Q1 (a) Advertising is considered as the backbone of the business, define advertising,
explain how the process functions?
Advertising falls under the Promotion of 4P‟s in marketing. Advertising is a form of
communication through mass media. Hence, advertising is mass communication.
We begin to separate advertising from the many other forms of communication when we add
the terms „commercial‟ or „paid‟. It is paid for by a sponsor who expects to induce some kind
of action on the part of the reader or viewer or listener that will be beneficial to the advertiser.
Hence the definition can be summed up as Advertising is mass, paid communication, the
ultimate purpose of which is to impart information, develop attitude and induce action
beneficial to the advertiser – which generally has the nth usage of enabling sale of a
product or service.
An ad in a daily newspaper, in a television channel, in a radio channel, in an internet site,
road side banners etc. are all forms of communication. They convey a frame of mind. By
whatever the means, somehow these formats make contact and thereby transmit „good‟
message from one human mind to another. They are mass communications, paid by a sponsor
who wishes to achieve some end for example a paid political announcement ad is to
announce the name of the candidate and his election symbol, with the end objective of
election of a candidate, a recruitment ad is to announce that a certain company is looking for
candidates for a certain position, with the end objective of hiring a personnel.
How does the advertising process functions?
The ultimate purpose of most advertising is to help bring about the sale of a product or
service. The purpose of advertising is two simple obvious questions
When? (the pace of reaction):- when is advertising expected to bring about a sale?
A textile store may run an ad announcing a sensational price sale of an item, till
stocks last. Close to couple of hours of the sale opening, the clerks are saying “sorry
we are sold out” – here the objective met is immediacy of the sale.
A reputed institution runs an ad for distance learning courses, with the key feature
being, non-graduates with 10 years of work experience are considered at par with
graduates with 6 years of work experience. A reader may store the ad copy and enroll
in the course, as and when he decides to
A furniture store offering after sales services for products sold from his store or just a
service at an attractive cost for similar products sold by any other store. This furniture
store places an ad communicating this unique feature. The reader, may store the ad in
order to make use of the unique service whenever it is required
The time objective of most advertising falls somewhere in between these extremes.
The advertiser of automobile, insurance, farm equipment or machine tools does not
expect people to rush out and buy his product. Except for in specific seasons, for ex a
car company may come with a festival bonanza during key festivals. An insurance
company will have high turn outs during the financial year end seasons. A farm
equipment company may find more buyers post key harvesting seasons. Except for
such seasonal events, advertising‟s primary role is to reach out the communication of
the brand/product/service to the end user, to increase the propensity to buy, to move
the prospect inch by inch towards closer of a purchase.
How much of the sales-making load is to be carried by advertising?
While a ecommerce portal depends heavily on advertising communicating of 100%
delivery and Cash on Delivery services, because advertising is the only commercial
communication force available. At the other end an industrial company will depend
upon personal key selling as the key sale making force. Advertising assists by
carrying part of the communicating work load. A recent analysis by adage.com*, a
popular website catering to the advertising industry has come up with a global
advertising to sale ratio covering over 300 industries. While the individual industry
wise AtoS ratio differs, the global average is apprx. 3.12%
As far as Advertising to Sale ratio is concerned, in advertising, there is a school of thought
that, “advertising doesn‟t sell” except for exceptions like thematic, scheme based offer
campaigns. Advertising helps in reaching out the communication about the
brand/product/service to the consumer, in such a way that it registers in the consumer mind,
induces an action beneficial to the advertiser to experience/buy the service.
Q1 (b) „Appeal‟ plays an important role in the field of advertisement, be it in any type of
media. Bring out importance and effects of appeal in advertising; support your answer
Advertising appeal gives a reason to buy a product. An advertising campaign may have one
or more advertising appeal. One appeal can be used and it can have sub themes in an
advertising campaign. Appeal needs to be unique and needs to give positive impression about
the product to the target audience. Every appeal that is used by the companies in the
advertising is as per their competitors. Another important aspect of appeal is that it needs to
be believable by the audience. Audience gets attentive when the advertisement there is
attractive, they try to comprehend it and then finally their purchase behavior is inclined
towards the brand. When audience behavior is molded by the advertiser towards the brand
then only their purpose of advertisement is achieved. In order to do so advertisers understand
the psychological aspects of the audience and then they try to develop the advertising appeal
which can change their attitude towards the brand.
