GEOG103 Chapter 7 Lecture


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GEOG103 Chapter 7 Lecture

  1. 1. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 7 Lecture World Regional Geography A Developmental Approach 11th Edition The Middle East and North Africa
  2. 2. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter Learning Outcomes • Explain the role that aridity and water availability play in the Middle East and North Africa. • Identify the different types of water resources accessible in the region. • Contrast the region’s different types of agriculture and herding activities. • Account for the crossroads location of the region and the resulting cultural mosaic. • Outline the significance of the Atlas Mountains for the development options of the Maghreb. • Explore the motivations behind the uprisings of the “Arab Spring.” • Compare Egypt’s role in North Africa to Saudi Arabia’s role in the Middle East. • Analyze Turkey’s unique potential in the region as a bridge between East and West. • Describe how oil wealth or its absence influences the course of development in individual countries. • Characterize the persistent conflicts in the region that are impeding cooperation and development.
  3. 3. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Map
  4. 4. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Landforms • Mountain ranges and upland plateaus provide a basis for livelihood and economy. • Highlands are key. – They stand across the paths of the frontal or cyclonic storms that pass through and force moisture-bearing air masses to rise, cool, and produce precipitation – Originally, the uplands supported large forests that provide building materials for the cities and fleets of the coastal states. – They have supported substantial sedentary agriculture throughout recorded history.
  5. 5. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Regional Characteristics • Stretches from Atlantic Ocean to Persian Gulf and lands bordering Monsoon Asia • Distinctive region composed of the Mediterranean and Persian Gulf countries, characterized as much by the unifying bonds of Islam and Arab culture as by deep internal contrasts and severe conflicts • One of Earth’s most distinctive geographical regions – Aridity • Vegetation cannot be supported. • Extensive areas of barren rock, gravel, or sand • Supports few people – Common Islamic cultural heritage
  6. 6. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Climate • Dry, summer-like subtropical climate with less than 20 inches of rainfall • Winter rainfall throughout the Mediterranean Basin is produced by frontal or cyclonic storms. • Orographic precipitation – Mountain produced – Rainshadow effect
  7. 7. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Climate
  8. 8. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Rainshadow effect, Oases, Aquifers • Rainshadow effect – Mountain barriers trap moisture on their windward sides. – The interior or leeward sides are much drier. – This effect is caused by descending, drying air masses. • Oases – “Islands of life”—Located deep within the desert where erosion has lowered the land surface – A relatively high groundwater table results in water existing close to the surface. • Aquifers – Near-surface groundwater is often recharged by rainfall aquifers outside the desert. – Lateral movement of subterranean recharge water is always very slow.
  9. 9. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. History • Common meeting ground linking Europe, Sub-Saharan Africa, and Asia • Crossroads location • Primarily inhabited by Arabs – 400 million people – Shared language – Many dialects – Highly variant politics • Other ethnicities – Turks—One of two largest non-Arab groups – Persians—One of two largest non-Arab groups – Kurds—SE Turkey, NE Iraq, NW border of Iran, Syria, Armenia, and Azerbaijan – Berbers – Nilo-Hamitic – Jews—Primarily in Israel
  10. 10. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Ethnicity • More than 50 percent of the area is composed of Arabs (single largest ethnic group in the region). • Turks and Persians are the two largest non-Arab groups. • Turks – Turkey – Important ethnic community elsewhere in the region and in Europe • Persians—Iran • Kurds – About 20 percent of Turkish population – Split among several adjoining countries—Syria, Turkey, and Iraq – Sometimes referred to as “Kurdistan” • Jews—Concentrated in the state of Israel (76 percent of the population) • Berbers—Concentrated in North African mountain districts or in Central Sahara
  11. 11. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Ethnicity
  12. 12. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Religion and Secularism • Islam is the dominant religion. – Sunni (orthodox) Muslims – Shi’ite Muslims – Sharia—Islamic Law • Judaism – Primarily in Israel – Communities elsewhere • Christianity – Coptic Christians in parts of Egypt – Christian minorities in Lebanon
  13. 13. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Religion
  14. 14. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Population Contours
  15. 15. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Land Use in the Middle East and North Africa
