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  1. 1. Heroin Kelly Tracy HE 285
  2. 2. What is Heroin? An opioid drug, that is derived from the Asian opium poppy plant. Heroin is a form of morphine.
  3. 3. What does is look like? It is usually in the form of a white or brown powder.
  4. 4. “In 2011, 4.2 million Americans aged 12 or older (or 1.6 percent) had used heroin at least once in their lives”.
  5. 5. How is it used? Heroin can be injected into the veins by a needle. It can also be snorted, or one could smoke it. *IT DOESN’T MATTER WHICH WAY IT IS USED, ALL FORMS ARE ABSORBED RAPIDLY IN THE BLOOD STREAM.
  6. 6. Issues with needles Heroin users have a high risk for HIV and Hepatitis C due to using dirty needles and from sharing needles. Local pharmacies now sell needles and syringes to anyone that asks for them. This is to try to decrease the use of dirty needles, and to promote the use of clean needles.
  7. 7. How do you feel about needles being available at the local pharmacies for heroin users?
  8. 8. Heroin & the Brain Heroin is able to pass the blood brain barrier very quickly after being administered. When heroin reaches the brain, it binds to the opioid receptors which effect the perception of pain. Heroin causes a euphoric and relaxing effect on the body. Dependence and tolerance can occur with subsequent use of heroin. Prolonged use of heroin can change the functional level of one’s brain.
  9. 9. Study conducted about the effects of Heroin Brain imagining was completed immediately after the administration of heroin to some participants and after administration of a placebo to other participants. Heroin was shown to cause decreased perfusion of blood to the brain. The placebo did not display any signs of decreased perfusion. Overtime, this may cause permanent decreased brain activity.
  10. 10. Health issues related to Heroin Use Collapsed veins Spontaneous abortion Overdose Infection of the heart lining Liver disease Kidney Disease Constipation Clogged blood vessels
  11. 11. Heroin withdrawal symptoms Restlessness Muscle pain Bone pain Insomnia (difficulty sleeping) Diarrhea Vomiting Cold flashes
  12. 12. Treatment of Heroin Addiction Buprenorphine and Methadone- bind to the opioid receptors Naltrexone- prevents heroin from having an effect on the body by blocking the opioid receptors. Naloxone- treats heroin overdose
  13. 13. The use of Methadone Many pregnant women who are addicted to heroin will switch to methadone as a safer drug for their baby. Studies have shown that this method does in fact have less side effects on the fetus. However, the use of methadone requires a strict schedule that cannot be broken. If a patient does not show up for methadone treatments frequently, this program may be discontinued for them.
  14. 14. References Denier, N., Gerber, H., Vogel, M., Klarhöfer, M., Riecher-Rossler, A., Wiesbeck, G. A., & ... Walter, M. (2013). Reduction in Cerebral Perfusion after Heroin Administration: A Resting State Arterial Spin Labeling Study. Plos ONE, 8(9), 1-8. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0071461 DrugFacts: Heroin. (2013, April 1).National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA). Retrieved February 20, 2014, from s/heroin Hulse, G. K., & Milne, E. E. (1997). The relationship between maternal use of heroin and methadone and infant birth weight. Addiction, 92(11), 1571-1579.