In today‟s scenario, everyday consumers are bombarded with different advertising campaigns
but they do not respond as they need something other than tangibles. There is need to explore
something more than tangibles that can attract their attention. This can be done by using
appropriate advertising appeal in the advertising campaign. If advertising appeal is interesting
then it grabs the attention of the customers.
For advertiser it is very important to understand how the diffusion of the message that takes
place in the target audience and in order to have a positive diffusion advertiser creates a
favorable environment. Words play an important role in the advertising message as it directly
affects the mind of the target audience. Consumers may have different types of needs like
physiological, physical or latent. An individual who has a specific need always look for the
information from the marketing world. When there is cue which is as per the need of the
consumer then an individual responds for the product. Drivers that are present in an
individual vary at the different levels. Consumer may be inclined towards the product
because of the aura of prestige which is associated with the advertising appeals.
Advertising appeal is the main central message in the advertising message. It arouses the
desires and addresses the human need that can be satisfied by the product which is advertised.
Appeal is the underlying content in the advertising. Advertising appeal and execution are
usually interdependent but advertising appeal can be used in all types of media but the
execution style is different for different type of media. Advertising appeal is that something
which attracts the consumers and develops interest in them. Some common consumer appeals
are esteem, sex, fear, security and sensorypleasure. Advertiser uses the word appeal to
emphasis on the creativity. Advertising create desire for the product and appeals persuade the
consumer to invest in the product. Appeals not always have all the product attributes but they
create an atmosphere where the target audience desires are evoked towards the product. For
example, if there is a product for the housewives then the appeal would be related to family.
There are mainly two types of appeals rational and emotional appeals.
Rational appeal addresses the consumer‟s functional needs of the product, are informative in
nature and it focuses on the suitability of the product. This appeal is used by consumer
durables and in competitive advertising (high involvement product)
Emotional appeals are known as transformational appeals as they transform the feelings of
the consumers towards the product. It gives positive mood to the consumers as it is related to
the psychological attribute of the consumer. Emotional appeals are more effective for the
older market then the newer or the younger market.
For example, For Insurance & savings products a family appeal is used. Since investments in
insurance or savings schemes is looked at as a security for the family. Sex appeal is used in
the advertisement of soaps. Audience is attracted as the desire is evoked and then it helps in
selling the product. For the perfumes and cosmetics love appeal is used. These appeals are
used more younger generation.
Q2 (a) Enumerate the basic principles and factors for effective and good advertising?
In order to achieve the objective of advertising, which is to compel preference in the
consumers mind in favor of the brand and thereby induce trial and continual usage, following
principles are to be adopted
Advertising should be motivated solely by fundamental consumer needs, attitudes and
interests. It should concentrate exclusively on the consumer‟s point of view and
interest. It should guard itself against being influenced by the point of view of the
manufacturer or the dealer because this will dilute or deflect the impact on the
consumer, who alone makes the choice to buy the brand in the market place
A good advertising should be based on a single selling idea. It is important that this
idea should be most powerful and persuasive appeal that is available to influence the
customer‟s mind and choice
The idea selected should be unique and distinctive to the brand. This will give the
brand a clear identity in the consumer‟s mind in preference to competitive brands
Advertising to be effective, must have a highly personal appeal for consumers, who
need both rational and emotional justification to motivate their choice of the brand
The advertising should be phrased in the consumers language and be credible and
comprehensible in the appeal that it makes
As the purpose of advertising is to sell your brand, it should clearly impress the brand
name of the consumers mind and associate it with the single selling idea chosen as the
platform of the theme
Finally, the advertising in its creative aspect should take full advantage of the medium
in its presentation. The physical possibilities of the press, cinema, outdoor advertising,
point of sale material etc. differ markedly and the creative treatment of advertising
should exploit the advantages of each and guard against any inherent disadvantages
The principles outlined above only provide a guide to advertising. In addition the following
factors are essential for their application
Creative talents of a high order
The proper briefing of the creative team on the right appeals to address to consumers
for the purpose of selling the brand
Experience is not sufficient by itself to guide the creative team
Disciplined procedures supported by research in all aspects affecting consumers
choice and motivation
The unique selling point (USP) selected to form the platform of the advertising theme should
be distinctive to the brand and based on customer research. It should not be general to the
product group. On an ideal case, the brand and the agency should work together in deciding
the basic consumer benefit which should form the platform for the theme.
