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Action,helping, and linking verbs; complements


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Action, linking, helping verbs
complements: direct and indirect objects/predicate nominatives and predicate adjectives

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Action,helping, and linking verbs; complements

  1. 1. Verbs Like the sun , verbs are the energy of the sentence. They are often, but not always found at the center of the sentence. A sentence cannot exist without them .
  2. 2. Here are three kinds of verbs you should know: Action Verbs Linking Verbs Helping verbs
  3. 3. Present verbs <ul><li>An action verb that describes what is happening now is called a </li></ul><ul><li>present tense verb . </li></ul><ul><li>The bird flies </li></ul><ul><li>through the sky. </li></ul><ul><li>Flies is a present tense verb </li></ul><ul><li>because it is happening right </li></ul><ul><li>now. </li></ul>Free powerpoint template:
  4. 4. Present tense verbs <ul><li>Many present tense verbs end with s , but some end with es , or ies . </li></ul>Free powerpoint template: keep s smash es cr ies
  5. 5. Past Verbs <ul><li>Verbs which tell about actions which </li></ul><ul><li>happened some time ago are </li></ul><ul><li>past tense verbs. </li></ul><ul><li>The dog wanted a bone. </li></ul><ul><li>Wanted is a past tense verb </li></ul><ul><li>because the action has </li></ul><ul><li>already happened. </li></ul>Free powerpoint template:
  6. 6. Past tense verbs <ul><li>Many past tense verbs end with ed , but some end with d , or ied . </li></ul>Free powerpoint template: slapped cried said
  7. 7. Future Verbs <ul><li>Verbs which tell about actions that are going to happen are future tense verbs . </li></ul><ul><li>We will awaken at </li></ul><ul><li>six a.m. </li></ul><ul><li>Will awaken is a future tense </li></ul><ul><li>verb because the action has not </li></ul><ul><li>yet happened. </li></ul>Free powerpoint template:
  8. 8. Main Verbs and Helping Verbs: <ul><li>A verb phrase consists of at least one main verb and one or more helping verbs. A helping verb (also called an auxiliary verb ) helps the main verb express action or a state of being. </li></ul>is leaving
  9. 9. A helping verb is used before an action or linking verb to convey aspects of possibility (can, could, etc.) or time (was, did, has, etc.) may might must  be being been am are is was were (main) do does did (main) should could would have had has (main) will can shall
  10. 10. Notice how the helping verbs work together with the main verbs to form complete verb phrases . Not every sentence will have a helping verb. <ul><li>Would he like some help? </li></ul><ul><li>You should have offered sooner. </li></ul><ul><li>We shall probably be finished in an hour. </li></ul><ul><li>She had always been thinking of her future. </li></ul><ul><li>Has my sister played her new CD for you? </li></ul><ul><li>She shouldn’t have borrowed that necklace. </li></ul>Sometimes an adverb will separate a helping verb from a main verb. The boy could not find his socks. The helping verb is could and the main verb is find .
  11. 11. Helping Verbs <ul><li>A sentence may contain up to three helping verbs to the main verb. </li></ul><ul><li>Example: The dog must have been </li></ul><ul><li>chasing the cat. </li></ul><ul><li>The helping verbs are must , have , and been ; the main verb is chasing </li></ul>
  12. 12. Helping or Action? <ul><li>HELPING: </li></ul><ul><li>Dustin did eat his vegetables. </li></ul><ul><li>ACTION: </li></ul><ul><li>Dustin did his homework last </li></ul><ul><li>night. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Transitive Verbs <ul><li>A transitive verb is a verb that expresses an action directed toward a person, place or thing. The action passes from the doer – the subject - to the receiver of the action. Words that receive the action of a transitive verb are called objects. </li></ul><ul><li>Jon mailed the package. </li></ul><ul><li>When will Neil ring the bell? </li></ul>
  14. 14. Intransitive Verbs <ul><li>An intransitive verb expresses action (or tells something about the subject) without the action passing to a receiver, or object. </li></ul><ul><li>Last Saturday we stayed inside. </li></ul><ul><li>The children ate quickly. </li></ul><ul><li>The crowd cheered. </li></ul><ul><li>When she told her story, my, how we laughed! </li></ul>
  15. 15. Transitive or Intransitive? <ul><li>Carrie waved her arm. </li></ul><ul><li>Carrie waved quickly. </li></ul><ul><li>The plane landed on the runway. </li></ul><ul><li>She lifted the box. </li></ul><ul><li>Does Sheila write poetry? </li></ul><ul><li>Should we value your judgment? </li></ul><ul><li>The speaker arrived late. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Action Verbs vs. Linking Verbs <ul><li>An action verb expresses either physical or mental action : </li></ul><ul><li>The audience cheered the lead actors. </li></ul><ul><li>The children hoped for sunshine. </li></ul><ul><li>A linking verb connects the subject to a word or word group that identifies or describes the subject. </li></ul><ul><li>The answer is correct. </li></ul><ul><li>The winners are happy . </li></ul>
