Botanical Name : Daucus carota Family : Umbelliferae Centre of origin : Europe Pollination system : Cross pollinated Chromosome no : 2n=18
It is an annual or biennial herb with an erect and muchbranched stem , 30 to 120 cm tall arising from a thickfleshy taproot,5 - 30 cm long bearing flowers borne inumbels. The main carrot growing states are Haryana, AndhraPradesh, Karnataka, Punjab and Uttar Pradesh. Haryana is leading producer of carrot in India followed byAndhra Pradesh.
Total area in India-62220 Ha Total production in India-1.15MT Haryana-Area-18870 Ha Production-0.36MT Rajasthan-Area-1120 Ha Production-4260T
Principle Nutrient Value Percentage of RDAEnergy 41 Kcal 2%Carbohydrates 9.58 g 7%Protein 0.93 g 1.5%Total Fat 0.24 g 1%Cholesterol 0 mg 0%Dietary Fiber 2.8 g 7%VitaminsFolates 19 µg 5%Niacin 0.983 mg 6%Pantothenic acid 0.273 mg 5.5%Pyridoxine 0.138 mg 10%Riboflavin 0.058 mg 4%Thiamin 0.066 mg 6%Vitamin A 16706 IU 557%Vitamin C 5.9 mg 10%Vitamin K 13.2 µg 11%
Soil : Carrots grows well drained, deep, loose, sandy loam soilsrich in humus and having a pH 5.5-7.0. Soils free of clods are preferred for smooth straight roots. Compared to sandy soils, carrots grown on heavy soilstend be more rough and coarse as the soil compactionaffects root growth and length. Very loose or highly compact soils are detrimental togrowth of roots.
Climate : Carrot is a cool season crop growing under a wide rangeof rainfall. A temperature range of 7- 230C is considered optimumfor seed germination while for better root growth 18 -230C is ideal. Very high or low temperature is not conducive for properdevelopment of roots. At higher temperatures, the roots become shorter, thickerand non-juicy while at lower temperatures (10 to 15 C),they become longer and develop poor color.
Land Preparation The land should be thoroughly ploughed so that the clodsdo not interfere with the root development. Well decomposed FYM (25 t/ha) is mixed at the time ofland preparation. Application of fresh undecomposed FYMshould be avoided as it leads to forking of the fleshy roots.
Season of Planting The crop is sown during January- February, June- July andOctober November. In the mild climate carrot can be grown almost all the yearround except few summer months. For regular supply of fresh and tender roots, the sowingshould be staggered and done at 15 or 20 days interval. The seed rate of5-6 kg/ha is recommended.
Method of Planting Carrot is a usually grown on ridge to facilitate good rootdevelopment. The seeds are dibbled at 1.5 cm depth at a spacing of 30 x8 cm. For enhancing germination, the seeds are soaked in waterfor 12-24 hours before sowing.
Manure & Fertilizer The fertilizer dose depends upon the fertility of soil andamount of organic manure applied to the crop. For a good yield, 25 t/ ha of well-decomposed FYM isincorporated into the soil. Generally, application of 100kg N, 60 kg P2O5 and 60 kgK2O is recommended for optimum yield.
Intercultural Operations Intercultural operations like weeding and hoeing arenecessary to check the weed growth and provide soilaeration. Hoeing not only checks weeds but also facilitates soilaeration. Earthing up of roots along with weeding is done toprevent exposure of roots to atmosphere andconsequent discoloration.
Irrigation Irrigation is given immediately after sowing. Depending upon the planting season and the available soilmoisture, carrots may be irrigated at 10-12 days intervalduring winter and 5-6 days interval during summer. Irrigation should be discontinued 2-3 weeks beforeharvesting to increase the sweetness and taste of thecarrots.
Exotic Varieties USA-Processing purpose Red Cored Chantenay, Danvers Half Long, Imperator. New Zealand-Akaroa Long Red, Spring MarketImproved, Wanganui Giant Japan-Suko Belgium-Belgian White France-Chantenay, Nantes, Oxheart, Touchon Australia-Red Elephant, Western Red, Yellow Netherlands-Early Horn
Harvesting The edible roots become ready for harvesting in about100-120 days depending on the variety. A light irrigation may be given a day before harvesting tofacilitate lifting of roots. Crop is harvested manually by uprooting individual plant. Carrots for processing purpose are left in the ground for alonger period. After harvesting the green tops are cut and the carrots areseparated and washed. Yield Generally, Asiatic types yield 25-30 t/ha whereasEuropean types yield 10-15 t/ha.
Grading : Carrots are graded according to their size,diameter or length. The carrot should ideally, be of uniform andsimilar shape for the variety, well formed,smooth, firm but of tender texture. It should also be free from harvest damage,decay, disease or insects.
Packaging : Carrots are packed in baskets or gunny bags before sending tomarket. These are sometimes marketed along with their tops to indicatefreshness. Storage : Temperature is the most important factor affecting the storageof carrots. Carrots can be stored for 3-4 days under ambient conditions. However in cold storage, topped carrots can be stored attemperatures of 0 - 4.4 C with 93-98% relative humidity for 6months. Untopped carrots can be stored only for 10-14 days at 0 C.
Botanical Name : Raphanus sativus Family : Cruciferae Centre of origin : Mediterranean region Pollination system : Cross pollinated Chromosome no : 2n=18
It is an annual or biennial herb having rosetteleaves and bearing a swollen root which is theeconomic part. The main radish growing states are West Bengal,Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, Karnataka, Punjab andAssam. West Bengal is leading producer of radish in Indiafollowed by Haryana.
