Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

Ignou solved assignment eco 05 2014 to 2015 demo

2,596 views

Published on

Ignou Solved Assignment with Free Solved Question Papers for Online members.

Published in: Education
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

Ignou solved assignment eco 05 2014 to 2015 demo

  1. 1. Course Code: ECO - 05 Course Title: Mercantile Law Assignment Code: ECO – 05/TMA/2014-15 Coverage: All Blocks Maximum Marks: 100 Attempt all the questions. Answer of Q.N.1 (a). (i) Distinguish between Void and Voidable Contracts VoidContract:An agreementwhichwasenforceableatthe time of formationbutlaterondue tocertaineventit lostthe enforceability,suchagreementisknownasvoidcontract.For example, on 1st January ‘A’ agrees with ‘B’ to sell his horse for Rs. 100 on 15th of January. The horse dies on 10th January. Now the performance of contract on 15th January becomes impossible, hence this contract is void. Voidable Contract:Anagreementwhichisenforceableatthe optionof one of the parties thereto but not at the optionof the other,isa voidable contract.A VoidableContractisdefectivecontractandis enforceableatthe instance of the injured party by the defect. Agreements obtained by fraud or coercion are Voidable Contracts. For Example, ‘A’ induces‘B’bygivingfalse descriptiontopurchase certaingoods.‘B’ondiscoveringmisrepresentation can repudiate the contract or can elect to carry on the contract. Difference between Void and Voidable Contract: 1. Voidagreementsare voidab initioandvoidable contract becomes void when the party on whose option the contract is voidable, chooses to repudiate it. 2. In void agreement restitution is allowed except when illegality or voidness of the agreement was in the knowledge of both the contracting parties. In voidable contract when they are rescinded, benefits will be restored as much as possible. 3. Collateral transactions are not effected in case of voidable contracts, the same is in case of void agreement also.But where the agreementisvoidbecauseof the illegality of the consideration or object, the collateral transaction will also become void. (ii) Distinguish between Void and Illegal Contracts COMPLETE SOLVED ASSIGNMENTS ARE AVAILABLE FOR ONLINE MEMBERS ONLY. BECOME ONLINE LEARNING MEMBER BY PAYING A NOMINAL FEE OF Rs.300 ONLY. SOME SOLVED QUESTION PAPERS WILL ALSO BE PROVIDED. FOR DETAILS CONTACT: KUMAR NIRMAL PRASAD, TINSUKIA (ASSAM) CONTACT NO. 9577097967
  2. 2. EMAIL: KUMARNIRMALPRASAD@GMAIL.COM WEBSITE: WWW.DYNAMICTUTORIAL.BLOGSPOT.COM Answer of Q.N.1 (b). Offer: Section 2 (a) defines an offer as “When one person signifies to another his willingness to do or abstain fromdoinganythingwitha viewtoobtaining the asset of that other to such act or abstinence.” The person making the offerisknownas the OfferororPromisorandthe persontowhomit is made is called the Offeree or Promisee [Section 2(c)]. For e.g. A says to B, “Will you purchase my flat at Andheri for Rs.20 Lacs? Here A is the promisor and B is the promises. Essentials of a Valid offer: 1. Intention to create legal relationship: The Offeror while making the offer must do it with the intention to create legal relations. Offeror must be conscious that a contract will arise, if the Offeree accepts the same. 2. Certainor Unambiguous: The termsof the Offertobe validmust be certain, clear and unambiguous. For e.g. An offerstosell B,tentonesof oil.A isa dealerof variousoil. Here the offer is ambiguous as the offer does not specify the type of oil. However, if A was a dealer only in Parashute Coconut oil then the offer is unambiguous. 