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Carrot

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Carrot

  1. 1. Presented by:-Kuldeep garwa
  2. 2.  Botanical Name : Daucus carota Family : Umbelliferae Centre of origin : Europe Pollination system : Cross pollinated Chromosome no : 2n=18
  3. 3.  It is an annual or biennial herb with an erect and muchbranched stem , 30 to 120 cm tall arising from a thickfleshy taproot,5 - 30 cm long bearing flowers borne inumbels. The main carrot growing states are Haryana, AndhraPradesh, Karnataka, Punjab and Uttar Pradesh. Haryana is leading producer of carrot in India followed byAndhra Pradesh.
  4. 4.  Total area in India-62220 Ha Total production in India-1.15MT Haryana-Area-18870 Ha Production-0.36MT Rajasthan-Area-1120 Ha Production-4260T
  5. 5. Principle Nutrient Value Percentage of RDAEnergy 41 Kcal 2%Carbohydrates 9.58 g 7%Protein 0.93 g 1.5%Total Fat 0.24 g 1%Cholesterol 0 mg 0%Dietary Fiber 2.8 g 7%VitaminsFolates 19 µg 5%Niacin 0.983 mg 6%Pantothenic acid 0.273 mg 5.5%Pyridoxine 0.138 mg 10%Riboflavin 0.058 mg 4%Thiamin 0.066 mg 6%Vitamin A 16706 IU 557%Vitamin C 5.9 mg 10%Vitamin K 13.2 µg 11%
  6. 6.  Soil : Carrots grows well drained, deep, loose, sandy loam soilsrich in humus and having a pH 5.5-7.0. Soils free of clods are preferred for smooth straight roots. Compared to sandy soils, carrots grown on heavy soilstend be more rough and coarse as the soil compactionaffects root growth and length. Very loose or highly compact soils are detrimental togrowth of roots.
  7. 7.  Climate : Carrot is a cool season crop growing under a wide rangeof rainfall. A temperature range of 7- 230C is considered optimumfor seed germination while for better root growth 18 -230C is ideal. Very high or low temperature is not conducive for properdevelopment of roots. At higher temperatures, the roots become shorter, thickerand non-juicy while at lower temperatures (10 to 15 C),they become longer and develop poor color.
  8. 8.  Land Preparation The land should be thoroughly ploughed so that the clodsdo not interfere with the root development. Well decomposed FYM (25 t/ha) is mixed at the time ofland preparation. Application of fresh undecomposed FYMshould be avoided as it leads to forking of the fleshy roots.
  9. 9.  Season of Planting The crop is sown during January- February, June- July andOctober November. In the mild climate carrot can be grown almost all the yearround except few summer months. For regular supply of fresh and tender roots, the sowingshould be staggered and done at 15 or 20 days interval. The seed rate of5-6 kg/ha is recommended.
  10. 10.  Method of Planting Carrot is a usually grown on ridge to facilitate good rootdevelopment. The seeds are dibbled at 1.5 cm depth at a spacing of 30 x8 cm. For enhancing germination, the seeds are soaked in waterfor 12-24 hours before sowing.
  11. 11.  Manure & Fertilizer The fertilizer dose depends upon the fertility of soil andamount of organic manure applied to the crop. For a good yield, 25 t/ ha of well-decomposed FYM isincorporated into the soil. Generally, application of 100kg N, 60 kg P2O5 and 60 kgK2O is recommended for optimum yield.
  12. 12.  Intercultural Operations Intercultural operations like weeding and hoeing arenecessary to check the weed growth and provide soilaeration. Hoeing not only checks weeds but also facilitates soilaeration. Earthing up of roots along with weeding is done toprevent exposure of roots to atmosphere andconsequent discoloration.
  13. 13.  Irrigation Irrigation is given immediately after sowing. Depending upon the planting season and the available soilmoisture, carrots may be irrigated at 10-12 days intervalduring winter and 5-6 days interval during summer. Irrigation should be discontinued 2-3 weeks beforeharvesting to increase the sweetness and taste of thecarrots.
