
  37. 37. Most famous food items • Vegetarian: kevar kalli, idli, sambar, vadai, rasam, dosa, thayir sadam (yogurt rice), thayir vadai (yogurt-soaked fritters), kootu(vegetables in wet style), poriyal/kari (vegetables in dry style), murukku, uthappam, idiappam, appalam (deep fried lentil-flour crisps) andpapadum (baked lentil-flour crips), freshly made thayir pachidi (yogurt mixed with fresh vegetables). • Non-vegetarian: karuvattu kuzhambu (salted, dried fish in sauce), chettinad pepper chicken, fish fry, and Kanji with "old fish" gravy.