© 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.
Chapter 5 Lecture
World Regional
Geography
A Developmental Approach
11th Edition
Northern
E...
© 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.
Chapter Learning Outcomes
• Outline how the opportunities and constraints of Northern Euras...
© 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.
The Map
© 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.
The Countries of Northern Eurasia
© 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.
The Countries of Northern Eurasia
© 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.
Countries of Northern Eurasia
• Russia
• Belarus
• Ukraine
• Georgia
• Armenia
• Azerbaijan
© 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.
Landforms
• West
– Immense Eurasian landmass
– No obstacles to movement of air masses or in...
© 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.
Natural Regions of Northern Eurasia
© 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.
Natural Regions
• Exceptionally large bands of essentially uniform
vegetation and natural r...
© 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.
Tundra, Permafrost, Taiga
• Tundra
– Region stretches across Russia’s Arctic shore.
– In pl...
© 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.
Steppe and Chernozem
• Steppe
– Areas below Baltic states
– Bordering Central Asia (dominat...
© 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.
Climate
• Formidable mountain systems
– Rise to the South in Central Asia and in the East
–...
© 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.
Agricultural Zones
© 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.
Environmental Challenges
• General pollution
• Disasters such as Chernobyl and
Chelyabinsk
...
© 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.
Chernobyl
• Major nuclear disaster
• A 30-km radius of Chernobyl, Ukraine was
abandoned.
• ...
© 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.
Natural Resources of Northern Eurasia
© 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.
Major Language Groups of Northern Eurasia
© 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.
Industrial Regions and Selected Cities
© 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.
Russian Empire
• Big in landmass, but backward in trade, technology, and modern culture
• T...
© 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.
Russia Through the Ages
© 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.
The U.S.S.R.
• Created as a result of 1917 revolution
• Bolsheviks, led by Lenin
• Initiall...
© 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.
Cold War U.S.S.R.
• East/West global divide
• Soviet “client states”
– Eastern Europe
– Cub...
© 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.
Gorbachev Reforms
• Attempts at “reform” within the Communist
system spurred by Gorbachev.
...
© 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.
Disintegration of the U.S.S.R.
• Attempt to retain some measure of union
through the creati...
© 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.
Breakup into Separate Countries
• The Russian Federation
• Ukraine
• Armenia
• Azerbaijan
•...
© 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.
Russia Today
• Created in 1991
• Wide swath of territory, ethnicities, cultures, and
langua...
© 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.
North Caucasus / Problems
© 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.
Ukraine
• Almost as big as Texas and larger than any country
in Europe
• Mostly consists of...
© 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.
Russia Influence in Ukraine
• Russians are the largest minority.
• Russian language is the ...
© 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.
Belarus
• Two-thirds as large as neighboring Poland
• About the size of Kansas
• Soviets sy...
© 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.
Armenia
• Nearly as large as Maryland
• Population of 3 million
• On a plateau with a dry, ...
© 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.
Azerbaijan
• Close in size to Armenia
• Population is predominantly Turkic
Muslim.
• Karaba...
© 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.
Georgia
• Approximately the same size as Belarus
and Armenia
• 2003 “Rose Revolution” ouste...
© 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.
Summary of Chapter
• The formidable physical conditions found in
Northern Eurasia and the r...
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GEOG103 Chapter 5 Lecture

  1. 1. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 5 Lecture World Regional Geography A Developmental Approach 11th Edition Northern Eurasia
  2. 2. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter Learning Outcomes • Outline how the opportunities and constraints of Northern Eurasia’s resources and environment affect development. • Describe how the history of Russia and the Soviet Union has shaped the context of development today. • Explain how the “transition” from Communism diverged from expectations and led to the current situation. • Account for the significance of “the power vertical” and “crony capitalism” in Northern Eurasian development. • Characterize Russia’s relationships with its neighbors and the rest of the world. • Understand Ukraine’s predicament, located between Europe and Russia and divided internally between east and west. • Identify the significance of oil and gas, both for the “haves” and the “have-nots.” • Explore the reasons why development is a spatially uneven process in which some areas excel, while others flounder.
