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Cultural intelligence – origin, definition, validityOrigin: “Why do some but not other individuals easily and effectively adapt their views and behaviours cross culturally.” (Van Dyne, Ang and Livermore 2010; cited in Ang, Van Dyne and Tan, 2011)Definition: The relative ability of a person to adapt to novel cultural contexts.Validity: CQ can be measured on a validated 20 item CQ scale. (Ang et al 2007)
The facets of cultural intelligenceCognitive /Head - Knowledge – culture specific - Meta-cognitionMotivational/Heart (Earley and Ang 2003)Behavioural /Body (Earley and Mosakowski 2004)Culture can arise when ‘we lack the knowledge, the lack of ability to adapt, the lack of willingness to adapt.’ (Flanja 2009 p.111)shock:
Culturalself-awarenessUnderstanding that our own behaviour is,in large part, culturally derived.It allows us to recognise that the same is alsotrue for others.‘Some people are skillful at recognizing behaviours that areinfluenced by culture.’ (Brislin, Worthley and McNab 2006 p.41)Cultural misunderstandings arise when we attempt tointerpret the behaviour of others through our owncultural lens. (Quappe and Canatore 2005)
Enhancing cultural intelligence ‘People’s cultural intelligence can be increased with experience, practice and a positive attitude to life-long learning.’ (Brislin, Worthley and McNab 2006 p.42)(Crowne 2008) Rehg,Grundlackh & Grigorian 2012
Using cultural intelligenceSome useful skills• Expect misunderstandings (Brislin, Worthley & McNab 2006)• Suspend judgement (Triandis 2005)Example 1 Example 2
Key points to rememberCultural intelligence is a multi-faceted construct to explainthe relative ability of some individuals to adapt with ease tonovel cultural contexts.It is widely agreed to encompass cognitive/metacognitive,motivational and behavioural skills.Cultural self-awareness is a meta-cognitive skill thatunderlies and is fundamental to cultural intelligence.Cultural intelligence is a valuable skill in our increasinglyglobalized world and ethnically diverse communities.
References:Ang, S, Van Dyne, Koh, CKS, Ng, KY., Templer, KJ, Tay, C, & Chandrasekar, NA, 2007,. ‘Cultural intelligence: Itsmeasurement and effects on cultural judgment and decision making, cultural adaptation, and task performance’’,Management and Organization Review, vol. 3, no.3, pp.35-37, viewed 13 September 2012, via Wiley Online LibraryAng, S, Van Dyne, L & Tan, ML, 2011, Cultural Intelligence, in Sternberg, RJ & Kaufman, SC (Eds), Cambridge Handbookon Intelligence, pp.582-602, Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.Brislin, R, Worthley, R & McNab, B 2006, ‘Cultural intelligence: Understanding behaviours that serve people’s goals,Group and Organization Management, vol. 31, no. 1, pp. 40-55, viewed 12 September 2012, via Sage Publications.Crowne, KA, 2008, ‘What leads to cultural intelligence’, Business Horizons, vol. 51, no.5, pp.391-399, viewed 13September 2012, via Sciencedirect.Earley, P & Ang, S 2003, Cultural intelligence: Individual interactions across cultures, Stanford University Press,Stanford, US, viewed 12 September 2012 via Google BooksEarley, PC & Mosakowski, E 2004, ‘Cultural intelligence’, Harvard Business Review, vol. 82,no. 10, pp. 139-146, viewed12 September 2012, via Ebsco Host.Flanja, D, 2009 ‘Culture shock in intercultural communication’, Studia Europae, vol. 2009, no. 4, pp. 107+, viewed 13September 2012, via Academic OneFile.Rehg, MT, Gundlach, MJ & Grigorian, RA, 2012, ‘Examining the influence of cross-cultural training on culturalintelligence and specific self-efficacy’, Cross Cultural Management, vol. 19, no.22, pp. 215 – 232, viewed 14 September2012, via EmeraldTriandis, HC, 2006, ‘Cultural intelligence in organizations’, Group and Organization Management, vol. 31, no. 1, pp.20-26, viewed 12 September 2012, via Sage Publications.Quappe, S & Cantatore, G, 2005, ‘What is cultural intelligence, anyway? How do I build it?, viewed 12 September,<http://www.culturosity.com/pdfs/What%20is%20Cultural%20Awareness.pdf> Images: Slide 2: a.http://www.theaustralian.com.au/arts/review/oombulgurri-aborigines-were-delivered-into-temptation/story-fn9n8gph-1226446170747 viewed 10 September 2012 b.http://www.guardian.co.uk/society/2011/dec/20/christmas-charity-appeal-magic-me, viewed 12 September 2012 c. http://www.examiner.com/article/christians-and-muslims, viewed 12 September 2012 Slide 3: http://www.clipartsfree.net/clipart/9150-diamond-structure-clipart.html - viewed 10 September 2012 Slide 4: http://blogpogo.com/money/when-reality-stares-back/, viewed 12 September 2012 Slide 6: a. http://www.unhcr.org/496627094.html, viewed 11 September 2012 b. http://www.thehindubusinessline.com/markets/article2668257.ece viewed 16 September 2012