U Boot Presentation Final

3,365 views

Published on

Published in: Education
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
3,365
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
3
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
50
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

U Boot Presentation Final

  1. 1. DEUTSCHE UNTERSEEBOOTE OPERATIONEN IM ZWEITEN WELTKRIEG
  2. 2. OVERVIEW INTRODUCTION U-BOOT OPERATIONS U-BOOT TACTICS ENIGMA “ ACES OF THE DEEP” LIFE ONBOARD U-156 LEGACY QUESTIONS
  3. 3. INTRODUCTION <ul><li>Submarines used be Germany during WW I (1914-1918) </li></ul><ul><li>“ Unrestricted Submarine Warfare” </li></ul><ul><li> Sinking of the LUSITANIA </li></ul><ul><li>Germany has a limited coastline – easily blockaded </li></ul><ul><ul><li>During WW II (1939 – 1945) established based in conquered countries – France and Norway </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Primary mission to disrupt Allied shipping and control sea lanes </li></ul><ul><li>German Navy (Kriegsmarine) not fanatic supporters of Nazi regime (unlike the Army and Air Force – Luftwaffe) </li></ul>
  4. 4. BEFEHLSHABER der UNTERSEEBOOTE ( BdU ) Grossadmiral Karl D önitz
  5. 5. Grossadmiral Karl D önitz 1891 - 1980
  6. 7. U-BOOT SHIPYARDS <ul><li>U-BOOT construction in Northern Germany </li></ul><ul><ul><li>North Sea & Baltic Sea </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1153 U-boats commissioned into the Kriegsmarine during 1935-1945 </li></ul><ul><li>Largest builder was Blohm + Voss </li></ul>
  7. 8. AG Weser, Bremen
  8. 9. U-BOOT OPERATIONS I <ul><li>German U-Boats operated WORLDWIDE </li></ul><ul><ul><li>PRIMARILY in the ATLANTIC </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mediterranean </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Caribbean </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Black Sea </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>MONSON U-Boats in the Far East (Penang Malaysia, Jakarta & Sabang Indonesia) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Assisted Imperial Japanese Navy </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Primary mission to disrupt merchant shipping, allied naval convoys and navy escorts </li></ul>
  9. 13. U-BOOT TACTICS <ul><li>Primary tactic developed by Donitz was the “Wolfpack” (Rudeltaktik) </li></ul><ul><li>Enough U-boats and facilities available after the fall of France in 1940 </li></ul><ul><li>Simple concept: gather U-boats in patrol lines to scout for convoys </li></ul>
  10. 14. “ WOLFPACKS” <ul><li>Once a convoy was spotted the first boat was designated &quot;shadower&quot; and would chase the convoy and report its heading and speed to BdU </li></ul><ul><li>This would allow other boats to form around it and attack , more or less all at once, usually on the surface at night </li></ul>
  11. 15. OPERATION “DRUMBEAT”, 1942 <ul><li>Largest U-Boat offensive against America </li></ul><ul><li>Commenced after Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Germany declared war on US on Dec 11, 1941 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>U.S. Navy had already been countering German U-Boats through work with Royal Navy </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Operation DRUMBEAT ( Paulkenschlag ) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Attacks on U.S. merchant shipping on East Coast </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Massive damage inflicted – over 3,000 nm away </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ Die Glückliche Zeit” (The Happy Time) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sunk 2 million tons (600 ships); 5000 killed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li> Only 7 U-Boats lost </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Operations commenced from bases in France </li></ul>
  12. 16. U-BOOT BASES IN OCCUPIED FRANCE
  13. 17. U-BOOT BUNKERS AT LA ROCHELLE (Modern Day)
  14. 19. “ BLACK MAY” - 1943 <ul><li>Turning point in May, 1943 </li></ul><ul><li>U.S. Navy established effective convoys </li></ul><ul><li>By Late 1942, shifted focus back to North Atlantic </li></ul><ul><li>Remained spread out across Atlantic </li></ul><ul><li>By Spring, 1943, Allies were able to defeat the Wolf Packs </li></ul><ul><li>Primary reasons for reversal: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Hunter-Killer” Groups </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Improved Detection capabilities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Aircraft Coverage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Breaking of Enigma Code </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>U-Boats being attacked leaving port </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>By end of 1943, majority of U-Boat fleet would be sunk </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most would be lost with ALL HANDS </li></ul></ul>
