| Jul 2012|   © 2012 UPES
Jul 2012 Jul 2012   © 2012 UPES
Energy is vital to our existence on earth. The ability to generate and master the use of energy from his own needs has bee...
The per capita annual consumption of energy in the form of fossil fuel and electricity ranges from very small in some coun...
The energy sources can be divided in to two categories: Non-renewable Renewable       Jul 2012        Jul 2012          ...
Definition: As discussed in Unit IIThis type of energy source can be renewed or can be replenishedregularly.Renewable ener...
Jul 2012 Jul 2012   © 2012 UPES
Hydroelectricity is produced from falling water. The movement of the water spins turbines which generate electricity.In th...
Jul 2012 Jul 2012   © 2012 UPES
Between 1950 and 1970 , hydropower generation in the world increased seven times.The important hydel power projects of Ind...
Advantages It is pollution free and renewable source of energy Its operational cost is low It helps in checking floods...
Limitations and Environmental Effects There is problem of planning and construction of dams at suitable  sites Construct...
Limitations and Environmental Effects                          cont… Conflicts over equitable allocation of water for dom...
In one hour sun pours as much energy on earth as we use in whole  year.Humanity would need no other source of energy if it...
There are two main ways of using solar energy to produce electricity.  These are through the use of solar cells and solar ...
 Solar thermal technology uses heat gained directly from sunlight. The  best known use of this technology is in solar wat...
Jul 2012 Jul 2012   © 2012 UPES
Solar CellDevice used to convert solar energy directly into electric energy(photovoltaic effect)          Jul 2012        ...
Flat-plate Solar CollectorDevice that collects solar radiation and heats a coolant, which in turnwill be used in residenti...
Solar-cell SystemUnit that is usually made up of 36 solar cells, each of which producesa voltage of 0.5 V; it is used to p...
Production Of Electricity From Solar EnergyHeating the coolant directly with solar rays turns water into steam,which then ...
Solar FurnacePlant that concentrates solar radiation to reach very high temperatures (over5,400 F) as part of a research e...
Solar HouseSolar energy can be used to heat and supply hot water to a home.          Jul 2012           Jul 2012          ...
Advantages Solar energy is abundantly available inexhaustible source of energy. It can be used in remote areas to run wa...
Limitations Large space is required to collect sufficient amount of solar radiations Solar energy is not available durin...
Wind was one of the earliest energy source used by sailingships.Wind mills were developed by China, Persia and Afghanistan...
Wind pumps and generators have been used in remote areasof Australia and in other countries around the world for manyyears...
Tower millThe tower mill appeared later than the post mill; it consists of ausually circular, stationary body and a roof t...
Post MillThe mill body pivots on a vertical axis when a tail pole is activated bythe miller.          Jul 2012           J...
Vertical-axis Wind Turbine   Horizontal-axis Wind Turbine                             The most common type of wind turbine...
Production Of Electricity From Wind EnergyWind farms contain a group of wind turbines, which are driven by the wind;they p...
Jul 2012 Jul 2012   © 2012 UPES
Advantages It is a renewable source of energy and causes no pollution It can generate power in remote areas where other ...
Limitations and Environmental impact Wind does not always blow with required intensity or in desired  direction all the y...
Solar energy warms the water and creates ocean currents and wind produces waves.The movement of waves can also drive air t...
Tidal power is harnessed by placing a barrage across an estuary  and forcing the tidal flow to pass through turbines.In a ...
Wave power is used to convert the kinetic energy of waves into electric or mechanical energy to drive turbo-generators.The...
Ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) uses the temperature difference between cooler deep and warmer shallow or surface o...
Advantages It is pollution free It is renewable It is continuously available source of energy in coastal regions. It p...
Limitations and Environmental Impacts Oceanic plants can cause disruption in navigation May cause harm to sea flora and ...
Biomass is plant and animal material that can be used for energy. This  includes using wood from trees, waste from other p...
We can get (biomass) energy: Directly from plants, for example burning wood for cooking and  heating. Indirectly from pl...
Most of these use waste products from agriculture, so they solve a waste disposal problem and, at the same time, create en...
Limitations and Environmental effects Fuelwood is obtained mostly from forests and has, thus, played a  major role in cau...
