Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.
Common Sentence Errors -   Comma Splices (CS) -   Run-On Sentences (RO) -   Sentence Fragments (Frag.)
What is a Comma Splice (CS)?A comma splice is a sentence with at least two independent clauses joined only by a comma Th...
What is a Run-On (RO)?A run-on sentence is a sentence with at least two independent clauses with no punctuation to separa...
Examples of Independent Clauses (IC) The boy walked to school. He arrived at 9:00 a.m. Sarah   needed to go to the groc...
ICs Written as Comma Splices The boy walked to school, he arrived at 9:00 a.m. Sarah needed to go to the grocery store, ...
ICs Written as Run-Ons The boy walked to school he arrived at 9:00 a.m. Sarahneeded to go to the grocery store she had t...
Ways to Fix These Errors…        SIX WAYS         TO FIXCOMMA SPLICES AND RUN-ONS
#1: Use a Transitional ExpressionJoin the two clauses with semi-colon (;), transitionalexpression, and a comma (,)    The...
#2: Turn It into a Compound SentenceJoin the two clauses with a comma anda coordinating conjunction (and, but, or,nor, for...
#2 continued The boy walked to school, and arrived at 9:00 a.m. Sarah needed to go to the grocery store, so she could bu...
#3: Join the Two Clauses      with a semi-colon (;) The boy walked to school; he arrived at 9:00 a.m. Sarah needed to go...
#4: Separate the Clauses into        Two Sentences The boy walked to school. He arrived at 9:00 a.m. Sarahneeded to go t...
#5: Turn One of the Clauses   into a Dependent Clause Since the boy walked to school, he arrived at 9:00 a.m. Because sh...
#6: Transform the Two Clauses into a       Single Independent Clause Written as a CS/RO: I realized that it was time to c...
What is a Sentence Fragment? Fragments   are incomplete sentences. Usually, they are pieces of sentences  that have beco...
A Complete Sentence… Names   a subject – the who or what  that performs the action Has a complete verb that indicates  t...
Examples of Complete Sentences   Simple Sentence—subject, verb, predicate    Rebecca        studied            in the cof...
A Dependent Clause…   is a group of words that contains a subject and a verb but    does not express a complete thought a...
Several Types of Fragments Dependent  clause fragments Phrase fragments Mixed constructions Fragments that begin with ...
Dependent Clause Fragments These begin with a subordinating word. (See the handout on “Connecting Words” for examples.) ...
Fixing Dependent Clause               Fragments   Fragment: MSU offers many engineering majors. Such as              elec...
Phrase Fragments Oftenfragments are phrase fragments – groups of words that lack a subject or complete verb and are usual...
Fixing Phrase Fragments   One way to fix this is to transform the phrase    fragment into an independent clause.Fragment:...
Fixing Phrase Fragments   Another way to fix it is to attach the fragment to    the part of the previous sentence that it...
Mixed Construction Fragments Mixed Constructions start out one way (often with  long prepositional phrases) and then end ...
Fixing Mixed Construction Fragments(No subject; begins with preposition) Fragment:        With the ultimate effect of all...
Fragments that Begin with TransitionsWord Groups that Start with Transitions   Some fragments start with two- or three-wo...
Fragments that Introduce ExamplesWords and Phrases that Introduce Examples It is always a good idea to check words groups...
Appositives as Fragments   An appositive is a noun or noun phrase that renames a noun or    pronoun.   Fragment:   In 19...
List Fragments   Usually, you can connect a list to the preceding    sentence using a colon. If you want to emphasize    ...
Fragments with Compound Predicates   A compound predicate is made up of at least two verbs as    well as their objects an...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Gülsüm kazancı