  16. 16. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Agriculture • Dry farming • Reliance on rainfall to produce crops – Coastal plain of Rabat in Morocco – High Plateau of Algeria – Anatolian Plateau of Turkey – Steppe areas of Syria – Other portions of Fertile Crescent • Runaway farming – Collect water from a larger area – Concentrate in valley bottoms and on terraced slopes – Northern Negev of Israel • Irrigated farming along major rivers and in oases • Qanat system in Iran—irrigation innovation
  17. 17. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Animal Husbandry • The bulk of animal stock has been traditionally held by pastoral nomads. • Nomadic herding is encouraged by the spatial aridity of region. • Nomads bring animals to grass and water that is only available on a seasonal basis in each district. • Two major types of nomadic herders 1.Vertical 2.Horizontal
  18. 18. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Mineral Resources • Large number of minerals—Generally in small deposits – Chromite in Turkey – Mercury in Algeria – Phosphate exports in Morocco • Turkey is the only country in the region with sufficient domestic coal and iron ore reserves to support a broad economy. • Widespread occurrence of petroleum
  19. 19. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Urbanization • Sixty-five percent of the Middle East and North African population is urbanized. • Deep roots of urban living • Expansion around madina (urban core) • Higher level of urbanization than most other third-world countries • Grew rapidly in second half of twentieth century • Many large urban centers in the region – Cairo, Egypt – Tehran, Iran – Istanbul, Turkey • High rates of natural increase • High rate of rural to urban migration
  20. 20. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Traditional Islamic City
  21. 21. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Oil Production in the Mediterranean Crescent Countries
  22. 22. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Tunisia • Three-quarters of Tunisians live in the northern third of the country and Mediterranean coastal districts. • The population distribution mirrors the availability of water. Because rainfall is concentrated in the northern and coastal portions, the bulk of the population is located in a limited space.
  23. 23. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Libya • The vast majority of Libyans occupy two small pockets of land: the coastal plains and northern slopes of the Jabal Nafusah in Tripolitania and the coastal and mountain districts between Benghazi and Tobruk in Cyrenaica. • As in Tunisia, the population distribution mirrors the availability of water. Because rainfall is concentrated in the northern and coastal portions, the bulk of the population is located in a limited space.
  24. 24. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Morocco • As in Libya and Tunisia, the population distribution mirrors the availability of water. Because rainfall is concentrated in the northern and coastal portions, the bulk of the population is located in a limited space.
  25. 25. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Algeria • As in Libya, Tunisia, and Morocco, the population distribution mirrors the availability of water. Because rainfall is concentrated in the northern and coastal portions, the bulk of the population is located in a limited space.
  26. 26. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Egypt • Cairo and Alexandria are two of the largest cities in Africa. • Center of Muslim culture and tradition • Powerful political force • Employment opportunities vary with oil prices. • Limited resource base • Lack of water and suitable soils – Salinization – Aswan High Dam—Good and bad effects – The New Valley Project delivers water to areas without rainfall. – Jonglei Canal Project
  27. 27. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. The Arab Spring • Late 2010 and early 2011 • High hopes for change in government, society, and economy • In Tunisia and Egypt, regime change produced elections and various combinations of new parliaments and presidents. • The Libyan dictator was removed with the help of U.N. forces. • In Egypt in mid-2013, widespread anti-Muslim Brotherhood demonstrations prompted a military takeover and intensified violence.
  28. 28. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Turkey • End of World War I—End of Ottoman Empire • Revolution in 1920s led by Kemal Atatürk • Establishment of a secular state even though the population was overwhelmingly Islamic • Sufficient coal and iron ore resources to develop own heavy industry • Greater percentage of usable land than any other country in the region • Tourism and industry are major focal points. • Slowing population growth • Seeking entry into European Union
  29. 29. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Land Use in Turkey
  30. 30. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Syria • Natural resources • Agriculture • Small-scale mineral deposits • Sufficient petroleum • Rainfall in Central and North Syria supports dry farming. • Major capital investment in irrigation • Strategic element between Israel and Iran • Issues of 2013 and beyond
  31. 31. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Syrian Refugees of 2013
  32. 32. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Lebanon • Country perpetually in crisis • No firm agricultural base • Until the1970s, Beirut was a major financial center for the Arab world. • Mid-1970s—Civil conflict – Christian Lebanese – Islamic elements • Lebanon is often referred to as a puppet of Syria.
