© 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.
Chapter 9 Lecture
World Regional
Geography
A Developmental Approach
11th Edition
South Asia
© 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.
Chapter Learning Outcomes
• Describe the climate characteristics that explain the influence...
© 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.
Map
© 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.
South Asia’s Physical & Human Contexts
• Monsoon climate
• Flat topography with elevated fe...
© 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.
Population Distribution of South Asia
© 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.
Summer Rainfall Amounts
© 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.
Winter Rainfall Amounts
© 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.
South Asia Religions
© 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.
Mountains and Monsoons
• Monsoon climate
• Different climate in each of the three
subregion...
© 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.
Environmental Challenges
• Air pollution is the most serious atmospheric
environmental prob...
© 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.
The Indo-Gangetic Plain
• Annual precipitation levels increase west
to east.
• Much of Indu...
© 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.
The Precolonial Heritage
• Greater cultural diversity than China
• Subjected to numerous ex...
© 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.
The Spread of Islam
• Most powerful of all Islamic empires was
Mughal Empire—sixteenth and ...
© 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.
The Colonial Transformation
• Early British influence
– British East India Company
– Indire...
© 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.
The British Empire in India
© 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.
South Asia Languages
© 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.
India Population
• More than one billion people
• Second most populous country in the world...
© 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.
Population Growth of India
© 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.
Political Units of India
© 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.
India Diversity
• Created as a secular state
• Religion has become a predominant
political ...
© 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.
Casteism
• The caste system has been questioned for
centuries, although seriously contestin...
© 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.
Agricultural Regions of India
© 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.
Agricultural Development in India
• 62 percent of population engaged in some form of
agricu...
© 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.
Agricultural Development in India
• Sources of rural poverty are many.
– Lack of health acc...
© 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.
Primary Mineral and Industrial Regions of
South Asia
© 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.
India’s Industrial Economy
• Strong railroad system
• Strong industrial resource base
• Fos...
© 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.
India’s Industrial Regions
• Diversified industrial sector is emerging—Damodar Valley
• Mum...
© 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.
Urban India, 1901–2011
© 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.
Urban India
• Stark contrasts between urban and rural world
• Prosperity gap has widened in...
© 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.
India’s Urban Poor
• First- and second-generation rural-to-urban
migrants see the city as a...
© 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.
Pakistan
• Created in 1947
• 96 percent Islamic
• A west and east formed
– West—Closer to t...
© 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.
Nepal
• Landlocked country
• Physical and cultural transition between Tibet in north and
In...
© 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.
Bangladesh
• Formerly East Pakistan after 1971 civil war
• Great cyclone in 1971 resulted i...
© 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.
Land Utilization in Bangladesh
© 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.
Sri Lanka
© 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.
Sri Lanka
• 20 million population
– 74 percent Singhalese
– Tamil-speaking Hindus for the r...
© 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.
Summary of Chapter
• South Asia is one of the most culturally diverse in terms of religion,...
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GEOG103 Chapter 9 Lecture

  1. 1. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 9 Lecture World Regional Geography A Developmental Approach 11th Edition South Asia
  2. 2. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter Learning Outcomes • Describe the climate characteristics that explain the influence of wet and dry monsoons. • Identify the region’s primary environmental and energy challenges. • Explain how historical movements of peoples and cultures resulted in South Asia’s current cultural conflicts. • Link British colonial rule to the current economic contours of South Asia. • Identify social and economic forces that reinforce gender inequality in India. • Describe how the process of globalization affects the lives of India’s poor rural population. • Compare India’s urban-industrial regions and link their development to globalization and the government’s economic policies since 1990. • Contrast the political and economic constraints to greater levels of economic development in Pakistan, Nepal, Bangladesh, and Sri Lanka.
  3. 3. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Map
  4. 4. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. South Asia’s Physical & Human Contexts • Monsoon climate • Flat topography with elevated features on its edge • Hinduism • Islam introduced through invasions • Transformation through British imperialism • Post-World War II independence • Annual precipitation levels increase west to east • Much of Indus plain is arid. • Humid Bangladesh characterized by semideciduous and tropical rainforest vegetation • Water supply is seasonal. • Summer or west monsoon provides 85 percent of annual rainfall totals.