  15. 21. SPIES & SABOTEURS <ul><li>Saboteur Landings in 1942 & 1944 </li></ul><ul><li>German Military Intelligence (Abwehr) directed by Hitler to conduct sabotage operations inside American borders </li></ul><ul><li>Abwehr sabotage school located in Berlin </li></ul><ul><li>Teams delivered by U-Boats </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Operational failure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Arrested by FBI </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>6 of 10 captured saboeurs executed </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Intended targets included power plants, infrastructure, industry, canals, etc. </li></ul>Admiral Wilhelm Canaris 1887 - 1945
  16. 23. ENIGMA I
  17. 24. ULTRA INTELLIGENCE <ul><li>Enigma was a portable cipher machine </li></ul><ul><li>Used to encrypt and decrypt secret messages </li></ul><ul><li>Enigma utilized very sophisticated cryptanalysis techniques by changing the substitution alphabet </li></ul><ul><li>Allied codebreakers were able to decrypt a large number of messages that had been enciphered on the machine </li></ul><ul><li>The intelligence gained through this source — codenamed “ULTRA” — was a significant aid to the Allied war effort </li></ul><ul><li>By 1945, almost all German Enigma traffic (Wehrmacht, Kriegsmarine, Luftwaffe, Abwehr, SD, etc.) could be decrypted within a day or two </li></ul>
  18. 25. “ ACES OF THE DEEP” The Aces of the Deep were the ten U-Boat commanders during World War II who sunk the most enemy merchant ships during their naval services Ranked according to the total tonnage of the ships they sunk The term is related to flying ace, a World War I name for a pilot who shot down five or more enemy planes The currently accepted list is as follows: 1 Otto Kretschmer 2 Wolfgang Lüth 3 Erich Topp 4 Heinrich Liebe 5 Victor Schütze 6 Heinrich Lehmann-Willenbrock 7 Karl-Friedrich Merten 8 Herbert Schultze 9 Günther Prien 10 Georg Lassen
  19. 26. Otto Kretschmer 1912 - 1998 Fregattenkapitän (Crew 30) Successes 40 ships sunk for a total of 208.954 GRT 3 auxiliary warships sunk for a total of 46.440 GRT 1 warship sunk for a total of 1.375 tons 5 ships damaged for a total of 37.965 GRT 1 ship taken as prize for a total of 2.136 GRT 2 ships a total loss for a total of 15.513 GRT
  20. 27. Wolfgang Lüth 1913 - 1945 Kapitän zur See (Crew 33) Successes 46 ships sunk for a total of 225.204 GRT 1 warship sunk for a total of 552 tons 2 ships damaged for a total of 17.343 GRT
  21. 28. Erich Topp 1914 - 2005 Fregattenkapitän (Crew 34) Successes 34 ships sunk for a total of 197.233 GRT 1 auxiliary warship sunk for a total of 227 GRT 1 warship sunk for a total of 1.190 tons 4 ships damaged for a total of 32.317 GRT
  22. 29. Günther Prien 1908 – 1941 Korvettenkapitän (Crew 33) Successes 30 ships sunk for a total of 162.769 GRT 1 warship sunk for a total of 29.150 tons 8 ships damaged for a total of 62.751 GRT
  23. 30. Joachim Schepke 1912 - 1941 Kapitänleutnant (Crew 30) Successes 36 ships sunk for a total of 153.677 GRT 4 ships damaged for a total of 17.229 GRT 1 ship a total loss for a total of 2.205 GRT
  24. 31. U - 156 Kapitänleutnant Werner Harten
  25. 34. LACONIA INCIDENT <ul><li>On 12 September, 1942 U-156 sank the Allied liner LANCONIA west of Africa </li></ul><ul><li>136-man crew, some 80 civilians, military material and personnel (268 men) </li></ul><ul><li>Approx. 1800 Italian prisoners of war onboard </li></ul><ul><li>In the next days U-156 rescued some 400 survivors - 200 on board and the other 200 in lifeboats </li></ul><ul><li>On Sept 15, at 1130 hours U-506 under Kptlt Erich Würdemann arrived at the scene and continued to rescue the survivors </li></ul><ul><li>U.S. B-24 spotted and attacked U-156, forcing her to submerge </li></ul>
  26. 35. LACONIA ORDER <ul><li>Resulting rescue attempt infuriated German High Command </li></ul><ul><li>Prompted one of the most controversial order Dönitz ever issued </li></ul><ul><li>Known as the Laconia order: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No U-boats were to take part in any rescue operations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Leave any survivors in the sea </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Up until that time U-boats had on very many occasions helped the survivors of their victims with supplies, water, directions to nearest land </li></ul>
  27. 38. MARK VII DEPTH CHARGES
  28. 39. LIFE ONBOARD
  29. 55. U-BOAT LEGACY I
  30. 56. During WW II, over 40,000 sailors served on U- BOATS…
  31. 59. … .Fewer than 10,000 returned home….
  32. 61. … .A 75% Fatality Rate….
  33. 63. U-505 Museum in Chicago, Ill
  34. 79. BOOKS ABOUT U-BOATS
  35. 80. WEBSITES ABOUT U-BOATS http://www.uboat.net/index.html http://www.u-boot-archiv.de/index.php

×