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Commas Notes Set #2
5) Non-restrictive Elements <ul><li>Use commas to set off (on either side of) non-restrictive elements </li></ul><ul><ul><...
Examples: Non-restrictive Elements <ul><li>Ed’s house , which is located on thirteen acres,  was completely furnished with...
6) Restrictive Elements <ul><li>Do NOT use commas to set off restrictive elements. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Restrictive eleme...
Examples of Restrictive Elements <ul><li>Ramon’s cat  that just had kittens  became defensive around the other cats in the...
7) Transitional Expressions <ul><li>Use commas to set off (at beginning and end) parenthetical expressions. </li></ul><ul>...
Transitional Expressions--Examples <ul><li>Minh did not understand our language;  moreover,  he was unfamiliar with our cu...
8) Parenthetical Expressions <ul><li>Use commas to set off (at beginning and end) parenthetical expressions. </li></ul><ul...
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Commas notes2 powerpoint

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Commas notes2 powerpoint

  1. 1. Commas Notes Set #2
  2. 2. 5) Non-restrictive Elements <ul><li>Use commas to set off (on either side of) non-restrictive elements </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Non-restrictive element=a phrase whose meaning is NOT essential to the sentence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>If you removed the non-restrictive element from the sentence the meaning wouldn’t change much </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Non-restrictive elements don’ t add that much to the meaning of the sentence </li></ul></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Examples: Non-restrictive Elements <ul><li>Ed’s house , which is located on thirteen acres, was completely furnished with bats in the rafters and mice in the kitchen. </li></ul><ul><li>The helicopter , with its million-candlepower spotlight illuminating the area, circled above. </li></ul><ul><li>Darwin’s most important book , On the Origin of Species , was the result of many years of research. </li></ul>
  4. 4. 6) Restrictive Elements <ul><li>Do NOT use commas to set off restrictive elements. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Restrictive element=phrase that is essential to the meaning of the sentence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The meaning of the sentence would COMPLETELY change if a restrictive element was removed. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Examples of Restrictive Elements <ul><li>Ramon’s cat that just had kittens became defensive around the other cats in the house. </li></ul><ul><li>One corner of the attic was filled with newspapers dating from the turn of the century . </li></ul><ul><li>The movie Rear Window was played on the classic movie channel this weekend. </li></ul>
  6. 6. 7) Transitional Expressions <ul><li>Use commas to set off (at beginning and end) parenthetical expressions. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Transitional expression=bridge between parts within a sentence, joins parts of sentence--Is a non-restrictive element </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>When mid-sentence often comes after a semi-colon </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>When mid-sentence needs to have commas on either side of it </li></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Transitional Expressions--Examples <ul><li>Minh did not understand our language; moreover, he was unfamiliar with our customs. </li></ul><ul><li>As a matter of fact, American football was established by fans who wanted to play a more organized game of rugby. </li></ul><ul><li>Natural foods are not always salt free; celery , for example, contains more sodium than most people would imagine. </li></ul>
  8. 8. 8) Parenthetical Expressions <ul><li>Use commas to set off (at beginning and end) parenthetical expressions. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Parenthetical expression=interrupt flow of sentence or appear at end of sentence as an afterthought. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Yanon , as far as we know, voted for John McCain for president. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The test was exceptionally easy , give or take a few questions. </li></ul></ul>

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