Total area in India-0.16MHa Total production in India-2.28MT West Bengal-Area-40490ha Production-0.49MT Rajasthan-Area-640ha Production-2560
Principle Nutrient Value Percentage of RDAEnergy 16 Kcal 1%Carbohydrates 3.40 g 3%Protein 0.68 g 1%Total Fat 0.10 g <1%Cholesterol 0 mg 0%Dietary Fiber 1.6 g 4%VitaminsFolates 25 µg 6%Niacin 0.254 mg 1.5%Pyridoxine 0.071 mg 5.5%Riboflavin 0.039 mg 3%Vitamin A 7 IU <1%Vitamin C 14.8 mg 25%Vitamin E 0 mg 9%Vitamin K 1.3 µg 1%
Soil: Radish is ideally grown on light, friable sandy-loamsoils which are rich in humus and having a pH rangebetween 6.0-7.0. Heavy soils should be avoided as they produce rough,malformed roots with number of small fibrous laterals.
Climate: Radish is very specific in its climaticrequirements especially, temperature. Radish is predominantly suited to a cool ormoderate climate. A long day as well as high temperature results inboltings before proper root development. Also, the roots become hard, pithy and pungentbefore reaching maturity. It develops best flavour, texture and size atcooler temperatures between 10-150 C.
Land preparation : The land should be thoroughly ploughed so that the clodsdo not interfere with the root development. Well decomposed FYM (15-20 t/ha) is mixed at the timeof land preparation. Application of fresh undecomposed FYM should beavoided as it leads to forking of the fleshy roots.
Season of Planting : The crop is sown during winter from September toJanuary, in the plains from 1st September-1 st Decemberand in the hills from June September. In the mild climate of peninsular India, radish can begrown almost all the year round except few summermonths. The best sowing time in South India is from April to June.
Method of Planting : For regular supply of fresh and tender roots, the sowingshould be staggered and done at 15 or 20 days interval. The seed rate of 10-12 kg/ha is recommended. Radish is a usually grown on ridge to facilitate good rootdevelopment. The seeds of tropical varieties are sown at a spacing of45 x 8 cm while a spacing of 20-30 x 8 cm isrecommended for temperate varieties.
Manuring & Fertilization The fertilizer dose depends upon the fertility of soil andamount of organic manure applied to the crop. For a good yield, 15-20 tonnes of well-decomposed FYMis incorporated into the soil. Generally, application of 50-100 kg N, 100kg P2O5 and 50kg K2O is recommended for optimum yield. Half dose of N and full dose of P and K is given at thetime of planting. The balance half of N is given 30 daysafter planting.
Intercultural Operations Intercultural operations like weeding and hoeing arenecessary to check the weed growth and provide soilaeration for better growth and yield. During rainy season, two weddings are required to keepthe growth of weeds under check. In radish, the growing roots tend to push out of the soilsurface. Therefore, earthing up and weeding during the earlystages of growth are necessary for proper developmentof quality roots.
Irrigation The irrigation cycle depends upon season, type of soil andamount of organic matter present in soil. The first irrigation is given immediately after sowing. Depending upon the planting season and the available soilmoisture, radish may be irrigated at 10-12 days intervalduring winter and 5-6 days interval during summer.
Asiatic Types or tropical types : Pusa Desi:-It is a subtropical cultivar, suitable for sowingfrom middle of August to October in the northern plains. Pusa Chetki:-This variety has wider adaptability and cantolerate high temperature. Pusa Reshmi:- Suitable for early sowing from mid-September to mid-November but it can tolerate slightlyhigher temperature. Japanese White:-Suitable for growing between October-December in the plains and July September in the hills. Crop matures in 60-65 days.
Punjab Safed:-Suitable for sowing in September-October.It is a quick growing type with free of forking, rootsremaining edible for 10 days after attaining full size. Kalianpur No. 1 Roots 20-23 cm long, white with green shoulder. Nadauni Roots are long, light pink, popular in Himachal Pradesh. Arka Nishant Roots are long, marble white, resistant to pithiness and pre-mature bolting.
European types or temperate types : The skin is pure white, the flesh is crisp and sweet-flavoured with mild pungency. It is the only variety, which can be grown throughout theyear in the hills except for winter months from November-January. White Icicle It is a medium short European table variety, which maturesin 25-30 days. Pusa Himani Suitable for kitchen garden.
Harvesting The edible roots become ready for harvesting in about 25-60 days depending on the variety. The temperate types reach harvest maturity 25-30 days afterseed sowing while tropical varieties require longer period. At the time of harvest, the roots should not be pithy or solid. Crop is harvested manually by uprooting individual plant. A light irrigation may be given a day before harvesting tofacilitate lifting of roots. Yield The average yield of Asiatic cultivars ranged between 25-30t/ha in 40-60 days while the temperate varieties yield 15-20t/ha in 35-40 days.
Grading Harvested roots are washed and graded according to sizeand tied into bunches along with the tops. The radish should ideally, be of uniform and similar shapefor the variety, well formed, smooth, firm but of tendertexture. It should also be free from harvest damage, decay, diseaseor insects. Bunched radish tops should be fresh in appearance andturgid.
Packaging Normally the produce is sent to the market loose orsometimes it is packed in gunny bags. Storage Radish cannot be stored at room temperature for morethan 2-3 days. However in cold storage, topped radish if packed inpolybag with few holes for aeration, can be stored at 0OCwith 90-95 % relative humidity for about 2 months.