Geo = earthThermal = heatGeothermal energy uses heat energy from beneath the surface of the earth.The deep molten rock of ...
Hot water stream coming out with pressure can be used to run turbines for generating electricityAltrenatively, holes can b...
Jul 2012 Jul 2012   © 2012 UPES
Jul 2012 Jul 2012   © 2012 UPES
Jul 2012 Jul 2012   © 2012 UPES
Jul 2012 Jul 2012   © 2012 UPES
Jul 2012 Jul 2012   © 2012 UPES
Advantages It is non polluting, stable and renewable source of energy Its is as cheap as hydropower It is independent o...
Limitations It is available only in selected regions Its prospects are still to be explored, assessed and investigated, ...
Jul 2012 Jul 2012   © 2012 UPES
NON-RENEWABLE SOURCES OF ENERGY  This form of energy can not replenished naturally in short span of   time.  Nonrenewabl...
COAL It is hydrocarbon having high calorific value. It is a fossil fuel formed over millions of years from  decomposing ...
Limitations and Environmental Effects  Mining and transportation of coal is costly  Burning of cola produces large quant...
PETROLEUM Petroleum, or crude oil, is formed in a similar way to coal.  But instead of becoming a rock, it became a liqui...
Advantages  Main fuel for transport vehicles, aeroplanes  It is cleaner fuel as compared to coal having no solid   waste...
Limitations and Environmental Effects  Its reserves are limited.  Automobile exhaust is the main source of air pollution...
 Gas is made in the same way as petroleum and is also trapped  between layers of rock. Natural gas is tapped, compressed...
 It is clean source of energy causing very little pollution CNG is used in vehicles. It has greatly reduced pollution in...
 It has limited reserves in the world. Gas leakage can cause accidents as it is highly flammable. Carbon dioxide produc...
 Nuclear energy is the energy released when atoms are either  split or joined together. A mineral called uranium is need...
 It is a clean source of energy Small amount of fuel can generate large amount of energy Nuclear fuel can be used for m...
 Produces hazardous radioactive waste causing radioactive  pollution Nuclear power plant accidents cause disasters eg. C...
Energy conservation should be considered from different aspects as follows:1. Efficiency in Production of energy2. Efficie...
 Production of crude oil in India is 32 million tonnes/yr. Oil  companies should increase their exploratory drilling oper...
 Wide, smooth and multilane roads can decrease oil  consumption and reduce air and noise pollution More use of public co...
 Protection of oil installations from fire will prevent the wastage and  damage of property and life. Encouraging the us...
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Unit 3 r nr energy sources lecture 1 2 3_4

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Unit 3 r nr energy sources lecture 1 2 3_4

  1. 1. | Jul 2012| © 2012 UPES
  2. 2. Jul 2012 Jul 2012 © 2012 UPES
  3. 3. Energy is vital to our existence on earth. The ability to generate and master the use of energy from his own needs has been the key to man’s survival and development.Electricity is universal in its application –lighting, heating, working, telecommunications and data processing. Besides its crucial role in providing us, comfort and raising the quality of life.Energy is very crucial to all development aimed at human welfare covering household, agriculture and transport and industrial sectors.The consumption and uses of energy in the world is highly concentrated in the industrialized or developed regions like Europe, North America, Japan and Australia. Jul 2012 Jul 2012 © 2012 UPES
  4. 4. The per capita annual consumption of energy in the form of fossil fuel and electricity ranges from very small in some countries to very large, more than one thousands times greater.Besides fuelling “development” activities energy consumption and its quantitative trends characterize the life styles of country.More than 80% of total world consumption of energy is by developed countries, which accounts for the 30% of the population.On the other hand, 20% of the energy is consumed by 70% of the world population of developing countries. Jul 2012 Jul 2012 © 2012 UPES
  5. 5. The energy sources can be divided in to two categories: Non-renewable Renewable Jul 2012 Jul 2012 © 2012 UPES
  6. 6. Definition: As discussed in Unit IIThis type of energy source can be renewed or can be replenishedregularly.Renewable energy sources are usually less polluting eg.Hydropower, solar, wind, geothermal. Other sources are fuelwood,biomass, biogas and even garbage.Renewable energy technologies will improve the efficiency andcost of energy systems so that we may not depend on fossil fuelenergy. Jul 2012 Jul 2012 © 2012 UPES
