Kul B. Basnet (Ph.D. student, KNUE)Moon-Jong Kim (M.Ed. Student, KNUE) Jinsoo Kim (Professor, KNUE)
Socially and economically disadvantage group perceive education as the most promising means for their children’s up- liftment. Primary education is the foundation of learning, catalyst of social change and empowerment. The right to education is a fundamental human right.
Before 1971, less than 50% school age population had access to formal education. Privatization of education increase access to rich and urban people. Many start late school (at nine or ten) Only 12 of the 100 admitted in class one make it to the final examination of secondary level.
Girls are valued for household chores. Quality of education is low in remote regions. Teachers do not fully understand the concept of early childhood development
Projected Population (in thousands) Year 2008 2009 2010 2015Primary school entry age 5, 7,14 7,13 7,16 7,62Primary school age 5-9, 3,558 3,553 3,557 3,713Secondary school age 10-16, 4,837 4,891 4,928 4,959Total 28,757 29,325 29,898 32,843
5 plus age group -- 37% illiterate Primary-school age children not enroll in school – 9% Number of Primary school (1-5) --30,924 (2008/9) Number of teachers – 143,574 Student teacher ratio – 33.3 Trained teachers – 67% Primary school enrolment – 4,782,313
Glance of Primary Education Description Mountain Hill Kathmandu Terai TotalGross enrollment rate 94.3 95.8 97.2 88.1 91.9School student ratio 114.7 125.0 119.0 232.0 154.6Teacher student ratio 30.7 30.1 16.7 43.8 33.3Number of teacher 14,232 66,443 14,983 47,916 143,574Source: Flash I Report 2008-2009 Department of Education
60 students in grade 1, hardly 18 will be in grade 5 Remote areas of hills and Terai belt 3 teachers to manage 5 grades Poor results Over-politicization of teachers Inadequate number of trained teachers Dropout is high among the poor and disadvantaged children.
Retention and Dropout in the year 2008-09 (%) Class Class Class Class Class Class Class Class Class Class URD 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Upgrade 59.6 80.5 82.5 85.4 83.5 84.2 80.6 79.1 86.2 74.3 Repeat 28.3 12.9 10.1 9.7 7.3 9.2 8.1 7.7 8.7 7.1 Dropout 12.1 6.6 7.4 5.0 9.2 6.6 11.2 13.1 5.1 18.6 Source: Flash I Report 2008-2009 Department of Education
Household poverty/economic hardship Dropout children are generally from landless or small land holding farmers. Survival is first priority, schooling always loses in trade-off between education and work.
Educational Indicators by Poorest and Richest QuintileEducation Indicators Poorest quintile Richest quintileNearest school more than 30 13.4% 4%minutes awayNet Enrolment Rate at primary level 51% (Girls 42%) 87% (Girls 85%)Having ever attended a school 22.7% (F-11.7%) 67.9% (F-56%)Years of schooling 5.1 9.2Adult literacy rate (15+ years) 23.1% (F-11.6%) 72.3% (F-59.1%)Source: NLSS 2003/4
NER of Education Level by Poorest and Richest Quintile Lower Higher NER Primary Secondary Tertiary Secondary SecondaryPoorest 51% (G-42) 7% (G-6) 2% (G-1) 1% (G-0) 0% (G-0)Richest 87% (G-85) 56% (G-56) 35% (G-36) 13% (G-10) 10% (G-8)
Teachers’ absenteeism Irregular operation of school Lack of child-friendly environment Poor physical facilities in school No text books on time Less motivated and committed teachers and head teacher Children lack of interest in study Children’s association with bad company Ineffective school management committee
Manage everything of primary schools and make compulsion for all people. Give incentives to poor and disadvantages children to cover all expenses. Apply teacher licensing system strictly and trained all primary schools teachers in style of teaching including student friendly teaching methods. Develop policy to make flexible school calendar.
Recruit more female teacher and use mother tongue as medium of instruction. Develop school code of conduct and apply it strictly. Establish a regular meeting system between parents and teacher about children performance. Develop a system of follow-up and alternative education for dropout children
Make provision of coaching class for weak students. Encourage to use local teaching materials. Activate school management committee for monitoring school activities, teacher performance, raise interest of community in school activities and children. Make a rule that the teachers cannot involve themselves in direct politics.
It is always difficult to innovate and plan change because it requires changing our beliefs and practices and doing something different. A vision, education can make difference to the lives of those who have access to it in mind of all stakeholder of primary education could solve the dropout problem of Nepal.