GEOG103 Chapter 12 Lecture

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GEOG103 Chapter 12 Lecture

  1. 1. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 12 Lecture World Regional Geography A Developmental Approach 11th Edition Australia, New Zealand, and the Pacific Islands
  2. 2. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter Learning Outcomes • Outline the environmental advantages and disadvantages of the Australian continent. • Explain the settlement history of Australia and New Zealand. • Compare the situation of Aborigines and Māoris in the contemporary societies of Australia and New Zealand. • Identify why Australia and New Zealand are among the most well-off and stable countries in the world. • Characterize the challenges facing the Pacific Islands. • Show how remoteness influences the region’s economic opportunities and choices. • Explain the importance of Australia’s growing relationship with it Asian neighbors.
  3. 3. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Map
  4. 4. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Map
  5. 5. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Regions
  6. 6. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Environment of Australia • Five natural regions 1.Humid highlands—The core 2.Mediterranean southwest and east—Most populated 3.Tropical savannas in northern fringe 4.Interior is desert (outback) and steppe. 5.Ancient rocks in West
  7. 7. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Environmental Challenges / Australia • Shortage of arable land (10%) • Most land requires irrigation for farming. • 5% used for food crops • 40% of country has ranching as its major economic use
  8. 8. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Early Settlement • Until 1788—Inhabited by aborigines • Numbered up to one million • 300 distinct “nations” • 1770—Captain James Cook sails by eastern shore. • 1778—First British ships disembark at Sydney Cove beginning “white” settlement.
  9. 9. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Australia • 3 million square miles • 21 million population
  10. 10. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Australia Migration • Immigration encouraged by Britain through land grants. • White Australia policy – Restricted Immigration Policy—Official term – Strong preference for people of British origin – Exclusion of non-whites – After WWII, amended to allow other European and Anglo-American settlers as long as they were white – Quietly shelved in 1970s
  11. 11. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Australia’s Minorities • New immigration policy focuses on economic and social skills. • Now a considerable Asian influx due to proximity • Aborigines – 450,000 or 2 percent of population – Heavily concentrated in Northern Territory – Movement now to big cities – Bottom of socioeconomic ladder – Government has not apologized for the “stolen generation.” – Aboriginal art has caught on as an economic development potential.
  12. 12. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Australian Economy • High standard of living • Well-developed and diversified export economy • Production of agricultural, mineral, and industrial goods • Agriculture • EU tariffs place some constraints on exports. • Manufacturing is a weaker link.
  13. 13. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Resources of Australia
  14. 14. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Australia Agriculture • Sheep and cattle farming • Wheat farming • Sugarcane on northern fringe
  15. 15. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Australia Trade
  16. 16. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Australia Trade
  17. 17. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Australia Tourism • In 1980s tourism began to grow behind services, mining, and agriculture • More than six million visitors per year • Sydney, Great Barrier Reef, and Uhuru are biggest draws
  18. 18. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Future of Australia • Has enjoyed remarkable economic growth in recent years • It has a small population relative to land size. • Isolation is another problem in the way of continued growth. • Possible ending of its association with the British monarchy
  19. 19. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. New Zealand • Two main islands • Located entirely in temperate zone • Formed from Ring of Fire • Discovered by Captain James Cook—1769 • 80% of population has European origins – British – German – Others
  20. 20. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. New Zealand Economy • Pastoral economy – Production of livestock and livestock products – One of the highest proportions of livestock (cattle and sheep) to human population • Heavy dependence on trade • Some coal, gold, natural gas, and iron ore— Much less than Australia • Extensive soil erosion
  21. 21. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. The Maori • Indigenous population • Polynesian group that has resided there for 1,000 years • Largest minority group at 14–15 percent • Long decline under European settlement after Treaty of Waitangi signed in 1840 • Upsurge since 1970s • Still socioeconomically marginal • See films Once Were Warriors and Whale Rider.
  22. 22. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Political Structure of Australia and New Zealand
  23. 23. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Population Density
  24. 24. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Pacific Islands
  25. 25. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Pacific Islands • Known as Oceania • Only 10.5 million population • Scattered islands (30,000 total) • Regional groupings – Melanesia—Islands from northern perimeter of Australia eastward – Micronesia (small islands)—Groups of islands north of Melanesia – Polynesia (many islands)—Largest grouping • From Hawaii to New Zealand • New Zealand, however, has begun to establish its own distinctive character in spite of Maori heritage.
  26. 26. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Pacific Islands • Twenty-three political entities • Four self-governing territories in free association with colonial rulers • Seven continuing dependencies of France • New Zealand • One U.S. state (Hawaii) • Mosaic of political structures is the result of the region’s complex colonial history and post-independence struggles
  27. 27. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Pacific Islands / Challenges • Adapting to global economy while being geographically distant • Low levels of health and income • Social inequities • Weak governments • Uncertain national identities
  28. 28. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Papua New Guinea • Covers parts of three large islands, as well as many smaller ones • Collection of many clans with over 700 languages • Population is indigenous Papuans and more recent arrivals • Most live in very rural settings • Rich resources that have not been used effectively
  29. 29. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Hawaii • 50th U.S. state • String of mountainous volcanic islands • Most transformed population that is struggling to keep Polynesian culture • Largely tourist in nature, although some manufacturing is occurring • Large population, especially in Oahu • Decent agricultural base • Increasing Asian presence in population
  30. 30. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Guam • Largest island in Micronesia • Transformed by foreign occupation • “Unincorporated” territory of the United States. • Large military presence • Popular tourist destination for Japanese who want to experience “America in Asia”
  31. 31. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. New Caledonia • Political and environmentally challenged • Located on the parts of multiple islands • Colonized by France in 1853 as a penal colony • Asian and Polynesian settlers came for large mining wealth
  32. 32. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Summary of Chapter • Australia, New Zealand, and the Pacific Islands are quite unlike any other world regions in the nature of their diversity – In Australia, there is far too much land with too little water. – In the Pacific Islands, there are vast amounts of water, but in most cases far too little land. – In New Zealand, where water exists in frozen, liquid, and thermal- heated states, paradise is threatened by tectonic hazards. • The region occupies a remote but strategically significant part of the planet. • Although far from the Western world in location, Australia and New Zealand are now Western in culture. • Past trade relationships with the United Kingdom were strong historically. Both Australia and New Zealand, however, are in the process of reorienting their economic relationships, largely toward the Pacific Rim.

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