Chilli is one of the most important commercial crops of India. It is grown almost throughout the country. There are more than 400 different varieties of chillie’s found all over the world. It is also called as hot pepper, sweet pepper, bell pepper, etc. Both chilli and capsicum belong to same family as well as same genus that is Capsicum. C. frutescens are used for their small and very pungent fruits in hot sauces and as a spices. The species C. pubescens and C. baccatum are grown on a very small scale. India is a major producer, consumer and exporter of chilli in the world. China is a major capsicum producing country. continue…
The major chilli growing states in India are Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Odisha, Tamil Nadu, Bihar, Uttar Pradesh and Rajasthan. These states account for nearly 80% area under chillies cultivation in India. Capsicum or Shimla mirch or bell pepper is one of the important vegetable grown in India which is less pungent. Mid hills of Himachal Pradesh are leading suppliers of capsicum during off-season. Pungency in chillies is due to alkaloid capsaicin, which has good export potentiality. The red color of chillies is due to the presence pigment capsanthin.
Kingdom : Plantae Division : Magnoliophyta Class : magnoliopsida Order : Solanales Family : Solanaceae Genus :Capsicum Species :annum; frutescence; baccatum; pubescence; chinense etc.
Chillies are known from pre-historic times in Peru. They are believed to have originated in the tropical America. It is also said that chillies have originated in the Latin American regions of the New Mexico and Guatemala as a wild crop around 7500BC. The people native to these places domesticated this crop in and around 5000 BC,. Chilli is said to be the first ever domesticated crop in America. The three species C. annuum, C. frutescens and C. chinense evolved from a common ancestor located in the North of the Amazon basin.
CHILLI CAPSICUM C. frutescence known as C. annum known as sweet hot pepper. or bell pepper. Perennial in nature. Annual in nature. White colored flower. White, purple & radish Frits born in clusters and colored flower. thin peel. Fruits born singly and Growth determinate. thick peel. More pungent. Growth indeterminate. Vit. - c content high. Less pungent. Self pollinated. Vit.- c content low. Used as spices. Cross pollinated. Used as vegetable.
(A) Introduced:1. California Wonder:- introduced by IARI, New Delhi.2. Yolo Wonder:- introduced by IARI, New Delhi.3. Chinese Giant:- introduced by IAHS, Bangalore.4. World Beater:- introduced by IAHS, Bangalore.(B) Selection:1. Arka Mohini:- selection from Titan of USA by IIHR, Bangalore.2. Arka Gaurav:- selection from Golden Dalwonder of USA by IIHR, Bangalore. Indeterminate variety tolerant to bacterial wilt.3. Arka Basant:- selection from Hungarian variety ‘Soroksari’ by IIHR, Bangalore. Excellent keeping and cooking qualities. continue…
(C) Public sector hybrid:1. Pusa Deepti(Kt-1):- hybrid between Yolo Wonder and russian, released by IARI Regional Station, Katrain (HP). High yielding, tolerant to bacterial leaf spot and anthracnose.2. Green Gold3. Pusa Meghdoot:- first F1 hybrid by public sector.(D) Private sector hybrid:1. Bharat:- released by IAHS, Bangalore. Resistant to TMV.2. Solan Hybrid-2:- released by YSPUHF, Solan. Resistant to fruit rot and virus.3. Early Bounty4. Lario5. Hira
(A) Selection:1. G-3:- selection from NP-46-A, by Agricultural Research Station, Lam, Guntur. Suitable for irrigated and rainfed condition.2. Sindhur:- selection from Hot Portoga, by Agricultural Research Station, Lam, Guntur.3. HC-44:- selection from local material of North Haryana, by CCSHAU Hisar. It is tolerant to TMV, CMV and leaf curl disease. Moderately tolerant to fruit rot, powdery mildew and wilt.4. Jawahar Mirch 283:- selection from local collection, by JKNV, Jabalpur (MP).5. Arka Lohit:- by IIHR, Bangalore.(B) Mutant:1. MDU-1:- developed through mutation utilizing gamma rays on seeds of K-1, by Agriculture College and Research Institute, Madurai (TN). continue…
(C) Hybrid:1. Pusa Jwala:- developed from a cross between NP-46-A Puri Red by IARI, New Delhi. Tolerant to thrips, mite and aphid.2. NP-46-A:- released by IARI, New Delhi. Tolerant to thrips and susceptible to viral disease.3. Pant C-1:- developed through NP-46-A Khandari by GBPUAT, Pantnagar. Tolerant to mosaic and leaf curl virus.4. Punjab Lal:- developed by crossing Perennial Long Red by PAU, Ludhiana. Resistant to TMV, CMV, leaf curl viruses and moderately resistant to fruit rot and die back.5. Andhra Jyoti (G-5):- a cross of G-2 Bihar variety by Agricultural Research Station, Lam, Guntur. It is tolerant to thrips. continue…
(D) Public sector hybrids:1. Tejaswini2. Champion3. Delhi Hot4. Gayatri5. Agni(E) Private sector hybrid:1. CH-1:- developed by using male sterility (MS12 LLS) by PAU, Ludhiana. This variety is tolerant to viral and fungal disease.
