Use this one_respiration & fermentation

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  • Movement of hydrogen atoms from glucose to water
  • Use this one_respiration & fermentation

    1. 1. Cellular Respiration
    2. 2. Harvesting energy stored in food • Cellular respiration – breaking down food to produce ATP • in mitochondria • using oxygen food – “aerobic” respiration – usually digesting glucose • but could be other sugars, fats, or proteins O2 glucose + oxygen → + carbon dioxide + water C6H12O6 + 6O2 → + 6CO2 + 6H2O ATP
    3. 3. Mitochondria Located in plant and animal cells
    4. 4. What do we need to make energy? • The “Furnace” for making energy – mitochondria • Fuel – food: carbohydrates, fats, proteins • Helpers – oxygen – enzymes food enzymes • Product – ATP • Waste products – carbon dioxide • then used by plants – water O2 ATP CO2 H2O
    5. 5. Chemical Structure of ATP
    6. 6. Cellular Respiration C6H12O6 + 6O2  6 CO2 + 6 H2O + 36-38 ATP • • • • Uses O2 (aerobic) Starts in the cytoplasm but ends in mitochondria Eukaryotic organisms 3 steps: – Glycolosis – Kreb’s cycle (citric acid cycle) – Electron transport chain • 36-38 ATP are produced
    7. 7. Metabolism of Glucose • • • • A multistep pathway Catalyzed by an enzyme at every step Energy is transferred to ATP 3 major processes that are important for the “harvest” of energy from glucose – Glycolysis – splitting into pyruvic acid – Fermentation - anaerobic – Cellular Respiration - aerobic
    8. 8. cellular
    9. 9. Anaerobic Respiration • Fermentation – alcohol fermentation • yeast – glucose → ATP + CO2+ alcohol – make beer, wine, bread – lactic acid fermentation • bacteria, animals – glucose → ATP + lactic acid – bacteria make yogurt – animals feel muscle fatigue
    10. 10. Fermentation C6H12O6 2CO2 + C2H5OH + 2 ATP • Occurs in the cytoplasm of the cell • NO O2 is present (anaerobic) • Prokaryotic organisms (don’t have membrane-bound organelles) and sometimes in eukaryotic* • Two short fermentation pathways are the best understood – Lactic acid: • End byproduct is lactic acid – Alcohol: • End byproduct is ethyl alcohol • 2 ATP are produced
    11. 11. Lactic Acid Fermentation • Occurs in many microorganisms & in some muscle tissues* • *Energy is needed for muscle contraction – Blood cannot supply muscles with O2 fast enough so muscle cells revert to lactic acid fermentation – Lactic acid build is what causes muscle cramping
    12. 12. Alcohol Fermentation • Occurs in some yeasts & plants cells under anaerobic conditions • Result is ethyl alcohol • Alcohol beverages and bread are made using this type of fermentation
    13. 13. Summary of Cellular Energy Processes QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture.

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