References

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References

  1. 1. STYLE MANUAL CENTER FOR PROFESSIONAL COMMUNICATION COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING STUDIES UNIVERSITY OF PETROLEUM AND ENERGY STUDIES
  2. 2. STYLE MANUAL • Is a technical term that describes the techniques of formatting the references quoted for research. • A standard format excepted world wide • Technique involves Source Area of concern Author Documentation CENTER FOR PROFESSIONAL COMMUNICATION Monday, January 27, 2014 2
  3. 3. SIGNIFICANCE OF CITATION • To give due consideration and credit to the source of References. • Citations give weightage to the area of research. • To stop moral and ethical hacking of thoughts and ideas not ones own. • Citations justify the research field and methodology. • To prevent and stop plagiarism CENTER FOR PROFESSIONAL COMMUNICATION Monday, January 27, 2014 3
  4. 4. METHODS There are four different methods or styles of documentation of sources followed word wide • MLA (Modern Language Association) • APA (American Psychological organization) • Chicago • Harvard The MLA and APA styles are globally accepted.  MLA 7th edition is currently in use CENTER FOR PROFESSIONAL COMMUNICATION Monday, January 27, 2014 4
  5. 5. CATEGORIZATION OF STYLE MANUALS Categorization of style manual in a research are termed as • References/ End notes • Foot notes • Bibliography • Parenthetical citations (for identifying the above categories in the text) NOTE: The reference, end notes and bibliography are cited after the text. Foot note appears at the bottom of each page and the parenthetical citation are put in parenthesis in the text that is quoted. CENTER FOR PROFESSIONAL COMMUNICATION Monday, January 27, 2014 5
  6. 6. Foot note • A footnote is a note of reference or comment written at the bottom of the page. It serves the following purposes: • Indicates the source of a fact, opinion or quotation • Explains unfamiliar or difficult terms • Elucidates, elaborates or validates an idea or point • Provides additional data, makes acknowledgements Method • Name of the author [in normal order], book title, edition, location of publisher, publishing co. year of publication, page no. • H.C.Perkin, Air Pollution: Its origin and control, New York: McGraw Hill,1974,pg.42-69 • S.P.Kumar,”Effects of air pollution", The Hindu, Jan 29,2002 CENTER FOR PROFESSIONAL COMMUNICATION Monday, January 27, 2014 6
  7. 7. END NOTE • The other name of end note is reference. • End note is seldom used current as practice. For citation reference is the advance term currently in use. CENTER FOR PROFESSIONAL COMMUNICATION Monday, January 27, 2014 7
  8. 8. PARENTHETICAL CITATIONS • These are citations referred within parenthesis after the end of the quotation or reference cited. • Parenthetical citations are kept after the full stop, bearing surname. Page number • It marks the chronological description of references in any research paper, dissertation and thesis. • If the author is unknown in such a case name of the work is quoted followed by period, then page number. CENTER FOR PROFESSIONAL COMMUNICATION Monday, January 27, 2014 8
  9. 9. REFERENCE • Indicates the exact location of sources of information used in the text of any paper/ article/ journal/ dissertation/thesis. • Follows a chronological order as per the reference cited in the mentioned categories of documentation. • In article, journal and research papers its only references and no bibliography whereas dissertation and thesis contains both references and bibliography. CENTER FOR PROFESSIONAL COMMUNICATION Monday, January 27, 2014 9
  10. 10. BIBLIOGRAPHY • List of all the books cited in any research • Documented at the end of the research and dissertation • Follows an alphabetical order than a chronological order • Includes primary and secondary sources • There are two types of bibliographic source of entry • Primary source • Secondary source CENTER FOR PROFESSIONAL COMMUNICATION Monday, January 27, 2014 10
  11. 11. EXAMPLES BOOKS  one author Hillman, Richard. Shakespeare, Marlowe, and the Politics of France. New York: Palgrave, 2002. Print.  two authors Hand, Richard J. and Michael Wilson. Grand-Guignol: the French Theatre of Horror. Exeter: University of Exeter Press, 2002. Print.  three authors Cargill, Oscar, William Charvat, and Donald D. Walsh. The Publication of Academic Writing. New York: Modern Language Association, 1966. Print.  more than three authors Howe, Louise, et al. How to Stay Younger while Growing Older: Aging for all Ages. London: Macmillan, 1982. Print. CENTER FOR PROFESSIONAL COMMUNICATION Monday, January 27, 2014 11
  12. 12.  no author given The Chicago Manual of Style. 15th ed. Chicago: U of Chicago Press, 2003. Print.  an editor or compiler as “author” Updike, John, comp. and ed. The Best American Short Stories of the Century. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1999. Print.  an edition of an author’s work Shakespeare, William. A Midsummer Night's Dream. Ed. R.A. Foakes. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 2003. Print.  a work in several volumes Gardner, Stanley E. The Artifice of Design. New York: Hill & Wang, 1962. Print. Vol. 2 of A History of American Architecture. 5 vols. 1960-64. CENTER FOR PROFESSIONAL COMMUNICATION Monday, January 27, 2014 12
  13. 13. ARTICLES  periodical Issues paginated continuously throughout the volume Loesberg, Jonathan. “Dickensian Deformed Children and the Hegelian Sublime.” Victorian Studies 40 (1997): 625-54. Print. Each issue starts with page 1 Wilkin, Karen. “A Degas Double-header.” New Criterion 17.1 (Sept. 1998): 35-41. Print.  newspaper Jonas, Jack. “A Visit to a Land of Many Facets.” Washington Star 5 Mar. 1961, Eastern ed., sec. F: 4. Print.  magazine Funicello, Dori. “Portugal’s Reign of Terror.” National Review 19 Aug. 1999: 3437. Print. CENTER FOR PROFESSIONAL COMMUNICATION Monday, January 27, 2014 13
  14. 14.  paper published as part of the proceedings of a conference Aytür, Necla. “Faulkner in Turkish.” William Faulkner: Prevailing Verities and World Literature. Proceedings of the 6th Comparative Literature Symposium, January 24 -26, 1973. Ed. Wolodymyr T. Zyla and Wendell M. Aycock. Lubbock, TX: Interdepartmental Committee on Comparative Literature, Texas Tech U, 1973. 25-39. Print. DISSERTATION  published Carlson, William Robert. Dialectic and Rhetoric in Pierre Bayle. Diss. Yale U, 1973. New York: Macmillan, 1977. Print.  unpublished Carlson, William Robert. “Dialectic and Rhetoric in Pierre Bayle.” Diss. Yale U, 1973. Print.  a dissertation abstract Lydic, David Lynn. “Relational Mapping as a Measure of Writing Ability in College Freshmen.” Diss. U of Texas at Austin, 1988. DAI 49 (1988): item 1395A. Print. CENTER FOR PROFESSIONAL COMMUNICATION Monday, January 27, 2014 14

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