3. Offer must be distinguished from: (i) A declarationof intention: A declarationby a person that he intends to do something gives right of action to another.Sucha declarationonlymeansthatanofferwill be made orinvitedinfuture andnotthatan offerismade now. (ii) Aninvitation to make an offer or do business: Display of goods by a shopkeeper in his window, with prices markedon them,isnotan offerbutmerelyaninvitation to the public to make an offer to buy the goods at the marked prices.A buyer,incase the pricesof the goods are marked, cannot force the seller to sell the goods at those prices. He can, at the most, askthe sellertosell the goodstohim, inwhichcase he is makingan offertothe selleranditisupto the seller to accept the offer or not. Likewise, quotations, menu card, catalogues, prospectus issued y a company for subscribing to shares are all example of an invitation to make an offer. 4. Offermustbe to a definiteperson: The wordsof anOffermustapplyto definitepersonsorclassof persons to create a legal relationship. 5. Offermustbe communicated: An offer, to be complete, must be communicated to the person to whom it is made. Unless an offer is communicated, there can be no acceptance of it. 6. Offer must be made with a view to obtaining the assent: The offer to do or not to do something must be made with a view to obtaining the assent of the other party addressed and not merely with a view to disclosing the intention of making an offer. 7. Special Termsto be made clear inthe Offer: The offermaybe conditional but the conditions or special terms mustbe clearlycommunicatedinthe offer.Wheneveranofferhasspecial terms attached to it, these special terms and conditions must be effectively communicated to the Offeree to bind him. 8. Offer should not contain a term, the non-compliance of which may be assumed to amount to acceptance: A person cannot say that if acceptance is not communicated within a certain time, the offer would be considered as accepted.
  3. 3. Answer of Q.N.2. COMPLETE SOLVED ASSIGNMENTS ARE AVAILABLE FOR ONLINE MEMBERS ONLY. BECOME ONLINE LEARNING MEMBER BY PAYING A NOMINAL FEE OF Rs.300 ONLY. SOME SOLVED QUESTION PAPERS WILL ALSO BE PROVIDED. FOR DETAILS CONTACT: KUMAR NIRMAL PRASAD, TINSUKIA (ASSAM) CONTACT NO. 9577097967 EMAIL: KUMARNIRMALPRASAD@GMAIL.COM WEBSITE: WWW.DYNAMICTUTORIAL.BLOGSPOT.COM Answer of Q.N.3 (a). Consideration and Exceptions to the Rule “No Consideration, No Contract” Section 2 (d) of Indian Contract Act, 1872, defines consideration as “When at the desire of the promisor the promise or any other person has done or abstained from doing or does or abstains from doing something, such act abstinence or promise is called a consideration for the promisor.” Considerationisanadvantage orbenefitwhichmovesfromone partyto another. It is the essence of bargain. It isthe reciprocal promise i.e.todosomethingorabstainfromdoingsomethinginreturn of a promise. It is necessary for an agreementtobe enforceable bylaw.Inconsideration both the parties give something & get something in return. It may be incash or kind.The general rule isthatan agreementmade without consideration is void. But there are certain exceptionstothe rule ‘Noconsiderationno contract’. Section 25 deals with the exceptions to this rule which are given below: COMPLETE SOLVED ASSIGNMENTS ARE AVAILABLE FOR ONLINE MEMBERS ONLY. BECOME ONLINE LEARNING MEMBER BY PAYING A NOMINAL FEE OF Rs.300 ONLY. SOME SOLVED QUESTION PAPERS WILL ALSO BE PROVIDED. FOR DETAILS CONTACT: KUMAR NIRMAL PRASAD, TINSUKIA (ASSAM) CONTACT NO. 9577097967 EMAIL: KUMARNIRMALPRASAD@GMAIL.COM WEBSITE: WWW.DYNAMICTUTORIAL.BLOGSPOT.COM Answerof Q.N.3 (b). Whenan agent does more than he is authorised to do, and when the part of what he does, which is within his authority,can be separated from the part which is beyond his authority, so much only of what he does as is within his authorityisbindingasbetweenhim and his principal. In the given situation, Anil permits his agent Basant to purchase