  7. 7. Jul 2012 Jul 2012 © 2012 UPES
  8. 8. Hydroelectricity is produced from falling water. The movement of the water spins turbines which generate electricity.In this technique, potential energy of stored river water in high dams is converted to kinetic energy to run the turbines at the bottom that generate electric power.Places with high rainfall and steep mountains are ideal for hydroelectricity. Canada, Brazil and New Zealand produce most of their electricity this way.In Australia about 8 per cent of electricity is produced from hydroelectricity. Jul 2012 Jul 2012 © 2012 UPES
  9. 9. Jul 2012 Jul 2012 © 2012 UPES
  10. 10. Between 1950 and 1970 , hydropower generation in the world increased seven times.The important hydel power projects of India are Bhakra Nangal, Hirakund Dam, Damodar Valley, Thein Dam etc.In India, hydel power plays a great role in electricity generation and has the potential to generate 10,000 MW of electricity. Jul 2012 Jul 2012 © 2012 UPES
  11. 11. Advantages It is pollution free and renewable source of energy Its operational cost is low It helps in checking floods Stored water can be used for irrigation, fisheries, drinking water and for recreational purposes. Jul 2012 Jul 2012 © 2012 UPES
  12. 12. Limitations and Environmental Effects There is problem of planning and construction of dams at suitable sites Construction of dams may harm the topography and flora and fauna of the area. Dams can block routes of fish migration required for their survival and reproduction Problem of silting of water reservoirs of dams due to soil erosion of catchment areas, particularly, by deforestation. Damage of agricultural lands and forest areas may adversely affect livelihood of local tribal people and farmers even leading to conflits. Jul 2012 Jul 2012 © 2012 UPES
  13. 13. Limitations and Environmental Effects cont… Conflicts over equitable allocation of water for domestic, agricultural and domestic use. The use of rivers for navigation and fisheries becomes difficult once the water is dammed to generate electricity Rehabilitation of displaced persons is a major problem. Large dams can induce increased seismic activity in certain areas resulting in earthquakesBecause of the environmental impact of traditional hydroelectric schemes, there has been increasing interest in alternative hydro schemes. Jul 2012 Jul 2012 © 2012 UPES
  14. 14. In one hour sun pours as much energy on earth as we use in whole year.Humanity would need no other source of energy if it were possible to harness this tremendous amount of energy.India receives about 60,000 billion MW of solar energy in a year.Even 1% of this energy, if harnessed, generates 40 times more electricity than the present electricity generated in India.There is enough solar radiation striking the surface of the earth to provide all of our energy needs. Jul 2012 Jul 2012 © 2012 UPES
  15. 15. There are two main ways of using solar energy to produce electricity. These are through the use of solar cells and solar thermal technology (flat plate collectors, concentrating collectors, solar cooker, solar water heater. etc.)Using solar technologies to generate electricity is, at present, more expensive than using coal-fired power stations, but it produces much less pollution.Solar cells are photovoltaic cells that turn light into electricity. Solar cells are used in three main ways.They are used in small electrical items, like calculators, and for remote area power supplies, like telephones and space satellites.Solar cells are used to a limited extent in the development of solar- powered vehicles. Jul 2012 Jul 2012 © 2012 UPES
  16. 16.  Solar thermal technology uses heat gained directly from sunlight. The best known use of this technology is in solar water heating. Solar collector and the storage tank are two main parts of solar water heating systems. The solar energy collector heats the water which is then stored in well insulated storage tanks. Australia is in an ideal position to develop and use solar energy. Some areas in central and western Queensland are among the best sites in the world to develop large scale solar electric generating plants. Jul 2012 Jul 2012 © 2012 UPES
  17. 17. Jul 2012 Jul 2012 © 2012 UPES
  18. 18. Solar CellDevice used to convert solar energy directly into electric energy(photovoltaic effect) Jul 2012 Jul 2012 © 2012 UPES
