Fragments notes 2 powerpoint

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Fragments notes 2 powerpoint

  1. 1. Repairing Fragment Sentences Fragments Notes Set #2
  2. 2. Repairing Sentence Fragments <ul><li>Two main ways to repair fragments: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Attach fragment to nearby sentence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Add missing words to the fragment to make it into a complete sentence. </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Helpful Hints for Attaching Fragments to Nearby Sentences
  4. 4. Subordinate Clauses <ul><li>Subordinate clause =phrase looks like a sentence (has a subject and verb), but begins w/ word that makes it subordinate (can’t stand on it’s own..not complete thought) </li></ul><ul><li>Example: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Even though (subordinate “clue”) we (subject) had lunch (verb) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Missing information…isn’t a complete thought </li></ul></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Subordinate Clauses <ul><li>“Clue” words hint at a subordinate clause </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Main words: BECAUSE, ALTHOUGH, IF, SINCE, THAN, THAT, THOUGH, WHETHER, WHICH </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Full list on p. 151 of Hacker </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Repairing Fragment with Subordinate Clause <ul><li>Attach subordinate clause fragment to nearby sentence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Although my spoken Spanish is not very good. (fragment) I can read the language with ease. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CORRECT: Although my spoken Spanish is not very good, I can read the language with ease. </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. When NOT to attach subordinate clause <ul><li>Do NOT attach the subordinate clause fragment to a nearby sentence if it would be awkward. Instead add words to make the fragment complete </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Population increases and uncontrolled development are taking a deadly toll on the environment. So that in many parts of the world, fragile ecosystems are collapsing. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>AWKWARD: Population increases and uncontrolled development are taking a deadly toll on the environment so that in many parts of the world, fragile ecosystems are collapsing. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CORRECT: Population increases and uncontrolled development are taking a deadly toll on the environment. In many parts of the world, fragile ecosystems are collapsing. </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Phrases w/ Coordinating Conjunctions <ul><li>“Sentences” beginning with coordinating conjunctions are usually fragments </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Coordinating Conjunctions: AND, BUT, OR, NOR, FOR, YET </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Example: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The temperature outside was extremely cold. And I forgot my coat. (fragment) </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Repairing Phrases w/ Coordinating Conjunctions <ul><li>Attach phrase w/ coordinating conjunction to nearby sentence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The temperature outside was extremely cold. And I forgot my coat. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CORRECT: The temperature outside was extremely cold and I forgot my coat. </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Lists that are Fragments <ul><li>A list can be a fragment sentence. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: Listening to a CD her sister had sent, Mia was overcome with a mix of emotions. Happiness, homesickness, nostalgia. (fragment) </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Repairing Lists that are Fragments <ul><li>Attach list to nearby sentence w/ colon (:) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: Listening to a CD her sister had sent, Mia was overcome with a mix of emotions: happiness, homesickness, nostalgia. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Attach list to nearby sentence using a connecting term </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Connecting terms: ESPECIALLY, NAMELY, LIKE, SUCH AS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: Listening to a CD her sister had sent, Mia was overcome with a mix of emotions especially happiness, homesickness, and nostalgia. </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Examples that are Fragments <ul><li>Example “sentences” can be fragments. </li></ul><ul><li>“Clue” words introduce an example </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ALSO, AND, BUT, FOR EXAMPLE, FOR INSTANCE, IN ADDITION, MAINLY, OR, THAT IS </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Example: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Janie shoveled her elderly neighbors’ driveway. Also brought in their mail and shopped for groceries. (fragment) </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Repairing Examples that are Fragments <ul><li>Add words to fragment to turn it into a complete sentence. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Janie shoveled her elderly neighbors’ driveway. She also brought in their mail and shopped for groceries. </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. WARNING! <ul><li>The Hacker handbook says fragments can be used deliberately for effect. </li></ul><ul><li>DO NOT use fragments for effect in your papers! </li></ul>

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