Q2 (b) Before a businessman proceeds for advertising his product, market research is
considered essential. Explain as to why research is required and how a judgement on it
will be based.
A regular program of consumer research, product testing and advertisement effectiveness
measurement helps to provide a basis of facts for decision making process.
Research is needed for the following purposes
To guide the decisions determining the brand marketing strategy and brand
Pre-test proposed advertising
The pre testing of advertising is essential to ensure that this expensive investment is having
the desired effect in influencing consumer motivations to purchase your brand. In this
connection, it is important to remember that simple recall of advertising content does not
necessarily motivate consumer to purchase.
The following questions about every advertisement will provide a useful cross-check of its
Does it promise a basic consumer benefit? A product must fulfill a real or
imaginary need of consumers and hence its advertising must be presented in terms of
the consumers interest
Does it offer a convincing reason why? Good advertising must persuade consumer
that the brand will fulfill the basic promise by offering a convincing reason „why‟
with supporting evidence
Is it unique? Good advertisement must convince the consumer that your brand and
yours alone can satisfy his needs. This requires strong individuality in presentation
Does it clearly identify the brand? Good advertising must impress the brand name
clearly on the consumers mind
Does it interest the consumer? Good advertising must present the brands benefit and
proof in a manner that interests and attracts consumer personality
Is it credible & clear? Good advertising must be easily understood by the consumer
and credible in the claims it makes
Good advertising is the responsibility of both the company and the agency. This is a serious
responsibility which should be entrusted to senior personnel who have the ability and
experience to exercise judgement about the crucial aspect of the marketing strategy of their
Q3 (a) Sir William Crawford emphasized basically on Three-word concept for
advertising, what are these, explain?
Sir William Crawford propounded the most concise yet complete recipe for good advertising
in a three word percept Concentration – Domination – Repetition
The consideration of this entire context is limited to the media plan within the campaign plan,
but there is no better way to outline the principles of media planning than to examine Sir
William Crawford‟s three factors
Concentration is the most important among the three elements. Excessive dispersal of
resources is the greatest mistake in advertising. A product may have several good selling
points but it is wise nevertheless to concentrate its advertising campaign on making a
thorough conquest of the market with one that is chosen for its maximum effectiveness in the
particular marketing and competitive circumstances of the time. The public does not readily
understand two equally good points put to it simultaneously, though it can focus on or accept
two points successively. It is the advertiser‟s job to make it easy for the public to understand
the one point which makes his product especially good for a type of a customer or a type of
There are various methods of concentrating an advertising budget and where concentration is
necessary, the following possibilities may be reviewed
Numerical concentration is about choosing the most economic media of a certain type
OR arriving at an efficient media mix by maximum utilization of available efficient
By choice of continuity of position within a type of media pre selecting an even more
limited section of the whole audience which has particular interest in the product
Seasonal concentration relates to limiting advertising to a part of the selling season
Geographical concentration is about proceeding by intensive coverage of a selected
area or a sequence areas
Economic class is about not attempting to cover all classes equally. Such a form of
media concentration must be linked with parallel concentration of marketing and
Age relates to limiting the advertising objective to a special age group with all the
consequent narrowing of the media field
Interest groups relates to choosing within the general scope of the product appeal,
some more limited group of interests which can be reached with a more restricted list
of media. The creative appeal would be limited in parallel
In summary, therefore, the need for concentration in media planning lies in, the need to focus
the media as far as possible on the section of the public prescribed by the marketing and
advertising objective. And in the need to concentrate on the best media for the purpose until a
pre-defined strength has been achieved in each and not proceed to widen the media list until it
Domination may be achieved by scores of different methods of media planning. The most
obvious way is to use large spaces and even this cannot be afforded throughout the whole
campaign, it will probably be possible for a short period, enough to make its mark on relevant
public for a time. For example, using a medium that is new for the product or in an unusual
shape or space; or using color pages where the competition has used B&W;
In a competitive market, domination is particularly necessary, wherein advertisers have to
compete not only with others making similar products but also with manufacturer in other
fields who are bidding for the same money with different kind of interests. In media planning
terms, it is referred to as Share of Voice (SoV), particularly FMCG brands adapt to a SoV
style of planning, wherein one of the objective will be to be at par or improve beyond the