  19. 19. Flat-plate Solar CollectorDevice that collects solar radiation and heats a coolant, which in turnwill be used in residential settings to heat water or the home. Jul 2012 Jul 2012 © 2012 UPES
  20. 20. Solar-cell SystemUnit that is usually made up of 36 solar cells, each of which producesa voltage of 0.5 V; it is used to power low-voltage devices. Jul 2012 Jul 2012 © 2012 UPES
  21. 21. Production Of Electricity From Solar EnergyHeating the coolant directly with solar rays turns water into steam,which then turns the turbo-alternator to produce electricity. Jul 2012 Jul 2012 © 2012 UPES
  22. 22. Solar FurnacePlant that concentrates solar radiation to reach very high temperatures (over5,400 F) as part of a research effort to develop experimental materials(including astronautic materials and ceramics). Jul 2012 Jul 2012 © 2012 UPES
  23. 23. Solar HouseSolar energy can be used to heat and supply hot water to a home. Jul 2012 Jul 2012 © 2012 UPES
  24. 24. Advantages Solar energy is abundantly available inexhaustible source of energy. It can be used in remote areas to run water pumps and to generate electricity. PV cells are commonly used in calculators and watches. PV cells also provide power to satellites, electric lights and small electric appliances like radios, weather stations, highway lights and in remote areas. They do not release pollutants or toxic material into environment. Jul 2012 Jul 2012 © 2012 UPES
  25. 25. Limitations Large space is required to collect sufficient amount of solar radiations Solar energy is not available during night. Some PV cells contain small amount of toxic substances like cadmium which can be released into the environment in case of fire. Mining of silicon causes environmental problems PV systems need batteries to store the electricity for use during night or cloudy days. Jul 2012 Jul 2012 © 2012 UPES
  26. 26. Wind was one of the earliest energy source used by sailingships.Wind mills were developed by China, Persia and Afghanistanto draw water for irrigation and grind grain about 2000 yrs ago.The early work on generating electricity from windmills wasmostly done in Denmark.At present Denmark and California have large wind turbinecooperatives that sell electricity to government grid.India is the third largest producer of wind energy in the world. Jul 2012 Jul 2012 © 2012 UPES
  27. 27. Wind pumps and generators have been used in remote areasof Australia and in other countries around the world for manyyears.More recently, wind turbo-generators on wind farms havebeen providing electricity for cities and towns in more than adozen countries.The United States of America and Denmark produce most ofthe worlds wind-generated electricity. Australia has some smallwind farms.The largest of these is at Esperance in Western Australia. Jul 2012 Jul 2012 © 2012 UPES
  28. 28. Tower millThe tower mill appeared later than the post mill; it consists of ausually circular, stationary body and a roof that rotates with the helpof a fantail. Jul 2012 Jul 2012 © 2012 UPES
  29. 29. Post MillThe mill body pivots on a vertical axis when a tail pole is activated bythe miller. Jul 2012 Jul 2012 © 2012 UPES
  30. 30. Vertical-axis Wind Turbine Horizontal-axis Wind Turbine The most common type of wind turbine;Wind turbine whose axis is its axis positions itself in the direction ofperpendicular to the wind. the wind. Jul 2012 Jul 2012 © 2012 UPES
  31. 31. Production Of Electricity From Wind EnergyWind farms contain a group of wind turbines, which are driven by the wind;they produce electricity and carry it along the transmission and distributionnetworks to which they are connected. Jul 2012 Jul 2012 © 2012 UPES
  32. 32. Jul 2012 Jul 2012 © 2012 UPES
  33. 33. Advantages It is a renewable source of energy and causes no pollution It can generate power in remote areas where other sources are not available. It is easily manageable and cheap While wind-generated electricity does not cause air pollution, it does cost more to produce than electricity generated from coal. It can water pumps, flour mills and electric turbines Although large area of land is required for setting up wind farms but less than 1% of the total area is covered by the turbine bases, the foundations and the access roads. The rest of the area can be used for farming or grazing. Setting wind mills offshore reduces their demand for land and visual impact Jul 2012 Jul 2012 © 2012 UPES