  17. 17. AV HV+ Adv. AV HV LV Sentence structures Subject Verb The rest of the sentence We spent a day at the beach together. They haven’t + discussed the problem. He can + be a quarterback.
  18. 18. Linking Verbs: <ul><li>The most commonly used linking verbs are forms of the verb to be: </li></ul><ul><li>be shall be should be </li></ul><ul><li>being will be would be </li></ul><ul><li>am has been can be </li></ul><ul><li>is have been could be </li></ul><ul><li>are had been should have been </li></ul><ul><li>was shall have been would have been </li></ul><ul><li>were will have been could have been </li></ul>
  19. 19. Subject Linking verb Information about the subject That sounds wonderful. The Internet remains a positive tool. The article is about using the Internet.
  20. 20. Other frequently used linking verbs: <ul><li>appear grow seem stay get run </li></ul><ul><li>become look smell taste go come </li></ul><ul><li>feel remain sound turn (out) fall prove </li></ul><ul><li>make keep continue stand sit lie </li></ul><ul><li>Linking or action ? </li></ul><ul><li>The wet dog smelled horrible. </li></ul><ul><li>The dog smelled the baked bread. </li></ul><ul><li>The chef tasted the casserole. </li></ul><ul><li>The casserole tasted strange. </li></ul>
  21. 21. be, seem, appear feel, look, sound, taste, smell become, grow, get, turn, come, make, prove, turn out, go, run remain, keep, continue, stay, rest, stand, sit, lie Three kinds of linking verbs. S T A T E state quality with sense of feeling in sense of becoming in sense of remaining
  22. 22. true, easy, (all) right, natural, cheap, alive, open, loose, undone bad, wrong, blind, mad, dead, sour, red, green cold, green, sour fine, clear true, interesting, a success a good actor, a fine soldier ill /sick, asleep, dark, silent low, wild, high, short Linking verbs adj. / n. / past participle go come turn turn out prove make fall run
  23. 23. Linking verbs adj. remain calm, silent, young, single, unfinished keep calm, silent, still, cool, fit, fresh stay calm, young, warm, single continue calm, stubborn stand still, high, firm sit straight, cross-legged lie still, open, quiet, thick
  24. 24. Practice <ul><li>1. Both speakers were very calm throughout the debate. </li></ul><ul><li>2. The snow was thick on the ground. </li></ul><ul><li>3. He was still against the wall, not knowing what to say. </li></ul><ul><li>4. In his forties, he was still single. </li></ul><ul><li>5. Whatever I said to him, he was stubborn. </li></ul>Replace the underlined words with other linking verbs.
  25. 25. How to identify linking verbs? <ul><li>Grapes grow well in warm and dry climates. </li></ul><ul><li>She has grown some grapes in the garden. </li></ul><ul><li>She has grown rich by selling grapes. </li></ul>
  26. 26. Read the following sentences and determine if the verb is action or linking <ul><li>Our world is becoming smaller and smaller. </li></ul><ul><li>The old man is getting weaker. </li></ul><ul><li>The child is growing thinner. </li></ul>China will become a major power in the future. The teacher grew unhappy when the students told her lies.
  27. 27. Completing the following passage, using linking verbs. Last Sunday our class went to the park for a picnic. It ____ a fine day. The air _______ fresh. The trees _______ green and the grass ______ thick on the ground. We talked and played. All of us applauded for Li Ming’s English song “ I have never had a dream ______ true.” How relaxed we all _______ after a week’s hard work! We cooked our lunch on the open fire. Soon the food ______ great! The meat _______ delicious. The vegetables and fruit _______ inviting. While eating someone suggested another picnic on May Day. It ________ a good idea. Everyone agreed.
  28. 28. more practice… <ul><li>Even be is not always a linking verb. Sometimes be expresses a state of being and is followed only by an adverb. </li></ul><ul><li>I was there. </li></ul><ul><li>To be a linking verb , the verb must be followed by a subject complement —a noun or a pronoun that names the subject or an adjective that describes the subject. </li></ul>
  29. 29. Subject Complements… (wouldn’t exist without linking verbs) <ul><li>She is my cousin. </li></ul><ul><li>This chocolate smells wonderful. </li></ul><ul><li>This tadpole will become a frog. </li></ul><ul><li>The captain could be she. </li></ul><ul><li>Is she talented? </li></ul><ul><li>The players looked tired and dirty. </li></ul><ul><li>Alvin has grown very tall. </li></ul>