categories and competition share of advertising space
Repetition process requires neither bigness nor dominance but it entails spending advertising
resources continuously over a period and allowance for this continuous outlay must be made
in deciding what media the budget can afford to use
In a competitive market like India, which has a huge buyer base for the brands, where
international brands are focusing their activities, since the huge buying power helps them to
gain in additional revenues/profits. Multiple brands offering the same product/service are
targeting the same consumer, in order to convert them as their customers. Added to this, India
as a market witnessing stupendous economic growth is also witnessing the growth of media
over the past few years. Just for a comparison, a decade back, there were 300+ satellite
channels in India, today it has crossed 680+ in numbers, a growth of almost 100% in a
decades time. So much so that, today there are niche channels catering to specialties like
travel, food etc. Added to that there has been an overwhelming growth of local cable
channels in the country too. Parallels are the growth of other mediums like print, where today
there are specialty magazines covering topics like wedding the whole year, similarly the last
decade has also witnessed the high caliber growth of Radio as a medium, with close to 6
national networks having presence across the country. All these factors have added on to
increase clutter levels in the advertising spectrum.
The average advertiser first aims at creating brand awareness for the product, from then on it
aims to make the consumer come back again for a repeat sale. With the above mentioned
factors that have led to the bifurcation on the media, there are other interests that are
crowding upon the customer with new ideas and projects. This scenario has led the advertiser
to dominate the market and take control of the consumer‟s interest at least in order to get his
own idea or product noticed and tried; hence he must keep the impression so created alive for
ever afterwards. The most important point here is the basic factor that because the only kind
of buying that can reward the average advertiser for his outlay involves repetition, therefore it
becomes necessary to the selling process with advertising represents. While at the same time
the process of repetition cannot go on indefinitely. After a certain stage, which must be
judged from the tactical circumstances, it will be necessary to create new impact, this is
because repetition by its very description the repeating of something and with each repeat it
gets a little fainter.
Q3 (b) For a good advertising campaign, there are some important methods which
make the register ring “Eleven” Commandments, explain the methods of successful
campaigns for any advertisement agency?
The eleven commandments for a successful advertising campaign are
1) What you say is more important that how you say it
What really decides consumer to buy or not buy is the content of your
advertising, not its form. The most important job is to decide what you are
going to say about your product & its benefit
The selection of the right promise is so vitally important that you should never
rely of guess work to decide it
For example, “YehHainHamaraSurakshaChakrah” byline from Colgate
worked well for the brand so much so that, it created a belief among the
customers that “colgate will protect the dental health of the family”
2) Unless the campaign is built around a great idea or a big idea, it will flop
Having a big idea and amplifying the big idea across the strategically selected
media‟s will add more meaningful value for the brand among the consumer,
rather than the conventional way of running a 30 sec on TV or a 100 cc ad in
For example, Pepsi, although the brand looks like to be very active brand on
air (ie on TV) only, the brands big idea is sports, the big idea gets amplified
across different available medias. They latch up with cricket, football on air,
as an extension the idea is replicated in the form of interschool or inter-
corporate cricket or football tournament which is again publicized effectively
using various media like direct marketing, activation, radio, internet etc
3) Give the facts
The consumer is not a moron; she is your wife. You insult her intelligence if
you assume that a mere slogan and a few rapid adjectives will persuade her to
buy anything. She wants all the information you can give.
4) You cannot bore people into buying
Going by the humongous growth in the media spectrum on one hand and the
growth of new brands on the other hand; the consumer is in for a cluttered
media pie. If you want your voice to be heard above this clutter, your voice
must be unique.
5) Be well-mannered but don‟t clown
You should try to charm the consumer into buying your products. It is easier
to sell people with friendly handshake than by hitting them over the head with
6) Make your advertising contemporary
Make your communication contemporary, in current scenario you are talking
to a new age consumer, who is also well informed
7) Committees can criticize advertisements but cannot write them
Advertising seems to sell most when it is written basis the study of the
product, the research and the precedents
8) If you are lucky enough to write a good advertisement, repeat it until it
While in most cases the sponsors tends to get sick of repeating good
advertisements, fact remains that the Sherwin Cody School of English ran the
same advertisement for forty two years, changing only the type face and the
color of Mr Cody‟s beard
9) Never write an advertisement which you wouldn‟t want your own family
Good products can be sold by honest advertising. If you don‟t think the
product is good, you have no business in advertising it.