  34. 34. Limitations and Environmental impact Wind does not always blow with required intensity or in desired direction all the year round Wind energy is not available in all the regions While wind generators dont produce any greenhouse gas emissions they may cause vibrations, noise and visual pollution. They also cause bird kills, effect on TV Reception, and aesthetic impact Wind is an intermittent source of energy and requires some other backup or standby electric source. High wind speed is needed to power wind generators effectively. Jul 2012 Jul 2012 © 2012 UPES
  35. 35. Solar energy warms the water and creates ocean currents and wind produces waves.The movement of waves can also drive air turbines to make electricity.The energy of waves striking on shores of all the continents is estimated at 2-3 million MW of energy.The technologies to harness the kinetic energy of oceans are being developed since 1970s. Some of them are discussed below: Jul 2012 Jul 2012 © 2012 UPES
  36. 36. Tidal power is harnessed by placing a barrage across an estuary and forcing the tidal flow to pass through turbines.In a one-way system, the basin is allowed to fill with the incoming tide through a sluice, and the collected water is used to produce electricity during low tide.In a two-way system, power is generated from both the incoming as well as the outgoing tide. Jul 2012 Jul 2012 © 2012 UPES
  37. 37. Wave power is used to convert the kinetic energy of waves into electric or mechanical energy to drive turbo-generators.The generated electricity at sea is transmitted to land by cable.The most potential sites on earth are located between 40 to 60 degrees latitude in both hemispheres, where the winds blow more strongly. Jul 2012 Jul 2012 © 2012 UPES
  38. 38. Ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) uses the temperature difference between cooler deep and warmer shallow or surface ocean waters to run a heat engine and produce useful work, usually in the form of electricity.However, the temperature differential is small and this impacts the economic feasability of ocean thermal energy for electricity generation.A difference of 20 C or more is required between surface water and deeper cool water of an ocean for effective operation of OTEC Jul 2012 Jul 2012 © 2012 UPES
  39. 39. Advantages It is pollution free It is renewable It is continuously available source of energy in coastal regions. It produces large amount of energy that can be harnessed easily with suitable technology Coastal areas and islands can become self sufficient for their energy requirements. Jul 2012 Jul 2012 © 2012 UPES
  40. 40. Limitations and Environmental Impacts Oceanic plants can cause disruption in navigation May cause harm to sea flora and fauna in sensitive ecosystems and interfere with fisheries in coastal regions. These are costly projects Sea storms can harm equipments completely. A tidal power station at the mouth of the river blocks the flow of polluted water into the sea, which may create health hazards in the estuary. The residual drift current could effect the spawning of some fish and the migratory patterns od surface swimming fish. Jul 2012 Jul 2012 © 2012 UPES
  41. 41. Biomass is plant and animal material that can be used for energy. This includes using wood from trees, waste from other plants (for example, bagasse from sugar cane) and manure from livestock. Biomass can be used to generate electricity, light, heat, motion and fuel.Converting biomass energy into useable energy has many environmental benefits. It uses waste materials that are usually dumped, and uses up methane (a greenhouse gas).Fuels such as ethanol can be made from biomass and used as an alternative to petrol to power motor cars.All plant and animal matter is called biomass. It is the mass of biological matter on earth. We can get (biomass) energy: Jul 2012 Jul 2012 © 2012 UPES
  42. 42. We can get (biomass) energy: Directly from plants, for example burning wood for cooking and heating. Indirectly from plants, for example turning it into a liquid (alcohol such as ethanol) or gas (biogas) fuel. Indirectly from animal waste, for example biogas (mainly methane gas) from sewage and manure. Jul 2012 Jul 2012 © 2012 UPES
  43. 43. Most of these use waste products from agriculture, so they solve a waste disposal problem and, at the same time, create energy for use in homes, farms and factories.Biogas can also be produced from livestock manure and human sewage. Farms where animals graze and sewage plants are ideal places to produce energy from biogas.Waste peelings from food processing plants can also be used to produce biogas.An example of agricultural waste being used to produce electricity is the recent Mackay Sugar Cooperative Association bagasse project.Bagasse (solid waste from sugar production) from four mills will be processed and used instead of coal to produce electricity. Jul 2012 Jul 2012 © 2012 UPES
