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Chapter 15


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Chapter 15

  1. 1. Chapter 15 notes The Chromosomal Basis of Inheritance
  2. 2. Concept 15.1 In 1902 Sutton noted the parallels between the behavior of chromosomes and the behavior of Mendel’s factors. Chromosomal theory of inheritance: genes have specific loci on chromosomes, and the chromosomes undergo segregation and independent assortment
  3. 3. Concept 15.1
  4. 4. Concept 15.1 Morgan traced a gene to a specific chromosome - Morgan used Drosophila “fruit flies” for his experiments - only 4 pairs of chromosomes - wild type flies have red eyes - white eyes is a mutant phenotype
  5. 5. Concept 15.1 - Morgan mated the white-eyed male to a red-eyed female - all F1 offspring were red-eyed - The F2 offspring were not 3:1; instead all females were red-eyed while half of the males had red and half had white eyes - eye color was linked to the fly’s sex
  6. 6. Concept 15.1 Genes located on sex chromosomes are called sex-linked genes - Morgan’s evidence that a specific gene is carried on the X chromosome helped confirm the chromosomal theory of inheritance.
  7. 7. Concept 15.1
  8. 8. Concept 15.2 linked genes: genes that are located on the same chromosomes and tend to be inherited together - linked genes deviate from expected Mendelian ratios -ex. in flies body color and wing shape are inherited together
  9. 9. Concept 15.2
  10. 10. Concept 15.2 Genetic recombination: the production of new combinations of traits inherited from two parents yellow-round x green-wrinkled YyRr x yyrr Parental types: when the offspring phenotypes are identical to the parents - ex ¼ YyRr, ¼ yyrr
  11. 11. Concept 15.2 Recombinants: when the offspring phenotypes are new combinations ex ¼ Yyrr, ¼ yyRr When 50% of all offspring are recombinants, we say there is a 50% frequency of recombination - 50% frequency is observed for genes located on different chromosomes
  12. 12. Concept 15.2 Geneticists can use recombination data to map a chromosomes genetic loci Genetic map: an ordered list of the genetic loci along a particular chromosome Linkage map: a genetic map based on recombination frequencies
  13. 13. Concept 15.2 Map of body-color (b), wing-size (vg) and cinnabar (cn) - cn and b is 9% - cn and vg is 9.5% - b and vg is 17%
  14. 14. Concept 15.2
  15. 15. Concept 15.3 Sex-linked genes have unique patterns of inheritance - fathers pass sex-linked alleles to daughters, but not sons - mothers pass sex-linked alleles to both sons and daughters
  16. 16. Concept 15.3 Because males only have one locus, they cannot be heterozygous Sex-linked disorders in humans - muscular dystrophy: 1/3500 males in the US - hemophilia: absence of proteins for blood clotting
  17. 17. Concept 15.3
  18. 18. Concept 15.4 Nondisjunction: the members of a pair of homologous chromosomes do not move apart properly during meiosis I or II. - gametes are (n+1) or (n-1) if they have too many or too few chromosomes
  19. 19. Concept 15.4 Aneuploidy: having an abnormal chromosome number Trisomic: a chromosome in triplicate (2n+1); ex. trisomy 21 (Down’s syndrome) Monosomic: if a chromosome is missing (2n-1)
  20. 20. Concept 15.4
  21. 21. Concept 15.4 Polyploidy: organisms that have more than two complete chromosome sets - triploidy (3n) - tetraploidy (4n) Polyploids are more normal in appearance than aneuploids
  22. 22. Concept 15.4
  23. 23. Concept 15.4 Breakage of a chromosome can lead to four types of changes in chromosome structure Deletion: occurs when a chromosomal fragment lacking a centromere is lost during cell division
  24. 24. Concept 15.4 Duplication: a fragment becomes attached as an extra segment to a sister chromatid Inversion: a chromosomal fragment can reattach to the original chromosome in reverse order Translocation: the fragment joins a nonhomologous chromosome
  25. 25. Concept 15.4
  26. 26. Concept 15.4 Alterations in chromosome number and structure are associated with several human disorders - Down syndrome: 1/700 children born; extra 21st chromosome - Klinefelter syndrome: XXY male - Turner syndrome: XO female
  27. 27. Concept 15.4
  28. 28. Concept 15.4
  29. 29. Concept 15.4