Shifts Person, Number, Tense
Definition of Shift <ul><li>A shift occurs whenever you move from one form in a sentence to another. </li></ul><ul><li>ANA...
Parallel Construction vs. Shifts <ul><li>Parallel Construction: Parts of the sentence need to follow  the same pattern </l...
Parallelism vs. Shifts Analogy <ul><li>The lanes of the sentence “highway” need to be parallel (run parallel to each other...
Types of Shifts <ul><li>Always avoid distracting shifts in: </li></ul><ul><li>person </li></ul><ul><li>number </li></ul><u...
REMEMBER… <ul><li>We want to AVOID and CORRECT shifts in our writing. </li></ul><ul><li>Shifts=Bad </li></ul>
1) Shifts in Person <ul><li>Person=point of view in writing </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>FIRST PERSON=the writer’s point of v...
Shifts in Person <ul><ul><li>RULE: You SHOULD keep your writing in the same point of view throughout the entire piece </li...
Example of shift in person <ul><li>One week  our  class met in a junkyard to practice rescuing a victim trapped in a wreck...
Example of shift in person <ul><li>CORRECTED VERSION: </li></ul><ul><li>One week our class met in a junkyard to practice r...
2) Shifts in Number <ul><li>Number=number of items/people talking about in a sentence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Singular=one <...
2) Shifts in Number <ul><li>RULE: </li></ul><ul><li>You need to keep the number of people/objects you are discussing the s...
Example of shift in number <ul><li>A police officer  is often criticized for always being there when  they  aren’t needed ...
Example of shift in number <ul><li>CORRECTED VERSION: </li></ul><ul><li>Police officers are  often criticized for always b...
3) Shifts in Verb Tense <ul><li>Verb tense=time period action is happening in </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Present=NOW </li></ul>...
3) Shifts in Verb Tense <ul><li>RULE: </li></ul><ul><li>Always keep your sentences/essays in either PRESENT, PAST or FUTUR...
Example of shift in verb tense <ul><li>There was no way I  could fight  the current and win.  Just as I  was losing  hope,...
Example of shift in verb tense <ul><li>CORRECTED VERSION: </li></ul><ul><li>There was no way I could fight the current and...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Shifts notes 1a powerpoint

2,937 views

Published on

0 Comments
3 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total views
2,937
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
355
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
67
Comments
0
Likes
3
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Shifts notes 1a powerpoint

  1. 1. Shifts Person, Number, Tense
  2. 2. Definition of Shift <ul><li>A shift occurs whenever you move from one form in a sentence to another. </li></ul><ul><li>ANALOGY: Shifts are like sudden swerves from one lane to another while driving. They can cause confusion. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Parallel Construction vs. Shifts <ul><li>Parallel Construction: Parts of the sentence need to follow the same pattern </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Only sentences w/ series or pairs of words </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Shifts: Parts of the sentence need to use the same types of words </li></ul><ul><ul><li>All types of sentences </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Parallelism vs. Shifts Analogy <ul><li>The lanes of the sentence “highway” need to be parallel (run parallel to each other following same pattern) </li></ul><ul><li>AND </li></ul><ul><li>They need to have the same “format” (size of lane, pavement, painting, etc.) </li></ul>
  5. 5. Types of Shifts <ul><li>Always avoid distracting shifts in: </li></ul><ul><li>person </li></ul><ul><li>number </li></ul><ul><li>tense </li></ul><ul><li>mood </li></ul><ul><li>voice </li></ul><ul><li>discourse (type of writing) </li></ul>
  6. 6. REMEMBER… <ul><li>We want to AVOID and CORRECT shifts in our writing. </li></ul><ul><li>Shifts=Bad </li></ul>
  7. 7. 1) Shifts in Person <ul><li>Person=point of view in writing </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>FIRST PERSON=the writer’s point of view (using “I” or “we”) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>SECOND PERSON=writer speaks directly to reader (uses “you”) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>NEVER USE SECOND PERSON IN FORMAL WRITING </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>THIRD PERSON=writer talks about the subject separate from him/herself (using “they”, “s/he”, “it”) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Shifts in Person <ul><ul><li>RULE: You SHOULD keep your writing in the same point of view throughout the entire piece </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>EXAMPLE: If in FIRST PERSON (using “I” or “we”)--use consistently throughout essay </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>A shift in person occurs when a writer changes from one form (1st, 2nd or 3rd person) to another. </li></ul><ul><li>Usually identify shifts in person by looking at the pronouns. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Example of shift in person <ul><li>One week our class met in a junkyard to practice rescuing a victim trapped in a wrecked car. We learned to dismantle the car with the essential tools. You were graded on your speed and your skill in extricating the victim. </li></ul><ul><li>PROBLEM: Begins with “we”, ends with “you”. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Example of shift in person <ul><li>CORRECTED VERSION: </li></ul><ul><li>One week our class met in a junkyard to practice rescuing a victim trapped in a wrecked car. We learned to dismantle the car with the essential tools. We were graded on our speed and our skill in extricating the victim. </li></ul>
  11. 11. 2) Shifts in Number <ul><li>Number=number of items/people talking about in a sentence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Singular=one </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Plural=more than one </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>NOTE: Even first person has plural (we) </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. 2) Shifts in Number <ul><li>RULE: </li></ul><ul><li>You need to keep the number of people/objects you are discussing the same throughout the paragraph/paper. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Start singular…stay singular </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Start plural…stay plural. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>A shift in number occurs when a writer changes from singular or plural to the opposite in the same paragraph/paper. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ex. Start out singular…switch to plural </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Example of shift in number <ul><li>A police officer is often criticized for always being there when they aren’t needed and never being there when they are. </li></ul><ul><li>PROBLEM: Police officer is SINGULAR. They is PLURAL. Not the right pronoun to replace antecedent. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Example of shift in number <ul><li>CORRECTED VERSION: </li></ul><ul><li>Police officers are often criticized for always being there when they aren’t needed and never being there when they are. </li></ul><ul><li>OR </li></ul><ul><li>A police officer is often criticized for always being there when s/he isn’t needed and never being there when s/he is . </li></ul>
  15. 15. 3) Shifts in Verb Tense <ul><li>Verb tense=time period action is happening in </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Present=NOW </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Past=ALREADY HAPPENED </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Future=WILL HAPPEN </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. 3) Shifts in Verb Tense <ul><li>RULE: </li></ul><ul><li>Always keep your sentences/essays in either PRESENT, PAST or FUTURE tense. Be consistent throughout the entire piece. </li></ul><ul><li>Shifts in verb tense occur when a writer switches verb tense within an essay. </li></ul><ul><li>Identify shits in verb tense by examining verbs . </li></ul>
  17. 17. Example of shift in verb tense <ul><li>There was no way I could fight the current and win. Just as I was losing hope, a stranger jumps off a passing boat and swims toward me. </li></ul><ul><li>PROBLEM: “Was losing” is in past tense, but “jumps” and “swims” are in present tense. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Example of shift in verb tense <ul><li>CORRECTED VERSION: </li></ul><ul><li>There was no way I could fight the current and win. Just as I was losing hope, a stranger jumped off a passing boat and swam toward me. </li></ul>

×