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  2. 2. Outline of PresentationI. Introduction 1. Policy 2. Technical Education and Vocational Training (TEVT) 3. PurposeII. Evolution of TEVT in Nepal 1. Before 1951 2. After 1951 3. Council for Technical Education and Vocational Training (CTEVT)III. Current Activities of TEVT 1. Skill for Employment Project 2. Ilam Prasikshana Kendra (Trade School) 3. Technical Education and Vocational Training Skill Development Policy, 2007IV. Challenges and Constraints of TEVT 1. Coordination of TEVT Program 2. Labor Market Information 3. Access and Geographical Balance 4. TEVT for School Dropout and Migrant Workers 5. Maintaining Gender Balance 6. Standardization of Quality Control 7. Integration of the VTCD Model in the TEVT System 8. Community and Industry in TEVT Program Management 9. TEVT Graduate Support Services 10. Professional Growth of TeacherV. ConclusionVI. References
  3. 3. 1.Policy- Resources of government (money and authority)- Political objectives (services)- Behavior of institutions (organization and individuals)
  4. 4. 2.Technical Education andVocational Training (TEVT)Orientation towards the world of workProviding skills for allApprenticeship TrainingVocational EducationTechnical EducationOccupational EducationCareer and Technical EducationWorkforce EducationWorkplace EducationTechnical-Vocational EducationVocational Education and Training
  5. 5. 3. PurposeDescribe the current issuesand future policy strategiesassociated with the role oftechnical education andvocational training policy ofNepal.
  6. 6. II. History of TEVT1. Before 1951Education system based on Hindu and Buddhist PhilosophyMetal, leather and tailoring work considered the work of low casteHindu – Sanskrit, literature, astronomyBuddhist – rituals, meditation, mathematicsJayasthiti Malla (1382-1395) - divide people in 67 occupational groupHigh school – 6, College – 1, Primary Schools – 1001930 – establish engineering school for skill manpower1947 – introduce basic education system (philosophy of Mahatma Gandhi)
  7. 7. 2. After 19511951 – Established Ministry of EducationBasic School Converted into Primary School1954 – National Education Planning Commission (46)a. Surveyed existing trends of education andb. Mapped out master plan for education in Nepalc. Accommodate vocational education in secondary and multi-purpose secondary schoold. Purpose –preparation of youth for life in the local community 1962 – Established Butwal Technical Institute – produce craftsman 1971 – New Education System Plan –a. Introduce vocational education in every secondary schoolb. Without considering labor market, parental expectation, cultural beliefs, resources of government, administrative and professional capacity of managementc. Teaching places more emphasis on textbooks than on skill developmentd. Centralize school management
  8. 8. Contd…1980 – Introduce Technical School Work Plana. Practice-oriented training separate from general schools and universityb. Targeted to school dropouts, school-leavers, non-college bound, economically poorc. Technical and Vocational Education Committeed. Directorate of Technical and Vocational Educatione. Problem – coordination of TEVT program, employment of TEVT graduates 1988 – Establish CTEVT by act – apex body of TEVT in Nepala. Develop TEVT policy, ensure TEVT quality, Coordinate TEVT programb. Produce basic, middle and high level manpower for economic developmentc. Develop skill standard and test the people who have informally acquired skills
  9. 9. 3. Council for Technical Education and Vocational Training (CTEVT)Assembly - 24 membersCouncil – 9 members, chair by Minister ofEducationInstitutions (Technical School,Polytechnic, Rural Training Centre) – 18Instructor Training Institute – 1 (long term– 20, short -1000 person week/yr)Affiliated Institutions (Private) – more than200