  44. 44. Limitations and Environmental effects Fuelwood is obtained mostly from forests and has, thus, played a major role in causing deforestation. Its use produces smoke, carbon dioxide and other gaseous polutants that harm our environment. Jul 2012 Jul 2012 © 2012 UPES
  45. 45. Geo = earthThermal = heatGeothermal energy uses heat energy from beneath the surface of the earth.The deep molten rock of earth’s crust is called “magma”, which surfaces on some parts of earth’s crust.The heat rising from the magma heats underground pools of water called geothermal reservoirs or hotspots.Hot underground water may come to the surface through an opening to form hot springs, or it may boil to form geysers. Jul 2012 Jul 2012 © 2012 UPES
  46. 46. Hot water stream coming out with pressure can be used to run turbines for generating electricityAltrenatively, holes can be drilled inside the earth’s hotspots through which water can be pumped in and the steam so generated comes out from another hole.The pressure of this stream can be used to run turbines for generating power.In 20th century, geothermal energy has been harnessed on a large scale for space heating, industrial use and power generation especially in Iceland, Japan and New Zealand. Jul 2012 Jul 2012 © 2012 UPES
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  49. 49. Jul 2012 Jul 2012 © 2012 UPES
  50. 50. Jul 2012 Jul 2012 © 2012 UPES
  51. 51. Jul 2012 Jul 2012 © 2012 UPES
  52. 52. Advantages It is non polluting, stable and renewable source of energy Its is as cheap as hydropower It is independent of weather and can meet the energy demands of certain regions having geothermal reservoirs. Jul 2012 Jul 2012 © 2012 UPES
  53. 53. Limitations It is available only in selected regions Its prospects are still to be explored, assessed and investigated, that require lots of funds for drilling Water from geothermal reservoirs often contains minerals that are corrosive and polluting Geothermal fluids are a problem which must be treated before disposal. Jul 2012 Jul 2012 © 2012 UPES
  54. 54. Jul 2012 Jul 2012 © 2012 UPES
  55. 55. NON-RENEWABLE SOURCES OF ENERGY  This form of energy can not replenished naturally in short span of time.  Nonrenewable energy sources come out of the ground as liquids, gases and solids. Right now, crude oil (petroleum) is the only naturally liquid commercial fossil fuel.  Natural gas and propane are normally gases, and coal is a solid. Coal, petroleum, natural gas, and propane are all considered fossil fuels because they formed from the buried remains of plants and animals that lived millions of years ago.  Uranium ore, a solid, is mined and converted to a fuel.  Uranium is not a fossil fuel. Jul 2012 Jul 2012 © 2012 UPES
  56. 56. COAL It is hydrocarbon having high calorific value. It is a fossil fuel formed over millions of years from decomposing plants. Based on the calorific value, various types of coal are:Peat (20-30 % calorific value)Lignite (30-50 % calorific value)Bituminous (60-70 % calorific value)Anthracite (80-90 % calorific value) Methods of harnessingPower GenerationSynthetic Natural Gas ( combination of CO and Hydrogen) Jul 2012 Jul 2012 © 2012 UPES
  57. 57. Limitations and Environmental Effects  Mining and transportation of coal is costly  Burning of cola produces large quantity of ash  A 200MW power plant emits 1800kg CO, 730 kg HC, 730kg NO, 140 ton of Sulphur dioxide  Oxides of sulphur and nitrogen cause acid rain  Fly ash, unburnt fuel particles, and some metal oxides are also thrown in the atmosphere  Thermal power plants produce hot water which causes thermal pollution Jul 2012 Jul 2012 © 2012 UPES
  58. 58. PETROLEUM Petroleum, or crude oil, is formed in a similar way to coal. But instead of becoming a rock, it became a liquid trapped between layers of rocks. It is a dark brown viscous liquid containing hydrocarbons. It is purified and refined in oil refineries by fractional distillation to obtain petrol, diesel, petroleum gas, kerosene, wax etc. These products are used in homes for heating and cooking and in factories as a source of energy. Jul 2012 Jul 2012 © 2012 UPES
  59. 59. Advantages  Main fuel for transport vehicles, aeroplanes  It is cleaner fuel as compared to coal having no solid wastes except smoke particles  It is easier to transport as compared to coal Jul 2012 Jul 2012 © 2012 UPES