1,620 views

Published on

  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

Gülsüm kazancı

  1. 1. Common Sentence Errors - Comma Splices (CS) - Run-On Sentences (RO) - Sentence Fragments (Frag.)
  2. 2. What is a Comma Splice (CS)?A comma splice is a sentence with at least two independent clauses joined only by a comma There is no conjunction or proper transition separate the independent clauses
  3. 3. What is a Run-On (RO)?A run-on sentence is a sentence with at least two independent clauses with no punctuation to separate the clauses Readers can’t tell where one clause ends and the next one begins. It just keeps going and going and going and going and going... Also called a fused sentence.
  4. 4. Examples of Independent Clauses (IC) The boy walked to school. He arrived at 9:00 a.m. Sarah needed to go to the grocery store. She had to buy eggs to make breakfast.
  5. 5. ICs Written as Comma Splices The boy walked to school, he arrived at 9:00 a.m. Sarah needed to go to the grocery store, she had to buy eggs to make breakfast.
  6. 6. ICs Written as Run-Ons The boy walked to school he arrived at 9:00 a.m. Sarahneeded to go to the grocery store she had to buy eggs to make breakfast.
  7. 7. Ways to Fix These Errors… SIX WAYS TO FIXCOMMA SPLICES AND RUN-ONS
  8. 8. #1: Use a Transitional ExpressionJoin the two clauses with semi-colon (;), transitionalexpression, and a comma (,) The boy walked to school; soon, he arrived at 9:00 a.m. Sarah needed to go to the grocery store; specifically, she had to buy eggs to make breakfast.
  9. 9. #2: Turn It into a Compound SentenceJoin the two clauses with a comma anda coordinating conjunction (and, but, or,nor, for, so, yet) Just be sure to choose the conjunction that best expresses the relationship between the two clauses
  10. 10. #2 continued The boy walked to school, and arrived at 9:00 a.m. Sarah needed to go to the grocery store, so she could buy eggs to make breakfast.
  11. 11. #3: Join the Two Clauses with a semi-colon (;) The boy walked to school; he arrived at 9:00 a.m. Sarah needed to go to the grocery store; she had to buy eggs to make breakfast.
  12. 12. #4: Separate the Clauses into Two Sentences The boy walked to school. He arrived at 9:00 a.m. Sarahneeded to go to the grocery store. She had to buy eggs to make breakfast.
  13. 13. #5: Turn One of the Clauses into a Dependent Clause Since the boy walked to school, he arrived at 9:00 a.m. Because she needed eggs to make breakfast, Sarah needed to go to the grocery store.
  14. 14. #6: Transform the Two Clauses into a Single Independent Clause Written as a CS/RO: I realized that it was time to choose, I had to learn how to drive or I had to move back to the city. Corrected: I realized that it was time to learn how to drive or move back to the city.
  15. 15. What is a Sentence Fragment? Fragments are incomplete sentences. Usually, they are pieces of sentences that have become disconnected from the main clause. Sometimes fragments are used intentionally for emphasis In formal, academic writing, however, you want to mostly avoid fragments.
  16. 16. A Complete Sentence… Names a subject – the who or what that performs the action Has a complete verb that indicates tense, person, and number. Includes at least one independent clause and does not begin with a subordinating word (a word that connects a dependent clause to an independent clause)
  17. 17. Examples of Complete Sentences Simple Sentence—subject, verb, predicate Rebecca studied in the coffee shop for her chemistry quiz. Subject Verb Predicate (expresses what is true about the subject) Compound Sentence—at least two independent clauses connected by a coordinator/connector word Rebecca studied in the coffee shop for her chemistry quiz, Subject Verb Predicate and she also wrote her paper. Connecting word Subject Predicate Complex Sentence—one independent clause (main clause) and one dependent clause Rebecca studied in the coffee shop for hours because subject Verb Predicate Subordinating word (begins the dependent clause) she had a chemistry quiz the next day. Subject Verb Predicate
  18. 18. A Dependent Clause… is a group of words that contains a subject and a verb but does not express a complete thought and cannot be a sentence. Often you can identify a dependent clause because it begins with a connecting (conjunctive or subordinating) word—see the “Connecting Word List” handout to learn what these words are.Because Rebecca studied in the coffee shop for hours.Although Rebecca studied in the coffee shop for hours.And Rebecca studied in the coffee shop for hours.(The thoughts are incomplete—they are fragments of thoughts.)
  19. 19. Several Types of Fragments Dependent clause fragments Phrase fragments Mixed constructions Fragments that begin with transitions Fragments that introduce examples Fragments that are appositives Fragments that introduce lists Fragments with compound predicates
  20. 20. Dependent Clause Fragments These begin with a subordinating word. (See the handout on “Connecting Words” for examples.) They can be easily fixed by attaching the fragment to nearby independent clause either  with a comma (,) or  by creating two sentences by deleting the subordinating word at the beginning of the dependent clause.
