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Zhou dynasty


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Bronze technology in the Zhou Dynasty

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Zhou dynasty

  1. 1. Zhou Dynast(ies)
  2. 2. • Cowrie Shell, Shang and Zhou dynasty, 16th-8th century BC
  3. 3. Zhou Sub periods • Western Zhou (1040 BCE – 771 BCE • Eastern Zhou – Spring and Autumn Period (771 BCE-476 BCE) • Confucius, 551 BCE-479 BCE – Warring States Period (476 BCE -221 BCE) • During this period Confucianism & Daoism are formulated
  4. 4. Zhou accomplishments • Earliest surviving literature • Population increase • Iron weapons & tools • Rise of merchant class, markets for artistic wares • Chinese characters evolve • Confucianism, Daoism • Emperor as Son of Heaven
  5. 5. Zhou Bronzes • Increasing technological sophistication • New styles • Use of lost-wax casting • Bone Black and inlay decorations • Ritual and social use in ‘gift economy’ – shift from Shang era use
  6. 6. Kang Hou Gui, 11th C BCE, Western Zhou (early)
  7. 7. • Bronze Gui of Shi You, Western Zhou period (1046- 771)
  8. 8. • Shi Qiang bronze vessel (pan), Middle Western Zhou Dynasty (end of tenth century B.C.)
  9. 9. • Final part of this inscription: “Would that this valorous grandfather and cultured deceased father grant favor; and give Qiang vibrant freshness, fortunate peace, blessed wealth, a yellowing old age, and a prolonged life so that he may be worthy to serve his ruler. May he for ten thousand years eternally treasure and use it.”
  10. 10. Gui of Xing Hou, Western Zhou (early to middle), 1050-771 BCE
  11. 11. • Inscription inside gui
  12. 12. Inscription Translation: Precisely in the third month the king issued his decree to Rong and the Inner Court Scribe, announcing: 'Assist the Marquis of Xing in his [ritual] observances! I give you three kinds of servants: Zhou people, Dong people and Yong people.' We [Rong and the Inner Court Scribe) cross our hands and lower our heads to praise the son of heaven for effecting this favour and blessing, which are able to reach and to mingle [among the spirits] above and below. May Di, the High Ancestor, not end the mandate for the existence of the Zhou. We will honour our deceased ancestors and in response [to this decree] will not dare to fail [in our misson]. We will carry our fortunate pledge and long serve the son of heaven. Using a record of the king's decree we made this vessel for the Duke of Zhou. Inscription Comment: Translation after Moore 2000
  13. 13. • Bell, Eastern Zhou dynasty, late Spring and Autumn period (770– ca. 475 B.C.), early 5th century B.C.
  14. 14. • Set of bronze bells, Zhou dynasty
  15. 15. • Chime of twenty-six bronze bells (zhong), Middle Spring and Autumn Period (c. 550 B.C.)
  16. 16. • I, Wangsun Gao, selected my auspicious metals and for myself made these harmonizing bells. They are long-vibrating and sonorous, and their fine sound is very loud. With them, sternly and in a very dignified manner, I reverently serve the king of Chua... Glistening are the harmonizing bells. With them feast in order to please and make happy the king of Chu... How blissful and brightly joyous! For ten thousand years without end, forever preserve and strike them. trans. Lothar von Falkenhausen s very loud. With them, sternly and in a very dignified manner, I reverently serve the king of Chua... Glistening are the harmonizing bells. With them feast in o
  17. 17. • Pair of covered ritual wine containers (hu), late Western Zhou dynasty (ca. 1046–771 B.C.), late 9th–early 8th century B.C.
  18. 18. • Ritual food container (fang yi) • 11th-10th century B.C. Unidentified, Chinese Early Western Zhou dynasty Bronze H: 35.3 W: 24.8 D: 23.3 cm Luoyang, Henan province, China
  19. 19. • Closeup of a Zhou inscribed bronze, 10th C BCE The King attacked Chi-yu and then Nao-hei. When he returned he conducted the liao sacrifice at tsung-chou and presented (to me) ten double strings of cowries (money). In order to extoll the King’s benevolence and to honor my worthy father, I have made this precious kuei (gui). May sons and grandsons eternally treasure and use it
  20. 20. • Ritual food container (dui), Eastern Zhou dynasty (771–256 B.C.), ca. 4th century B.
  21. 21. • Closeup of bone black & lacquer inlay
  22. 22. • Tomb of Marquis Yi, Western Zhou Warring States period, 433 BCE
  23. 23. • Lacquer ware coffin with phoenix and dragon design, Middle Warring States Period (second half of fourth century B.C.)
  24. 24. • Outer Coffin of Marquis Yi: lacquerware
  25. 25. • Bells from Marquis Yi’s Tomb, 433 BCE
  26. 26. • Lacquerware duck from tomb of Marquis Yi
  27. 27. Bronze zun-pan vessels, Warring States Period (c. first half of fifth century B.C.) , Tomb of Marquis Yi
  28. 28. • Pair of bronze hu from Marquis of Yi’s tomb. Inscribed “Marquis Yi of Zeng commissioned [this vessel]; may he possess and use it for eternity."
  29. 29. • Openwork Jade piece (belt?) found in Tomb ofMaquis of Yi
  30. 30. • Inscribed Bamboo Slips from Tomb of Marquis Yi, listing mourners present at funeral
  31. 31. • Silk painting featuring a man riding a dragon, dated to 6th century BCE.
  32. 32. • Detail of an embroidered silk gauze ritual garment from a 4th century BC, Zhou era tomb at Mashan, Hubei province, China
  33. 33. • Bronze mirror back inlaid with gold and silver from Jincun near Luoyang, Henan province, c. 3rd century bc, Dong (Eastern) Zhou dynasty; in the Eisei Bunko Foundation, Tokyo.