Chillies can be grown from equator to 45 in both hemispheres i.e. tropical and sub tropical regions in areas with over 40 C temperature. It is raised from sea level to 2000 meter above sea level. Optimum temperature for fruit set is 24 C. Night temperature below 10 C fruit set restricted. Fruit weight, length, girth and pericarp thickness were high at 25 C day and 18 C night temperature.
Chilli can be grown all types of soils from light sandy to heavy clay. Optimum soil pH for chilli is 5.8 to 6.5. Very sensitive to water logging. Thoroughly plough the land 3-4 times followed by planking to level the field.
Apply 250q FYM or compost for one hectare before transplanting. 150kg N, 75kg P2O5 and 75kg K2O per hectare recommended. Full dose of P2O5 and K2Oand 1/3 dose of N should be applied at the time of transplanting. The remaining 2/3 N is applied in two equal splits i.e. 5-6 weeks after transplanting at the time of earthing up and 8-10 weeks after transplanting.
Apply 15-20kg of well rotten FYM and 500g of 15:15:15 NPK fertilizer during preparation of nursery bed. About 10-12 beds of 8 1.2 0.15m size are sufficient to raise seedling for one hectare. Nursery soil should be drenched with Formalin solution or with Captan 0.3% @ 5 lit. sol/m2 for damping off control of seedling. After drenching, the bed should be covered with alkathene sheet for 48 hours then open for 48-72 hrs before sowing. 1-1.5kg seed is sufficient for one hectare. 2.5mm deep in rows 5-7cm apart is better sowing. Optimum time for seed sowing in northern plains is October- November while February-April for hills.
Transplanting is done in the evening. The optimum spacing is 60 45cm for open field conditions. In poly houses spacing is 45 30cm. Immediate irrigation after transplanting facilitates better plant establishment. Thereafter light and frequent irrigation should be given upto the establishment of plant.
Depends on soil type and season. Chilli plant cannot withstand water stagnation and excess moisture, hence light irrigation proper drainage is recommended. Generally crop is irrigated at an interval of 5-6 days in summers and 9-10 days in winters. Sandy soils requires frequent irrigation than clay soils.
Gap filling is essential. It should be done in the evening hours followed by irrigation. Two to three hand weeding at 20 and 40 days after transplanting are essential. Nitralin @ 0.5-1.0kg/ha or Fluchlorin @0.5-1.0kg/ha pre plant incorporation before 10 days or Alachlor @2.5kg/ha pre transplant surface application give good control of weeds in chilli crop.
Green chillies are harvested after 60 days of transplanting and dry chillies are harvested after 90 days of transplanting. 5-6 picking is done for green chillies. 2-3 picking for red ripe fruits.
Normally, 15-20q dry chilli and 140-150q of green chilli are obtained from a hectare. About 25-40% dry chilli recovery is obtained depending upon cultivars and thickness of the inner walls. The yield of capsicum is 200q/ha and from hybrids yield above 450q/ha.