  3. 3. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. The Map
  4. 4. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. The Countries of Northern Eurasia
  5. 5. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. The Countries of Northern Eurasia
  6. 6. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Countries of Northern Eurasia • Russia • Belarus • Ukraine • Georgia • Armenia • Azerbaijan
  7. 7. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Landforms • West – Immense Eurasian landmass – No obstacles to movement of air masses or intrusion of cold air from Arctic or Siberia – Ural Mountains • Up to a maximum of 6,250 feet in remote north • Rarely exceeds 5,000 feet in settled areas. – As a result, fairly uniform climatic conditions • South – Caucasus Mountains – Between Black and Caspian Seas and Transcaucasian lands to the South – Highly diverse • East – Rugged, eroded plateaus – River valleys – Most of the area east of the Yenisey River is isolated and inhospitable.
  8. 8. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Natural Regions of Northern Eurasia
  9. 9. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Natural Regions • Exceptionally large bands of essentially uniform vegetation and natural regions • Tundra • Taiga • Mixed forest • Deciduous broadleaf forest • Forest steppe • Steppe • Semidesert • Desert
  10. 10. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Tundra, Permafrost, Taiga • Tundra – Region stretches across Russia’s Arctic shore. – In places, extends southward to hundreds of miles in Siberia – No trees grow in the tundra because of the short growing season, infertile soil, and shallow active layer insufficient for tree roots. • Permafrost—Permanently frozen Earth • Taiga – Russian word for boreal forest – Northern forest dominated by conifers, which Russia has more than any other country. – Covers much of Northern Russia west of Urals – Most of Siberia
  11. 11. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Steppe and Chernozem • Steppe – Areas below Baltic states – Bordering Central Asia (dominates much of Kazakhstan) – South of mixed forest region – Low levels of variability of precipitation makes agriculture difficult. • Chernozem—“black earth” – Soil rich with organic matter – Appears as dark as compost
  12. 12. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Climate • Formidable mountain systems – Rise to the South in Central Asia and in the East – Blocks Pacific’s influence from all but a small area of the Russian Far East • High-latitude location – Little isolation in winter – Long days in summer • Great size of landmass – Stretches 6,200 miles (10,000 km) west to east – 1200 miles (2000 km) north to south • Region marked by long, relatively dry, and very cold winters and short, but surprisingly warm, summers.
  13. 13. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Agricultural Zones
  14. 14. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Environmental Challenges • General pollution • Disasters such as Chernobyl and Chelyabinsk • Oil pipelines and production • Natural gas production
  15. 15. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Chernobyl • Major nuclear disaster • A 30-km radius of Chernobyl, Ukraine was abandoned. • U.S.S.R. took 20 days to formally acknowledge the disaster.
  16. 16. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Natural Resources of Northern Eurasia
  17. 17. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Major Language Groups of Northern Eurasia
  18. 18. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Industrial Regions and Selected Cities
  19. 19. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Russian Empire • Big in landmass, but backward in trade, technology, and modern culture • Tsar—“Caesar” • Tsar Peter – Introduced new ideas and technology from the West – Retained fundamental principle of service to the state – Modernized the army – Created the navy – Canals and St. Petersburg • Catherine “the Great” – Nurtured arts and education – Did not allow ideas and technology from West to affect governance – Acquired land through conquest • Defeated in Crimean War in 1853 • Rural population more than doubled in 50 years. • Industrial work and living conditions were harsh. • 1860s—Embarked on Trans-Siberian Railway • 1905 revolution – Tsar allowed a Duma as a representative body. – But overcame through further repression and violence
  20. 20. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Russia Through the Ages
  21. 21. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. The U.S.S.R. • Created as a result of 1917 revolution • Bolsheviks, led by Lenin • Initially led to chaos • Leadership to be exercised by a hierarchy of “Soviets,” but was dominated by the Communist Party. • 1920s—New Economic Plan (NEP) • Stalin – Emphasized heavy industrial production – Control from the center by Great Russians (white Russians) – Fomented discontent amongst non-Russian ethnicities – Led U.S.S.R. through World War II
  22. 22. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Cold War U.S.S.R. • East/West global divide • Soviet “client states” – Eastern Europe – Cuba – Parts of Africa • Major production of “arms race”—Essentially made the U.S.S.R. go broke. • 1980s—Veneer begins to break. – Gorbachev brings new attitude. – Glasnost – Perestroika – A desire to preserve, not destroy, the U.S.S.R.