  33. 33. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Israel • Created in 1948 from the British mandate of Palestine • 1967 war—Obtained Palestinian lands • 1982—Invasion of Lebanon forced additional migration of Palestinians. • Relatively rich country in relatively poor part of the world – Highly educated populace – Technological sophistication • Unique characteristics – Kibbutz—a collective farm – Moshav—a smallholders’ village • Cultural conflict – Between other states—Palestinians, Syrians, and Islamic nongovernmental groups – Within the country—Middle Eastern Jews versus European Jews
  34. 34. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Israel
  35. 35. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Palestine • Arab population of former British mandate of Palestine • Long represented by the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) • Located in the West Bank and the Gaza Strip but with no real defined territory • Late 1993—The Oslo accord granted autonomy to the Gaza Strip and to the Jericho region of West Bank. • The establishment of the Palestinian authority Hamas during the election of 2006 put the state in political crisis.
  36. 36. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Jordan • Population composed of three elements – Palestinians • Pre-1948 Arab population • Bedouins • Originally created after World War I • Hashemite family member as ruler – Limited resource base – Significant land-use problems
  37. 37. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. The Countries of the Persian Gulf
  38. 38. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Saudi Arabia • Oil rich • Low population density • Arid • It is here that Mohammed first revealed himself as a prophet and launched the preaching mission that, by persuasion and conquest, came to control the region both spiritually and politically. • Here are the major centers of pilgrimage for Muslims: Mecca and Medina. • The Gulf States share many, often limiting, characteristics that are part of a similar geographic setting and shared history..
  39. 39. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Yemen • The Yemeni Republic is located at the southwestern to southern end of the Arabian Peninsula. • It is bordered by Saudi Arabia to the north, the Red Sea to the west, the Gulf of Aden and Arabian Sea to the south, and Oman to the east. • The majority of Yemen's population is divided into tribal groups. • The 2011 Yemeni revolution was initially against unemployment, economic conditions, and corruption. • It was also against the government's proposals to modify the constitution of Yemen so that the president’s son could inherit the presidency. • As seen before in Saudi Arabia, the Gulf States share many, often limiting, characteristics that are part of a similar geographic setting and shared history.
  40. 40. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Oman • The Sultanate of Oman is located on the southeast coast of the Arabian Peninsula. • At one time, Oman had its own empire and vied with Portugal and Britain for influence in the Persian Gulf and Indian Ocean. • In the 2011 protests, citizens demanded political reforms and jobs. • As seen before in Saudi Arabia and Yemen, the Gulf States share many, often limiting, characteristics that are part of a similar geographic setting and shared history.
  41. 41. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. United Arab Emirates • The United Arab Emirates is a federation of seven emirates. • Each emirate is governed by a hereditary emir who jointly form the Federal Supreme Council, which is the highest legislative and executive body in the country. • The constituent emirates are Abu Dhabi, Ajman, Dubai, Fujairah, Ras al-Khaimah, Sharjah, and Umm al-Quwain. • The capital is Abu Dhabi. • Major efforts are focused on creating twenty-first century tourist and business environments (such as Dubai) that will have global economic impact.
  42. 42. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Iraq • Three major zones 1. Desert 2. Land between Tigris and Euphrates Rivers 3. Mountainous northeast • Al-Jazirah dominates the central portion of Iraq. • Shatt al-Arab – Common channel – Flows the Tigris and Euphrates to the Persian Gulf • One-party/dictatorship rule from 1963 through 2002 • Instability after second Gulf War • Agriculture – Dependent on irrigation in northeastern mountains – Plans include dams for low-level zones • Minerals – Rich alluvial soils of Tigris and Euphrates floodplain – Oil • Marshes in Southeastern Iraq – Home to Marsh Arabs
  43. 43. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Kuwait • Modern urban center • The metropolitan area of Kuwait City contains 2.4 million of the country’s 2.9 million people. • As seen before, the Gulf States share many, often limiting, characteristics that are part of a similar geographic setting and shared history.