  60. 60. Limitations and Environmental Effects  Its reserves are limited.  Automobile exhaust is the main source of air pollution  Oil spills from oil wells and oil ships cause death of flora and fauna of water bodies.  Oil refineries cause thermal pollution and other types of pollution  The processes of oil drilling, processing, transport and utilization have serious environmental effects. Accidental fires can go on burning for days or weeks. Jul 2012 Jul 2012 © 2012 UPES
  61. 61.  Gas is made in the same way as petroleum and is also trapped between layers of rock. Natural gas is tapped, compressed and piped into homes to be used in stoves and hot water systems. LPG (Liquefied Petroleum Gas) is made from crude oil. It is used for cooking and heating in homes, industrial heating in boilers, kilns and furnaces, and for camping and caravanning appliances. LPG can also be used as an alternative to petrol as an engine and transport fuel. Using LPG reduces greenhouse gas emissions from a vehicle by up to 20 per cent. Jul 2012 Jul 2012 © 2012 UPES
  62. 62.  It is clean source of energy causing very little pollution CNG is used in vehicles. It has greatly reduced pollution in delhi Natural gas is used as industrial raw material in petrochemical industry, fertilizer plants etc. Jul 2012 Jul 2012 © 2012 UPES
  63. 63.  It has limited reserves in the world. Gas leakage can cause accidents as it is highly flammable. Carbon dioxide produces due to burning of fuel causes global warming Jul 2012 Jul 2012 © 2012 UPES
  64. 64.  Nuclear energy is the energy released when atoms are either split or joined together. A mineral called uranium is needed for this process. Heat energy and steam produced can drive an electricity generator in a power station, or provide direct mechanical power in a ship or submarine. Nuclear fission was first discovered by German scientists Otto Hahn and Fritz Strassman (1938) First nuclear power plant became operational in 1957 in Pennsylvania, USA Jul 2012 Jul 2012 © 2012 UPES
  65. 65.  It is a clean source of energy Small amount of fuel can generate large amount of energy Nuclear fuel can be used for marine vessels, space crafts and for heat generation in chemical processing plants. Jul 2012 Jul 2012 © 2012 UPES
  66. 66.  Produces hazardous radioactive waste causing radioactive pollution Nuclear power plant accidents cause disasters eg. Chernobyl disaster Uranium reserves are limited High costs of operation, waste disposal and decommissioning of old plants. Jul 2012 Jul 2012 © 2012 UPES
  67. 67. Energy conservation should be considered from different aspects as follows:1. Efficiency in Production of energy2. Efficiency in transportation3. Efficiency in Utilization of Energy Jul 2012 Jul 2012 © 2012 UPES
  68. 68.  Production of crude oil in India is 32 million tonnes/yr. Oil companies should increase their exploratory drilling operations to discover more oil reserves in the country. Afforestation, reforestation, social forestry, agroforestry should be promoted to decrease pollution and get more fuel wood to meet the demands of rural people. Harnessing of solar energy should be bossted. Tapping of free non conventional sources of energy like wind, tidal, hydel, geothermal energy will help conserve fossil fuels for future. Reorganization of old coal mines, techniques of development of new mines can boost coal production Jul 2012 Jul 2012 © 2012 UPES
  69. 69.  Wide, smooth and multilane roads can decrease oil consumption and reduce air and noise pollution More use of public conveyance will decrease oil consumption. Engines should be kept in a good working order by regular servicing Use of cycles and rikshaws for short distances saves oil. Continuous improvement in fuel efficiency of automobiles. Solar battery cars development to provide pollution fee and noise free environment. Jul 2012 Jul 2012 © 2012 UPES
  70. 70.  Protection of oil installations from fire will prevent the wastage and damage of property and life. Encouraging the use of biogas instead of biomass can save energy and environment from pollution. Using efficient and smokeless chullas will save fuelwood and reduce air pollution. Wastage of electricity should be avoided. Using cycles and rickshaws for short distances. Use of fuel efficient irrigation pumps. Use of energy efficient appliances and lights. Use of solar -cooker, heaters and cells Education on needs and modes of energy saving Control of population growth will reduce utilization of energy. Jul 2012 Jul 2012 © 2012 UPES

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