10) The image and the brand
Every advertisement should be thought of as a contribution to the complex
symbol, which is the brand image, which on a long view may solve the day-to-
day problems themselves
11) Don‟t be a copycat
Imitation may be the sincerest form of plagiarism, but it is also the mark of an
inferior person. Being a copycat also can back fire the brand by negative
TOMR value, if the idea has been brilliant enough and used in the right way
by the predecessor
Q4 (a) Media Planning is an important aspect of advertising, what are their problems
and also mention the changing role of a media planner.
Given the decision on the message content, form and the size of the advertisement, a media
planner‟s job is to decide what channels or media should be chosen for carrying the message
to the potential customers. For example, in case of a multi media campaign, following
questions have to be answered; a detailed brief from the client will help to construct the
What should be the media mix?
What should be the ideal SOE per media?
Assuming that the decision is to go with Print, Television & Radio, then
What is the share of reach and frequency?
Which are the media will be used for reach and how & which ones for frequency
A deep dive into the individual media
o Should it be Dailies ONLY or Magazines ONLY or a combo?
o Should it be Regionals ONLY or English ONLY or a combo?
o What is the consumption and schedule strategy between the selected print
o Which genre to be used?
o Within a genre, what is the weightage for reach platform and frequency
o Along with Satellite channels, is local cable required? If yes for which
o What is the consumption and schedule strategy between the selected TV
o Which are the markets to be covered?
o How effectively can radio be used at a local level to increase participation?
o What is the consumption and schedule strategy between the selected radio
Not stopping with the schedule strategy within the respective medium/vehicles,
the media planner also has to apply science to the overall scheduling strategy
The problem is quiet complex, because the number of alternative media plans available to a
media planner is very large. Secondly, there are certain issues in terms of the measurement
techniques available today. Wherein, a people meter data of an approximate 8300 households
is extrapolated to the TV owning household universe in India. Hence the measurement data
that is available today is pretty much on the lines of a guide ONLY and not perfect to the nth
extent. Adding to that, the consumer preference is very dynamic in nature. For example, in
case of radio, out of 8 radio stations in Chennai, there might not be a clear leadership and that
there have been scenarios where each of the channels have held leadership on alternate
weeks. This is primarily due to the fact that on the respective weeks the channels would
mostly have done some specials which would have attracted a higher listenership. Similar
issues crop up in television also. In print medium the concern may arise mostly in terms of
geographical coverage of the newspaper. For example, while Vijay Karnataka is the leading
paper of Karnataka state, comparatively smaller newspaper called Udayavani leads the
Manipal-Udipi area, similarly Samyukta Karnataka leads Hubli-Dharwad regions. While
working on the media/vehicle mix strategy, the media planner has to have a clear eye for such
The changing role of a media planner
Talking about the current trend in India, the days of vanilla advertising campaign are not any
more the order of the day. The dynamism of the consumers consumption habits have led to
creating more meaningful and result yielding campaigns. Adding to all, in order to make sure
that value for money advertised is derived, most brands today work on an ROI method,
wherein the agency and the client sit together to understand how effective the monies have
worked for the brand at regional market level, which will be done by mapping the advertising
spends with the walk in and sales data supplied by the consumer.
Today, a media planner has to think beyond conventional media planning. It is no more
churning out numbers and arriving at a media plan for individual mediums, It is more about,
creating a integrated & contemporary multi media campaign, which works in tandem to reach
out the brand communication to the consumer in an effective and efficient manner. Today
media planners are included in creative discussions, so that, from a media angle the media
planner can come up with a center thought in line with the creative thought and not falling
out from it, and accordingly construct an integrated campaign.
In short, today the role of a media planner has been widened to the role of marketing
Q4 (b) Define Market, bring out the factors to be considered while defining the market.
Market is a geographic area where the group of people (the target audience) lives and is likely
to buy the product.