  14. 14.  Exotic Varieties USA-Processing purpose Red Cored Chantenay, Danvers Half Long, Imperator. New Zealand-Akaroa Long Red, Spring MarketImproved, Wanganui Giant Japan-Suko Belgium-Belgian White France-Chantenay, Nantes, Oxheart, Touchon Australia-Red Elephant, Western Red, Yellow Netherlands-Early Horn
  15. 15.  Harvesting The edible roots become ready for harvesting in about100-120 days depending on the variety. A light irrigation may be given a day before harvesting tofacilitate lifting of roots. Crop is harvested manually by uprooting individual plant. Carrots for processing purpose are left in the ground for alonger period. After harvesting the green tops are cut and the carrots areseparated and washed. Yield Generally, Asiatic types yield 25-30 t/ha whereasEuropean types yield 10-15 t/ha.
  16. 16.  Grading : Carrots are graded according to their size,diameter or length. The carrot should ideally, be of uniform andsimilar shape for the variety, well formed,smooth, firm but of tender texture. It should also be free from harvest damage,decay, disease or insects.
  17. 17.  Packaging : Carrots are packed in baskets or gunny bags before sending tomarket. These are sometimes marketed along with their tops to indicatefreshness. Storage : Temperature is the most important factor affecting the storageof carrots. Carrots can be stored for 3-4 days under ambient conditions. However in cold storage, topped carrots can be stored attemperatures of 0 - 4.4 C with 93-98% relative humidity for 6months. Untopped carrots can be stored only for 10-14 days at 0 C.
  18. 18.  Botanical Name : Raphanus sativus Family : Cruciferae Centre of origin : Mediterranean region Pollination system : Cross pollinated Chromosome no : 2n=18
  19. 19.  It is an annual or biennial herb having rosetteleaves and bearing a swollen root which is theeconomic part. The main radish growing states are West Bengal,Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, Karnataka, Punjab andAssam. West Bengal is leading producer of radish in Indiafollowed by Haryana.
  20. 20.  Total area in India-0.16MHa Total production in India-2.28MT West Bengal-Area-40490ha Production-0.49MT Rajasthan-Area-640ha Production-2560
  21. 21. Principle Nutrient Value Percentage of RDAEnergy 16 Kcal 1%Carbohydrates 3.40 g 3%Protein 0.68 g 1%Total Fat 0.10 g <1%Cholesterol 0 mg 0%Dietary Fiber 1.6 g 4%VitaminsFolates 25 µg 6%Niacin 0.254 mg 1.5%Pyridoxine 0.071 mg 5.5%Riboflavin 0.039 mg 3%Vitamin A 7 IU <1%Vitamin C 14.8 mg 25%Vitamin E 0 mg 9%Vitamin K 1.3 µg 1%
  22. 22.  Soil: Radish is ideally grown on light, friable sandy-loamsoils which are rich in humus and having a pH rangebetween 6.0-7.0. Heavy soils should be avoided as they produce rough,malformed roots with number of small fibrous laterals.
  23. 23.  Climate: Radish is very specific in its climaticrequirements especially, temperature. Radish is predominantly suited to a cool ormoderate climate. A long day as well as high temperature results inboltings before proper root development. Also, the roots become hard, pithy and pungentbefore reaching maturity. It develops best flavour, texture and size atcooler temperatures between 10-150 C.
  24. 24.  Land preparation : The land should be thoroughly ploughed so that the clodsdo not interfere with the root development. Well decomposed FYM (15-20 t/ha) is mixed at the timeof land preparation. Application of fresh undecomposed FYM should beavoided as it leads to forking of the fleshy roots.
  25. 25.  Season of Planting : The crop is sown during winter from September toJanuary, in the plains from 1st September-1 st Decemberand in the hills from June September. In the mild climate of peninsular India, radish can begrown almost all the year round except few summermonths. The best sowing time in South India is from April to June.