  44. 44. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Qatar • The State of Qatar is a sovereign Arab state located on the Qatar Peninsula of the Arabian Peninsula whose only border is with Saudi Arabia. • Qatar is an absolute monarchy. • It is considered a peaceful nation. • The Gulf States share many, often limiting, characteristics that are part of a similar geographic setting and shared history.
  45. 45. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Bahrain • The Kingdom of Bahrain is a small archipelago situated near the western shores of the Persian Gulf. • In 1971, Bahrain declared independence and signed a new treaty of friendship with the United Kingdom. • It had its own version of the Arab Spring in 2011 and still experiences minor conflicts. • The Gulf States share many, often limiting, characteristics that are part of a similar geographic setting and shared history.
  46. 46. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Iran • Pahlavi dynasty (1825–1979) – Western-oriented – Tried to promote social and economic modernization – White revolution – Resisted by religious leaders (mullahs) – Secret police (SAVAK) dreaded • Establishment of theocracy – The monarchy collapsed and the Shah was ousted in 1979. – Khomeini returns from Paris as the supreme leader of the new Islamic Republic of Iran. – Seizure of U.S. embassy in November 1979 – The Khatami election in 1997 was originally thought to bring social reform. – Conservatives resisted, and the Ahmadinejad election in 2005 cemented their control of society. • The physical environment resembles a traditional donut. – Raised areas – Central hole surrounding • Mountain ranges in West • North and west is desert. • The bulk of the population is concentrated in valleys, interior basins, and coastal plains.
  47. 47. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Land Use of Iran
  48. 48. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Problems of the Gulf States • Limited minerals – Only hydrocarbons are available in abundance. – Other minerals are nonexistent or in insufficient quantity for mining. • Limited agriculture – Extremely limited water supplies – Only Iraq and Iran are suitable for cultivation. – In other areas, slopes are too steep or rainfall is too limited for nonirrigated agriculture. – The traditional qanat system used to tap deep groundwater originated in Iran.
  49. 49. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Gulf States / Weak Urban Traditions • Weak urban traditions – Focus on traditional livelihoods – Oasis agriculture – Rain-fed farming – Pastoral nomadism • Therefore, educational and technological sophistication is generally weak in urban areas. • Serious consequences – Requires immigration to fill specialized jobs – Threat to local culture
  50. 50. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Gulf States / Limited Resources • Low population density – In general, a small total population – Exceptions • Iran • Iraq • Saudi Arabia – Density is concentrated in small, highly productive zones.
  51. 51. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Gulf States / Oil • Changing power relationships • Oil revenues: – are used to purchase military hardware and equipment – fund controversial research and development (uranium enrichment) – Change the balance of power in the region
  52. 52. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Gulf States / Religion • Prominence of religion – Islam – Particularly pervasive role, socially and culturally – Mecca is located in Saudi Arabia.
  53. 53. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Gulf States / International Relationships • Oil—Key resource for the industrial and post- industrial economy – Gulf Cooperation Council – Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) • Islamic fundamentalism – Iran – Saudi Arabia (support for Wahabbism) – Other states • Kurdish independence movement • Changing social conditions • Internal reactions to globalization
  54. 54. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Summary of Chapter • The Middle East and North Africa world region appears in popular image to be a sandy desert wasteland inhabited by one people, the Arabs, who are uniformly Muslim in religion. In reality, the region is environmentally diverse with considerable productive potential, and in these more productive zones, great population densities are found. • Aridity dominates almost all parts of the region and places severe constraints on all economic activity. • Despite economic progress, the stability and future of the Mediterranean Crescent countries are jeopardized by severe internal tensions. • More than one-third of the region’s population belongs to ethnic, linguistic, or religious minorities that are neither Arab nor Muslim. There is diversity that is unexpected. • Mediterranean Crescent countries have attained significant levels of economic development. • The petroleum economy has changed and continues to alter many features of the political, economic, and social fabric of the Gulf States. The challenge facing the Gulf States is how to harness petroleum wealth to promote the enduring development of their economies and societies.