Climate change is expected to impact to crop yield
both positive and negative ways, though the
magnitude may differ at various location.
An assessment of the possible net impacts while
sustaining positive impact of climate change on crop
production through adaptation methodology.
Temperature is an important climatic factor, which can
have profound affect on the yield of crops mainly
through phonological development processes.
Differential response to temperature change by
various crops has been shown under different
production environment. Variation in rainfall also
affects the crop productivity.
The various studies conducted in the country have
shown that the surface air temperatures in India are
going up at the rate of 0.4°C per hundred years,
particularly during the post-monsoon and winter
India is a large country with 15 agro-climatic zones,
with diverse seasons, crops and farming systems. For
a majority of people in India, to this day, agriculture is
the main source of livelihood.
Agriculture is the most vulnerable sector to CC as it is inherently
sensitive to climate variability and CC will leave its impacts on
Indian agriculture in various direct and indirect ways.
The surface air temperatures will increase by 2 to 4°C by 2070-
2100. As mentioned earlier, the rabi crop will be impacted
seriously and every 1°C increase in temperature reduces wheat
production by 4-5 million tons, as per a study by IARI.
This loss can be reduced to 1-2 million tons only if farmers
change to timely planting. Increased climatic extremes like
droughts and floods are likely to increase production variability.
Productivity of most cereals would decrease due to increase in
temperature and decrease in water availability, especially in
Indo-Gangetic plains. The loss in crop production is projected at
10-40% by 2100, depending upon the modeling technique
Climate change is causing grave impact on global
agriculture, threatening food security and livelihoods of
farmers. Agricultural sustainability is being impacted in
two interrelated ways: first, by diminishing the long-
term ability of agro eco-systems to provide food for the
world's population; and second, by inducing shifts in
agricultural regions that may encroach upon natural
Changes in temperature and rainfall patterns could
alter the growing season and cropping patterns.
In the light of these facts present research was
undertaken to known the Environmental impact on
production of Sorghum and Pearl millet of Alwar
district. An attempt has been made to assess the
interactive impact of two important component of
climate change i.e. temperature and rainfall on the
productivity of the major food crops (Sorghum & Pearl
Millet) taking Alwar as study area.
The selected study site is
the Alwar District, which
geographically lies between
27°04’ N and 28°07’ N
latitudes and 76°07’ E and
77°13 E longitudes. It
covers an area of 8.380 sq.
The district occupies about
2.45% of the total area of
The district is the 17th
largest by area in state.
To carry out this study preliminary survey of was
made of study site for shake of convenience and
The climatic data's i.e. Rainfall & Temperature
(2001-2010) were collected from Agricultural
Research station (ARS) Navgoan, Alwar.
Crops production data (2001-2010) were collected
from Agricultural Department, Alwar.
To examine the relationship between the crop
(Sorghum and Pearl Millet) and climatic data
different statical methods are used to give perfect
view of understanding work.
Botanical Name- Sorghum vulgare
Ecology of Plant-
- Habit and Habitat – Annual Herb
- Inflorescence- Dense panicle with
- Part Used – Leaves and seed
- Grown as Kharif
- Black Cotton soil and Loam is suitable
- Annual rainfall of 40-100 cm
- Mature within 140-160 days.
- Blood disorder
Pearl Millet (Bajra)
Botanical Name- Pennesetum typhoids
Ecology of plants-
- Habit and Habitat – Annual herb
- Inflorescence – Dense panicle with
- Part used – Leaves and Seed
- Grown as kharif
- Light soil and Semi arid condition is
- Annual rainfall of 40-100 cm.
- Sown in mid July and mature in October
- Heart Disease
2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010
Min. Temperature(In ˚C) 17.2 16.8 19.3 18.1 17.6 18.5 18.2 17.6 18.2 19.2
Max. Temperature (In ˚C) 31.5 30.4 31.8 32.7 32.7 33.7 32.5 31.7 33.1 32.9
Productivity (In K.G./Hact.) 1853 737 1728 1574 1248 1797 1744 1610 1127 1314
Min. Temperature(In ˚C) Max. Temperature (In ˚C) Productivity (In K.G./Hact.)
Climate is one of the main determinants of agricultural
production throughout the world there is significant
concern about the effects of climate change and its
variability on agricultural production.
The higher expected temperature might lower the yields.
However, at the same time, higher rainfall could
enhance growing period of crops.
The world’s leading experts have recently concluded that
increases in global mean surface temperature during the
past century are unlikely to have been caused entirely
by natural effects, and that change in both average
temperature and the geographic, seasonal, and vertical
patterns of temperature indicate the influence of human
actions on global climate.
Our study correlates the results with the various studies
(Royal Society London, 2005).Climate will have the
greatest impact on boreal forests. But temperature first will
be affected to a lesser extent and tropical forests will be
least affected under climate change condition (Catrinus J.
Jepma and Mohan Munasinghe, 1998).
Temperature increase may shorten the length of the
growing period for these crops and, in the absence of
compensatory management responses, reduce yields
(Porter and Gawith 1999; Tubiello et al., 2000).
Jadhav et al., (2009) observed from the seven years data
(2002 to 2008) that the crop sown in MW 26 (25th June to
01 July) recorded highest grain yield followed by the crop
sown in MW 24 (11 to 17th June).
Hussain et al., (1999) studied rainfall data for about
105 years covering the period from 1901 to 2005 was
analyzed for this purpose it is observed that there has
been a decreasing trend in rainfall during the months
of June and August.
Decline in yield is observed to the tune of 15 to 25% in
all major crops of the area including rice which is
being the most predominant crop of Assam.
When the temperature was increased in the range of 1
to 3˚C. When temperature was decreased up to 3˚C,
the increasing trends in the biomass and grain yield
were observed to the tune of 20 to 80% and 19 to
Cline, W. (2007) Global Warming and Agriculture: Impact Estimates by Country.
Center for Global Development. Washington DC, USA. 250 pp.
Hussain R., K. K. Nath and R.L. Deka (2009) Climate variability and yield
fluctuations of some major crops of jorhat (Assam). Workshop Proceedings:
Impact of Climate Change on Agriculture ISPRS Archives XXXVIII-8/W3, 402.
Jadhav M.G., V. G. Maniyar and G.R. More (2009).Influnce of change in
weather on phenology and yield of kharif sorghum at parbhani in
maharastra.Workshop Proceedings: Impact of Climate Change on Agriculture
ISPRS Archives XXXVIII-8/W3, 401.
Porter, J. R. and Gawith, M. 1999. Temperatures and the growth and
development of wheat: a review. European Journal of Agronomy 10, 23-36.
Saseendran, R.M., Smith, I.M. and Matson, P.A. 2000. Ecological and
evolutionary responses to climate change. Science 284: 1943-1947.
Sinha, A.K. and Swaminathan, M.S. 1991. Long-term climate variability and
changes.Journal of Indian Geographical Union 7(3): 125-134.