  5. 5. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Population Distribution of South Asia
  6. 6. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Summer Rainfall Amounts
  7. 7. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Winter Rainfall Amounts
  8. 8. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. South Asia Religions
  9. 9. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Mountains and Monsoons • Monsoon climate • Different climate in each of the three subregions of Asia • Mountain-induced orographic precipitation • Late southwestern monsoon season sometimes includes cyclones. • Landforms – Indo-Gangetic Plain – Deccan Plateau (Southern India)
  10. 10. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Environmental Challenges • Air pollution is the most serious atmospheric environmental problem, particularly across the northern part of the region. • Sustainable water is the most serious challenge to economic and social development. • India’s thirst for power generation has initiated plans for a number of upstream dam projects to generate hydroelectric power.
  11. 11. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. The Indo-Gangetic Plain • Annual precipitation levels increase west to east. • Much of Indus plain is arid. • Humid Bangladesh characterized by semideciduous and tropical rainforest vegetation • Water supply is seasonal. • Summer or west monsoon provides 85% of annual rainfall totals.
  12. 12. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. The Precolonial Heritage • Greater cultural diversity than China • Subjected to numerous external influences from the west • Early civilizations in Indus River region • 2000 BC—Aryans invasion produced a mixed Indo-Aryan civilization. • Indo-Aryans introduced Hinduism and the caste system.
  13. 13. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. The Spread of Islam • Most powerful of all Islamic empires was Mughal Empire—sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. • Lahore became one of the most celebrated Islamic cities of the world. • Islam especially attractive to untouchables and Hindus of lower caste • Rejection of caste system produced the blended Hindu and Islamic religion of Sikhism. • Islam was highly doctrinaire and closely associated with a nomadic conquering culture.
  14. 14. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. The Colonial Transformation • Early British influence – British East India Company – Indirectly came to control up to two-thirds of country – Replaced native administration – Took actions to decimate textile industry in nineteenth century • By 1900s, South Asia was a total colonial possession. – Economic contours totally altered – Industrial development slow-paced
  15. 15. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. The British Empire in India
  16. 16. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. South Asia Languages
  17. 17. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. India Population • More than one billion people • Second most populous country in the world • Population growth rate double that of China • Quadrupled in past 85 years • Three-fourths live in rural villages • Changing age structure • Growth rates vary between ethnic, religious, and caste groups. • In general, Hindus have fewer children than Muslims. • Unequal gender relationships • Heading toward stage three of demographic transformation model
  18. 18. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Population Growth of India
  19. 19. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Political Units of India
  20. 20. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. India Diversity • Created as a secular state • Religion has become a predominant political issue relating to castes. • Rise of Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) – Conservative – Hindu-based • Federalism as a political structure • Hindi—Official language and most widely spoken
  21. 21. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Casteism • The caste system has been questioned for centuries, although seriously contesting the unfair nature of casteism first began under British rule by both Christian missionaries and concerned upper-caste Indians. • Despite laws against discrimination by caste, the institution remains pervasive, particularly in rural areas where scheduled castes experience residential and educational segregation, lack access to public water wells, and are barred from entering certain Hindu temples.
  22. 22. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Agricultural Regions of India
  23. 23. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Agricultural Development in India • 62 percent of population engaged in some form of agricultural pursuits. • 65 percent in rural villages and small towns • Spatial distribution determined by availability of water. • Heavy reliance on livestock • Various dairy products • Cattle are primary source of power for plowing and short-distance transport.