  26. 26.  Method of Planting : For regular supply of fresh and tender roots, the sowingshould be staggered and done at 15 or 20 days interval. The seed rate of 10-12 kg/ha is recommended. Radish is a usually grown on ridge to facilitate good rootdevelopment. The seeds of tropical varieties are sown at a spacing of45 x 8 cm while a spacing of 20-30 x 8 cm isrecommended for temperate varieties.
  27. 27.  Manuring & Fertilization The fertilizer dose depends upon the fertility of soil andamount of organic manure applied to the crop. For a good yield, 15-20 tonnes of well-decomposed FYMis incorporated into the soil. Generally, application of 50-100 kg N, 100kg P2O5 and 50kg K2O is recommended for optimum yield. Half dose of N and full dose of P and K is given at thetime of planting. The balance half of N is given 30 daysafter planting.
  28. 28.  Intercultural Operations Intercultural operations like weeding and hoeing arenecessary to check the weed growth and provide soilaeration for better growth and yield. During rainy season, two weddings are required to keepthe growth of weeds under check. In radish, the growing roots tend to push out of the soilsurface. Therefore, earthing up and weeding during the earlystages of growth are necessary for proper developmentof quality roots.
  29. 29.  Irrigation The irrigation cycle depends upon season, type of soil andamount of organic matter present in soil. The first irrigation is given immediately after sowing. Depending upon the planting season and the available soilmoisture, radish may be irrigated at 10-12 days intervalduring winter and 5-6 days interval during summer.
  30. 30.  Asiatic Types or tropical types : Pusa Desi:-It is a subtropical cultivar, suitable for sowingfrom middle of August to October in the northern plains. Pusa Chetki:-This variety has wider adaptability and cantolerate high temperature. Pusa Reshmi:- Suitable for early sowing from mid-September to mid-November but it can tolerate slightlyhigher temperature. Japanese White:-Suitable for growing between October-December in the plains and July September in the hills. Crop matures in 60-65 days.
  31. 31.  Punjab Safed:-Suitable for sowing in September-October.It is a quick growing type with free of forking, rootsremaining edible for 10 days after attaining full size. Kalianpur No. 1 Roots 20-23 cm long, white with green shoulder. Nadauni Roots are long, light pink, popular in Himachal Pradesh. Arka Nishant Roots are long, marble white, resistant to pithiness and pre-mature bolting.
  32. 32.  European types or temperate types : The skin is pure white, the flesh is crisp and sweet-flavoured with mild pungency. It is the only variety, which can be grown throughout theyear in the hills except for winter months from November-January. White Icicle It is a medium short European table variety, which maturesin 25-30 days. Pusa Himani Suitable for kitchen garden.
  33. 33.  Harvesting The edible roots become ready for harvesting in about 25-60 days depending on the variety. The temperate types reach harvest maturity 25-30 days afterseed sowing while tropical varieties require longer period. At the time of harvest, the roots should not be pithy or solid. Crop is harvested manually by uprooting individual plant. A light irrigation may be given a day before harvesting tofacilitate lifting of roots. Yield The average yield of Asiatic cultivars ranged between 25-30t/ha in 40-60 days while the temperate varieties yield 15-20t/ha in 35-40 days.
  34. 34.  Grading Harvested roots are washed and graded according to sizeand tied into bunches along with the tops. The radish should ideally, be of uniform and similar shapefor the variety, well formed, smooth, firm but of tendertexture. It should also be free from harvest damage, decay, diseaseor insects. Bunched radish tops should be fresh in appearance andturgid.
  35. 35.  Packaging Normally the produce is sent to the market loose orsometimes it is packed in gunny bags. Storage Radish cannot be stored at room temperature for morethan 2-3 days. However in cold storage, topped radish if packed inpolybag with few holes for aeration, can be stored at 0OCwith 90-95 % relative humidity for about 2 months.

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