  4. 4. goodson creditfromChander.But BasantmakescreditpurchasesfromChander by using the authority for his own use. Here Anil is liable for every acts of Basant if such acts are within the authority which is given by him to Basant. Here Basant exceeds his authority by purchasing goods for his own use. Hence Anil cannot be made liable to Chander. Answer of Q.N.4. Meaning of Goods Goodsis definedin Section2 (7) as ‘Every kind of moveable property other than actionable claims and money; and includesstocksandshares,growingcrops,grassand thingsattachedtoor formingpart of the landwhichare agreed to be severed before sale or under the contract of sale.’ Trademarks, copyrights, patent rights, goodwill, electricity, water and gar are all considered as goods. Therefore Goods as defined by this act has the following characteristics: 1. Every movable property is goods. 2. Moneyand actionable claimsare notconsideredasgoods.Moneyisdefinedasthe currentcoin of realm. But those coins which are no longer in circulation can become the subject matter of a contract of sale as an article of curiosity. 3. Goodsinclude stocksandshare although in English raw stocks and shares are not covered by the definition. 4. Goods also include growing crops and grass. 5. Anything which is attached to or forming part of the land (immovable property) can become goods if it is separatedfromthe immovable property.Therefore, unless something is separate from immovable property, it cannot be called goods. Types of Goods Goods may be classified into various types as under: 1. Existinggoods:These are goodswhichare ownedandpossessedbythe selleratthe time of sale.Onlyexisting goods can be the subject-matter of a sale. The existing goods may be: Specificgoods:These are goodswhichare identifiedandagreeduponatthe time of contract of sale ismade. For e.g. a person visit s a Titan showroom and identifies a watch for purchase. Ascertainedgoods:Thoughcommonlyused as similar in meaning to specific goods, these are the goods which become ascertainedsubsequent to the formation of contract of sale. For e.g. from say 10 Sony T.V. a person identifies the particular T.V. Unascertainedgoods: These are the goodswhichare not identifiedand agreed upon at the time of the contract of sale.Theyare definedonlybydescriptionandmayformpart of a lot.For e.g.a shopkeeperhasabag containing 50 kg of sugar.He agreestosell 10 kg sugarto X out of thatbag The 10 kg of sugaris unascertainedgoodsastheyare yetto be identified from the bag containing 50 kg. 2. Future Goods: These are goods which a seller does not possess at the time of the contract but which will be manufactured, or produced, or acquired by him after the making of the contract of sale. [Section 2(6)]. A contract of presentsale of future goods,thoughexpressesasan actual sale, purports to operate as an agreement to sell the goods and nota sale.This is because the ownership of a thing cannot be transferred before that thing comes into existence. Examples:(a) A agreestoselltoBallthemilkthathiscowmayyieldduringthecomingyear.Thisisacontractfor the sale of future goods.
  5. 5. (b)XagreestoselltoYallthemangoes,whichwillbe producedinhisgardennextyear.It is contract of sale of future goods, amounting to ‘an agreement to sell.’ 3. Contingent Goods: It is a type of future goods but these are goods the acquisition of which by the seller depends upon a contingency which may or may not happen. Example: A agrees to sell specific goods in a particular ship to B to be delivered on the arrival of the ship. If the ship arrives but with no such goods on board, the seller is not liable, for the contract is to deliver the goods should they arrive. Answer of Q.N.5 (a). COMPLETE SOLVED ASSIGNMENTS ARE AVAILABLE FOR ONLINE MEMBERS ONLY. BECOME ONLINE LEARNING MEMBER BY PAYING A NOMINAL FEE OF Rs.300 ONLY. SOME SOLVED QUESTION PAPERS WILL ALSO BE PROVIDED. FOR DETAILS CONTACT: KUMAR NIRMAL PRASAD, TINSUKIA (ASSAM) CONTACT NO. 9577097967 EMAIL: KUMARNIRMALPRASAD@GMAIL.COM WEBSITE: WWW.DYNAMICTUTORIAL.BLOGSPOT.COM Answerof Q.N.5 (b). COMPLETE SOLVED ASSIGNMENTS ARE AVAILABLE FOR ONLINE MEMBERS ONLY. BECOME ONLINE LEARNING MEMBER BY PAYING A NOMINAL FEE OF Rs.300 ONLY. SOME SOLVED QUESTION PAPERS WILL ALSO BE PROVIDED. FOR DETAILS CONTACT: KUMAR NIRMAL PRASAD, TINSUKIA (ASSAM) CONTACT NO. 9577097967 EMAIL: KUMARNIRMALPRASAD@GMAIL.COM WEBSITE: WWW.DYNAMICTUTORIAL.BLOGSPOT.COM

×