EV682 Session 3 How learning develops


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  • Learning The acquisition and application of knowledge, skills and understandingDevelopmentRefers to changes that occur in human beings from conception onwardsappear in a gradual and predictable way; maturationare generally assumed to be for the bettercan be broken down into:physicalemotionalsocialcognitive attributes
  • A theory is an organised body of knowledge agreed by and/or promoted by a reputable group which enables us to PredictExplainAsk questions aboutthe world around us
  • Implications for teaching (oversimplified but quite useful) From Moore (2000)
  • If you only read one of these - make it Bruner (1996)Follow up from today: Read Chapter 1 ‘Models of Teaching and learning’ in Moore, A. (2000) Teaching and Learning: pedagogy, curriculum and Culture. London, RoutledgeBefore the next EV682 session: Blog post 2 and responses on the themes of this seminar.
  • EV682 Session 3 How learning develops

    1. 1. How learning develops
    2. 2. What helps us understand children’s learning and development? • Theorists • Ideologies/theories • Research • Curriculums • Assessment (observation) • Experience
    3. 3. Holistic framework Learning and development
    4. 4. Domains of development Cognitive development Affective development Motor development is concerned with understanding, remembering, problem solving, thinking, classifying, planning, conceptualising, making sense of the world. It relates to “the changes in one’s mental abilities that take place over the lifespan” (Doherty, J and Hughes, M, 2009, pg.465) Intellectual wellbeing is concerned with social and emotional aspects of development. Emotion, personality temperament, self-esteem and self- concept. Affective domains are ‘aspects of development that are to do with feelings and emotions’ (Doherty, J and Hughes, M, 2009, pg.464) Social and Emotional wellbeing is concerned with movement, control, dexterity, physical ability. “Motor development is continuous change in motor behaviour throughout the life cycle, brought about by interaction among the requirements of the movement task, the biology of the individual, and the conditions of the environment” (Gallahue, D and Ozmun, J, 2006, pg. 5) Physical wellbeing
    5. 5. Powerful maturational timetables Emergence of language Powerful internal force to learn Attachment, temperament? Diet, exercise, exploration, safe environment Stimulation and encouragement Influence of the environment, relationships, security, basic needs Motor Cognitive Affective NurtureNature
    6. 6. B.F. Skinner (1904 – 1990)  Law of reinforcement...  Operant conditioning  Shaping http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1b-NaoWUowQ http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yhvaSEJtOV8&feature=related
    7. 7. Jean Piaget Age 0-2 Reflexes - motor & sensory learning Age 2-7 ‘Egocentric’; self oriented 7-11 Decentralising: able to consider alternative outcomes 11 (15) Able to engage in abstract thinking & reasoning
    8. 8. People are ‘incomplete’ without interaction with others Social constructivist approach to education. Zone of proximal development L.S. Vygotsky (1896-1934)
    9. 9. The child is a young scientist The child evolves & refines schemas with experience and practice The child constructs meaning of the world through self-directed exploration and experimentation The child learns through interactions with others Emphasis on use of language to develop understanding Learning is first social and then individual
    10. 10. Piagetian perspective Vygotskian perspective assessment Students assessed against norms; summative and diagnostic testing Individual assessments, student in consultation with teacher; emphasis on formative assessment organisation Setting by ability levels No clear reason to set planning Establishment of whole class targets with some individual targeting Individual target-setting teaching Whole-class teaching with individual tuition-not necessarily transmissive Individual and small-group work; Whole class teaching not excluded
    11. 11. ‘Readiness’ for learning The learning context The spiral curriculum Scaffolding The role of language in thinking & reasoning Jerome Bruner
    12. 12. Barnes, D (1976) From Communication to Curriculum Bruner, J (1996) The Culture of Education Moore, A (2000) Teaching and Learning Wood, D (1998) How Children Think and Learn Follow up from today: Read Chapter 1 ‘Models of Teaching and learning’ in Moore, A. (2000) Teaching and Learning: pedagogy, curriculum and Culture. London, Routledge Before the next EV682 session: Blog post 2 and responses on the themes of this seminar.