1. Blossom end rot(BER):- appearance of water soaked spots on blossom end of the fruit.Control:- a). Supply light irrigation regularly.b). Avoid heavy application of N fertilizers.c). Adding lime to the soil or spray anhydrous calcium chloride.2. Sun scald:- soft, light colored and slightly wrinkled areas appear on the fruit surface.Control:- a). Transplant seedling at closer spacing.b). Grow abundant foliage varieties and control defoliating insects.3. Flower and fruit drop:- due to high temperature and low humidity, low light intensity, short day and high temperature.Control:- a). Give light and frequent irrigation at flowering and fruit set stages.b). Spray the crop either NAA 50 ppm or Tricontanol 2 ppm at full bloom stage.
Thrips (Scirtothrips dorsalis):- The larvae and adult suck the sap of leaves, buds, flowers and cause curling of leaves.Control:- spray Dimethoate 0.03% or Endosulfan 0.05% at 15 days interval. Aphid (Aphis gossypii, Myzus persicae):- suck cell sap from leaves.Control:- spray Methyl Demeton 0.025% or Dimethoate 0.03% . White fly (Bemisia tabaci):- suck cell sap and spread leaf curl disease.Control:- spray Malathion 0.1% or Endosulfan 0.05%. Fruit borer (Spodoptera litura):- caterpillars feed gregariously on leaves and scrap them.Control:- spray Cypermethrin 0.05% or Carbaryl 0.02% at 15 days interval.
o Damping off (Pythium aphanidermatum, Rhizoctonia solani, Fusarium spp., and Phytophthora spp.):-Control:- 1. seed treatment with Captan or Thiram @ 2g/kg seed.2. Nursery bed treatment with Formalin.3. Drenching nursery bed with mixture of Dithane M-45 0.25% and Bavistin 0.1%.o Ripe fruit rot, Dieback and Anthracnose (Colletotrichum capsici):-Control:-1.seed treatment with Thiram or Dithane M-45 @ 2g/kg seed.2.Spray Dithane M-45 0.25% or Blitox 0.1% or Bavistin 0.1%.o Fruit rot (Phytophthora capsici):-Control:-1.seed treatment with Thiram or Dithane M-45 @ 2g/kg seed.2.Spray Dithane M-45 0.25% or Blitox 0.1% or Bavistin 0.1%. continue…
o Powdery mildew (Leveillula taurica):-Control:- spray Karathane 0.2% at 15 days interval.o Leaf spot (Cercospora capsici):-Control:- 1. seed treatment with Thiram @ 2g/kg seed.2.Spray Bordeaux mixture 1% or Bavistin 0.1% at 15 days interval.o Blight (Alternaria solani):- dark and leathery spots appear on the leaves and defoliation occur.Control:- spray Dithane M-45 (0.2%) and repeat after 10 days interval.
Bacterial leaf spot (Xanthomonas vesicatoria):- development of small dark and greasy spots on the leaves, petioles and stems and water soaked spots on the green fruits. Control:-1. Seed treatment with hot water at 50 C for 25 minutes.2. Remove affected plant.3. Destroy weed hosts.4. Spray Streptomycin 200 ppm + Copper Oxychloride (0.03%) thrice during October – November at 15 days interval.
Mosaic :- caused by Tobacco Mosaic Virus (TMV). Chlorosis, mottling, thickening of leaf veins, clustering of infected leaves and stunting of plants are observed. Virus is transmitted by aphids.Control:-1.Grow tolerant varieties like Punjab Lal, Perennial etc.2.Grow barrier crops like maize or amaranthus.3.Spray Malathion 0.1% or Methyl Demeton 0.2% at 10 days interval. Leaf curl:- characterized by curling, twisting, crumpling and smalling of leaves. White fly is responsible for transmission of disease.Control:- 1. Rogue out infected plants and weeds.2.Apply Phorate @ 1.25kg a.i./ha followed by Carbofuran @ 1.25kg a.i./ha in nursery.3.Spray Dimethoate 0.05% or Endosulfan 0.05% at 10 days interval.