  24. 24. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Agricultural Development in India • Sources of rural poverty are many. – Lack of health access and other social services – Lack of meaningful land reform – Average size of household plot is 6.5 acres. – Negative impact of Green Revolution – Negative impact of government economic policies – Technology impact – Hasn’t solved problems – Has exacerbated economic inequalities
  25. 25. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Primary Mineral and Industrial Regions of South Asia
  26. 26. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. India’s Industrial Economy • Strong railroad system • Strong industrial resource base • Fossil fuels can adequately power the industrial base. • Iron ore counts for 6 percent of world production and 5 percent of world reserves. • Government has constructed hydroelectric facilities to make up for shortages in commercial energy. • Carefully planned economy by government
  27. 27. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. India’s Industrial Regions • Diversified industrial sector is emerging—Damodar Valley • Mumbai is the second most important industrial region. – Cotton textile manufacturing – Automobile production – Aircraft – Pharmaceuticals – Plastics – Chemicals • Bangalore—“Silicon Valley of India” – Texas Instruments – IBM – Compaq – Other computer software firms
  28. 28. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Urban India, 1901–2011
  29. 29. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Urban India • Stark contrasts between urban and rural world • Prosperity gap has widened in the postindustrial economy. • Greater levels of rural-to-urban migration • Stream of urban migrants has exceeded urban employment opportunities. • Urbanization levels low into the mid-twentieth century • Growth indicators – Rural-to-urban migration – Natural increase of urban population • Most population growth in large cities • Thirty-five cities with more than 1 million population • Some are megacities, but not “world cities” – Delhi—17.3 million – Mumbai—17.3 million – Kolkata—14.3 million – Insufficient finance, transport, and telecommunications
  30. 30. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. India’s Urban Poor • First- and second-generation rural-to-urban migrants see the city as a place for greater economic opportunity. • Lack of adequate income to secure durable housing • Some in substandard housing • Bustec— “Village in a city” – Squatter dwellings – Dirt floors – Electricity, sewage, and water rare
  31. 31. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Pakistan • Created in 1947 • 96 percent Islamic • A west and east formed – West—Closer to the West – East—Closer to southeast Asia – Tenuous from the beginning – East gained independence in 1971 (renamed Bangladesh). • Tensions with India – Jammu and Kashmir – Joint nuclear ambitions • Post-9/11/2001 relationship with United States in al Qaeda fight • Continues to rank as one of the world’s poorest countries • One of the larger debtor nations • Agriculture based on wheat, rice, leather products, and carpets • Located in transitional location between Islamic Middle East and Hindu India • “Dysfunctional country with little evidence of a civil society”
  32. 32. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Nepal • Landlocked country • Physical and cultural transition between Tibet in north and India to south • Most populated part is central foothills—Kathmandu Valley • Worldwide success in marketing its natural and cultural heritage – Adventure tourism – Tourism industry creates substantial domestic employment opportunities. • 90 percent involved in subsistence agriculture • Exacerbated demands on women in economy
  33. 33. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Bangladesh • Formerly East Pakistan after 1971 civil war • Great cyclone in 1971 resulted in a sharply reduced agriculture economy. • Economy rests almost completely on agriculture. • Poorly developed industrial economy • Relatively stable government • Child labor is widespread. • Half the rural population is landless. • High illiteracy
  34. 34. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Land Utilization in Bangladesh
  35. 35. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Sri Lanka
  36. 36. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Sri Lanka • 20 million population – 74 percent Singhalese – Tamil-speaking Hindus for the rest – Cultural conflict • Gained independence from British in 1948 • Changed name from Ceylon in 1972 • Government programs have significantly improved life. • Some social indicators on par with developed countries • Exports count for about one-third of the economy.
  37. 37. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Summary of Chapter • South Asia is one of the most culturally diverse in terms of religion, ethnicity, and language, all of which are a byproduct of centuries of migration into the region. • Relatively high population growth rates hamper economic and social development, but are not the cause of poverty. • The absence of economic opportunities in agriculture has led to substantial rural-to-urban migration and this movement in part explains the growth of some of the largest urban regions in the world. • In India, the unequal spread of the benefits of globalization only exacerbates these income inequalities as capital-intensive information industries rather than more traditional and labor-intensive, export-based consumer product industries have captured the overwhelming attention of state and national governments. • Equally critical to development growth is the future state of South Asia’s environment. In part explained by the rapid growth of population, South Asia’s dwindling water resources pose serious problems to agricultural and industrial development.

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