Indian Readership Survey (IRS) defines markets as key metros and rest of the markets. For
example a Karnataka will be defined as Bangalore, Mangalore, Mysore, Rest of Karnataka.
While on the other hand, Television Audience Measurement (TAM) defines a market as the
key metro and the rest in terms of population size. For example a Tamil Nadu market will be
defined as Chennai, Tamil Nadu 1Mn+ & Tamil Nadu .1-1Mn
Factors to be considered while defining the markets
The clients brief which will specify:-
Distribution patterns – where the product is available
Clients marketing objectives
Media related markets
Sales pattern observed
If the sales are good, then a defensive strategy will be ideal to protect. Also need to check
whether the market has been fully exploited, which will help to minimize the risks and
maximize the potential
On the other hand, if the sales are low and require advertising focus, then an offensive
strategy will be of help. An offensive strategy will be done basis understanding how
competition is faring and not ours, can the situation be corrected.
Entering a virgin markets may give the brand a first mover advantage, while at the same time,
the brand needs to clearly analyze why the market has been virgin for such a long time.
On the whole, the weightage on the media SOE on a market level will be assigned basis the
client sales strategy.
Q6 (a) “Charactor” in Advertising – short notes
Charactor is a matter of objective characteristics varying from type and geography of
coverage to the advertising facilities offered by the method, mechanics or materials of the
presentation of the medium.The catalogue which follows ten different aspects of charactor of
advertising media is part of the sub conscious equipment of every experienced person
engaged in advertising. The knowledge acquired by observation or by the acceptance of
recognized assessment made by experienced people. The catalogues probably note complete
because the variations of the possible forms of charactor are legion. The ten aspects of
IV. Power to reach special groups
V. Physical characteristics of the medium
VI. Assistance to selling
VII. Duration of interest
IX. Impact or repetition
X. Indirect effects on influential groups
Q6 (b) Communication Spectrum – short notes
The concept of the marketing communication spectrum offers a starting approach to the
solution of the problem. This concept is applied common sense. It breaks the subject up into
logical and comprehensible steps. It beings with the obvious assumption that advertising is a
communication force. Advertising does not physically impel the consumer towards the
purchase of goods; its purpose is to create a state of mind conducive to purchase. Advertising
therefore is one of several communication forces which acting singly or in combination move
the consumer through successive levels of what we have terms the communication spectrum.
These levels are Unawareness, Awareness, Comprehension, Conviction and Action
The lowest level of communication spectrum is Unawareness. At this level are the people
who have never heard of the product or the company. The messages about the product have
not penetrated to the point where consumer recognizes or recalls the brand or company name.
now it is conceivable that people buy products or vote for candidates who names are
unknown to them. The chances are however that such a product makes few sales and such a
candidate few votes.
Q6 (c) “Creativity needs direction” – short notes
Creativity with lack of direction, lack of strategy, lack of thinking the problem though first is
created in limbo rather than as a specific answer to a specific question. The creative strategy
should be an outcome of the marketing data and research that has been agreed upon by the
client, with a direction, with an objective that the advertising campaign has to accomplish, the
ground it has to cover.
Q6 (d) Brand marketing strategy – short notes
The first step is for the company to decide on the marketing strategy that it intends to follow
in developing sales of the brand in all its aspects like product policy, packaging, distribution
policy, pricing policy and promotion policy
The brand marketing strategy should define
The Market its size, the growth rate, its distribution by region, the scope for sale &
The Target Consumer in the form of their age, socio economic class (includes education
levels, income levels), the consumers psychograph (like product usage, ownership etc)
Competition brands, their names, what they are offering at what price, why is the product
being preferred, advertising expenditure and strategy
Marketing objectives including the short and long term brand marketing strategy in terms of
The target share
The period of achievement
The target consumer
Market research plans
Product development policy
Budget for all aspects of marketing activity in general & advertising in particular
Q6 (e) The Heart of Creativity – short notes
The heart of creativity is discipline. MrEernbach says, and the never riding purpose is to sell.
Selling discipline is about how to convey memorably the advantage and essential message of
Aesthetic discipline is like it‟s never been said before.
Management disciplinewhich is, knowing how to guide and sharpen the skills of talented
Social discipline is about fulfilling our role in seeking another rebirth of western civilization.