  23. 23. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Gorbachev Reforms • Attempts at “reform” within the Communist system spurred by Gorbachev. – Glasnost (openness) – Demokratia (democracy) – Perestroika (restructuring)
  24. 24. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Disintegration of the U.S.S.R. • Attempt to retain some measure of union through the creation of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) • Loose confederation • U.S.S.R. breaks up into over two dozen countries broken down along ethnic lines. • Some countries form unions with Russia afterward. • Some areas resist (Chechnya).
  25. 25. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Breakup into Separate Countries • The Russian Federation • Ukraine • Armenia • Azerbaijan • Belarus • Georgia • Kazakhstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, and Kyrgyzstan • Baltic states—Latvia, Estonia, and Lithuania • Moldova
  26. 26. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Russia Today • Created in 1991 • Wide swath of territory, ethnicities, cultures, and languages • Strong support from International Monetary Fund (IMF) – Slow recovery in mid-1990s – Crash in 1998 – Ruble devalued • Yeltsin is the first president. • Vladimir Putin is successor. – Not party affiliated; a party formulated around him. – There is some suggestion that he is moving Russia back toward autocratic rule. – Appointment of governors to maintain local control
  27. 27. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. North Caucasus / Problems
  28. 28. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Ukraine • Almost as big as Texas and larger than any country in Europe • Mostly consists of rolling steppe land with extremely fertile chernozem soil. • Continental climate similar to the upper Midwest of United States. • A century ago, called the “breadbasket of Europe” • Better suited to grow wheat than Russia due to sufficiently mild climate to permit fall planting. • Industry was world-renowned before breakup of U.S.S.R. • Coal, iron ore, and manganese—All essential for steel production
  29. 29. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Russia Influence in Ukraine • Russians are the largest minority. • Russian language is the most common language.
  30. 30. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Belarus • Two-thirds as large as neighboring Poland • About the size of Kansas • Soviets systematically developed Belarus for industry. • Country remained dependent—especially for industry. • Lukashenko election in 1994 – Hostile to West – Deals with countries deemed rogue states by United States • 1999—Russia and Belarus agreed in principle to a union of the two, but Russia has neither repudiated the agreement nor moved to implement it.
  31. 31. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Armenia • Nearly as large as Maryland • Population of 3 million • On a plateau with a dry, continental climate • Armenian ancestral homeland lies in Turkey, so there is a strong connection there. • Much of Armenia relies on investments from abroad.
  32. 32. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Azerbaijan • Close in size to Armenia • Population is predominantly Turkic Muslim. • Karabakh War has taken a great toll. • Current economic growth is because of petroleum. • Even as far back as 1900, it accounted for half of the world’s oil production.
  33. 33. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Georgia • Approximately the same size as Belarus and Armenia • 2003 “Rose Revolution” ousted former Russian ally. • Economy growing at acceptable rate • Ossetia has been a problem region, where a separatist movement is occurring. Mass violence is occurring. • Many bitter feelings across country
  34. 34. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Summary of Chapter • The formidable physical conditions found in Northern Eurasia and the remoteness of most locations inevitably add to the costs of development. • Northern Eurasian countries have yet to complete the dual transition that has been expected of them— to become democracies with market economies. • Georgia and Armenia still have a long, hard climb to attain prosperity, and both must avoid future violent conflicts if they hope to succeed. • Russia’s course will be crucial for the whole region.

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