  10. 10. Goals•Ensure organizational stability and continuity.•Develop policies for managing TEVT sub-sector.•Coordinate TEVT stakeholders for enhancing efficiency, effectiveness andresponsiveness.•Provide services to TEVT sub-sector and maintain quality of its programsand services.•Increase self-reliance through income generating activities.•Prepare competent workforce for TEVT sub-sector.•Promote training and basis of employment.•Broaden the access and equity in TEVT activities.•Encourage participation of business and industry in TEVT activities.Guiding Objectives•Improve the quality and cost efficiency of the TEVT sub-sector.•Fulfill its social obligations towards broad access andpoverty alleviation.•Use "rate of employment" as its primary measure for training programsuccess.•Become a more customer focused and service-oriented organization.•Shift its focus from implementing to guiding, facilitating and regulating.•Contribute to the protection of the national job market. Source:
  11. 11. III. Current Activities Skill for Employment Project Target to train 80 thousands people Ilam Prashikshana Kendra (Trade School) TEVT Skills Development Policy 2007 Expansion, Inclusion and access, Integration, Relevancy, Funding
  12. 12. TEVT Skill Development Policy 2007 Achievements Key policy Areas StrategiesTo citizens :- Massive expansion of *To be followed the system of flexibility,Desirous Nepali citizen shall have training opportunities deregulation, autonomy and opportunity of free of charge * To provide free start up support to organizedtraining of at least three months and reliable training providers.for employment; in addition life- *To provide assurance of quality outcome (inlong learning opportunities will be line with national vocational quality standard).available on fee-paying basis. * To make arrangement of objective performance, transparency and standard marks as elements of consumers protection.To training providers :- Inclusion of and access * Assurance of tuition fees and subsistenceVarious training providing for all citizens who need allowance for the citizens of those groups whoinstitutions will be encouraged to training are deprived from minimum the children outside the * Recognition of prior learning for openschool in skills development and assessment.development of national * Set out occupational standards for entry level.workforce. *To conduct preparatory courses for mainstreaming and to produce teaching supportive materials.
  13. 13. IV. Challenges and Constraints of TEVTCoordination of TEVT ProgramLabor Market InformationAccess and Geographical BalanceTEVT for School Dropout and Migrant WorkersMaintaining Gender BalanceStandardization of Quality Control IntroductionIntegration of the VTCD Model in the TEVTSystemCommunity and Industry in TEVT ProgramManagementTEVT Graduate Support ServicesProfessional Growth of Teacher
  14. 14. V. ConclusionTEVT policy developed by CTEVT, although recognized bygovernment institutions was not widely accepted by the majortraining providers and stakeholders due to lack of theirparticipation in the policy development process and awarenessrelated with importance and usefulness of the policy. Thissituation created a gap between the policy and itsimplementations.Government policies aimed at economic and socialdevelopment, including national education and training policiesand programs, should target those work in informal sector.The policy constituency of Nepal is looking at differenteducation and training perspective for supporting communitiesand individuals in self-employment and micro-enterprises.
  15. 15. References:Adhikary, P.K. (2005). Educational Reform for Linking Skills Development with Employment in Nepal. Meeting Basic Learning Needs in the Informal Sector. UNEVOC, UNESCO.Basnet, K. B., Eun,T. and Kim, J. (2009). Issues and Challenges of Technical Education and Vocational Training (TEVT) in Nepal. Journal of the Korean Institute of Industrial Educators, Vol. 34, No. 2. Korean Institute of Industrial Educators.Ramse, D. A. 1993. A follow-up evaluation model for technical education in Nepal, A Field Study Submitted to the Faculty of the Graduate School of the University of Minnesota in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Education.Torjman, S. (2005). What is Policy? Caledon Institute of Social Policy.Vir, D . (1988). Education and politics in Nepal: An Asian experiment. New Delhi: Northern Book.Van Tilburg, E. and Moore. (1989). A.B. Education for Rural Adults. In S.B. Merriam and P.M.Cunningham (eds.), Handbook of Adult Education. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1989.Wood, H.B. 1959. Development of Education in Nepal. Educational Leadership. P429-433.
  16. 16. THANK YOU