  21. 21. Fixing Dependent Clause Fragments Fragment: MSU offers many engineering majors. Such as electrical, chemical, and industrial engineering. Revision: MSU offers many engineering majors, such as electrical, chemical, and industrial engineering. Fragment: I need to find a new roommate. Because the one I have now isn’t working out too well. Revision: I need to find a new roommate because the one I have now isn’t working out too well. EXCEPTION: Never use a comma before the word “because.”
  22. 22. Phrase Fragments Oftenfragments are phrase fragments – groups of words that lack a subject or complete verb and are usually meant to be modifiers or nouns. Phrase fragments usually begin with verbals, or words that come from verbs, like putting (gerund) or to put (infinitive).
  23. 23. Fixing Phrase Fragments One way to fix this is to transform the phrase fragment into an independent clause.Fragment: That summer we had so much fun. Fishing in the early morning, splashing in the lake after lunch, exploring the woods before dinner, and playing Scrabble until bedtime.Revision: That summer we had so much fun. We fished in the early morning, splashed in the lake after lunch, explored the woods before dinner, and played Scrabble until bedtime.
  24. 24. Fixing Phrase Fragments Another way to fix it is to attach the fragment to the part of the previous sentence that it modifies.Fragment: That summer we had so much fun. Fishing in the early morning, splashing in the lake after lunch, exploring the woods before dinner, and playing Scrabble until bedtime.Revision: That summer we had so much fun, fishing in the early morning, splashing in the lake after lunch, exploring the woods before dinner, and playing Scrabble until bedtime.
  25. 25. Mixed Construction Fragments Mixed Constructions start out one way (often with long prepositional phrases) and then end with a regular predicate. Usually the object of the preposition (often a gerund, is intended as the subject of the sentence. Therefore, removing the preposition at the beginning of the sentence is usually the easiest way to fix the fragment error. Look for sentences that begin with prepositional phrases.
  26. 26. Fixing Mixed Construction Fragments(No subject; begins with preposition) Fragment: With the ultimate effect of all advertising is to sell the product. Revision: The ultimate effect of all advertising is to sell the product. (remove the preposition “with”)(No subject; begins with preposition) Fragment: By paying too much attention to disruptive students can make a teacher grumpy. Revision: Paying too much attention to disruptive students can make teacher grumpy. (remove the preposition “by”)(No subject; begins with preposition) Fragment: For doing photography for another newspaper got Phil fired. Revision: Doing photography for another newspaper got Phil fired. (remove the preposition “for”) Revision: Phil got fired for doing photography for another newspaper. (rearrange the sentence)
  27. 27. Fragments that Begin with TransitionsWord Groups that Start with Transitions Some fragments start with two- or three-word prepositions that function as transitions, like as well as, as compared with, except for, in addition to, in contrast with, in spite of, and instead of. Fragment: For sixty-five years, the growth in consumer spending has been both steep and steady. As compared with the growth in gross domestic product (GDP), which has fluctuated significantly. Revision: For sixty-five years, the growth in consumer spending has been both steep and steady, as compared with the growth in gross domestic product (GDP), which has fluctuated significantly.
  28. 28. Fragments that Introduce ExamplesWords and Phrases that Introduce Examples It is always a good idea to check words groups beginning with for example, like, specifically, such as, etc. Fragment: Elizabeth I of England faced many dangers as a princess. For example, falling out of favor with her sister, Queen Mary, and being imprisoned in the Tower of London. Revision: Elizabeth I of England faced many dangers as a princess. For example, she fell out of favor with her sister, Queen Mary, and was imprisoned in the Tower of London.
  29. 29. Appositives as Fragments An appositive is a noun or noun phrase that renames a noun or pronoun. Fragment: In 1965, Lyndon Johnson increased the number of troops in Vietnam. A former French colony in southeast Asia. Revision: In 1965, Lyndon Johnson increased the number of troops in Vietnam, a former French colony in southeast Asia. Fragment: Charlotte Perkins Gillman wrote “The Yellow Wallpaper.” A story with deep thoughts and emotions. Revision: Charlotte Perkins Gillman wrote “The Yellow Wallpaper,” a story with deep thoughts and emotions.
  30. 30. List Fragments Usually, you can connect a list to the preceding sentence using a colon. If you want to emphasize the list, consider using a dash (em dash) instead. Fragment: In the 1930s, three great band leaders helped popularize Jazz. Louis Armstrong, Benny Goodman, and Duke Ellington. Revision: In the 1930s, three great band leaders helped popularize Jazz: Louis Armstrong, Benny Goodman, and Duke Ellington.
  31. 31. Fragments with Compound Predicates A compound predicate is made up of at least two verbs as well as their objects and modifiers, connected by a coordinating conjunction such as and, but, so, or, nor, for, and yet. The parts of the predicate have the same subject and should be together in one sentence. Fragment: The group gathered at dawn at the base of the mountain. And assembled their gear in preparation for the morning’s climb. Revision: The group gathered at dawn at the base of the mountain and assembled their gear in preparation for the morning’s climb.

×