Northern Renaissance Gutenberg to Shakespeare: Written Word
Objectives❖ Students will identify elements of the Renaissance in Northern Europe and their impact.❖ Students will analyze the changes in European thought and culture resulting from the Renaissance.
Vocabulary❖ engraving: technique where the artist etches a design on a metal plate with acid to make prints.❖ vernacular: everyday language of ordinary people.❖ utopian: an ideal society in which men and women live in peace and harmony
The Printing Revolution ❖ 1455: Johann Gutenberg printed the ﬁrst entire edition of the bible using a printing press with movable type ❖ Before Gutenberg: Books were rare, expensive and only available in sparse locations ❖ 1400: only several thousand books in existence ❖ 1500: 15-20 million books in existence ❖ Impact: Spread of ideas and learning increased more eﬃciently
Northern Artists❖ Renaissance in Northern Europe began in prosperous cities ❖ Northern France, Belgium and the Netherlands: Flanders❖ Jan van Eck: portrayed townspeople as well as religious themed scenes with great detail❖ Other artists made use of vibrant colors and rich details to enhance their art ❖ Subjects were not just religious themes, but scenes from everyday life
Albrecht Dürer❖ Considered the “Leonardo of the North” - German painter who spent a lot of time in Italy to learn from Italian artists❖ Returned to the north and began to spread the ideals of humanism and other Renaissance values in the north❖ Began to blend Italian ideas with native techniques ❖ Applied painting techniques to engraving to portray religious upheaval ❖ Resonating strongly with northern Europeans
Humanist Writers: Erasmus ❖ Desiderius Erasmus: Dutch priest who wrote a number of texts on many subjects; produced a new Greek edition of the Bible ❖ Wanted to provide a translated version of the Bible into the vernacular of the day to be accessible to all ❖ Disturbed by corruption of the clergy who didn’t want to share the knowledge of their faith with everyone.
Social Reform ❖ Sir Thomas More - English humanist who wanted to see more social reform. Wrote Utopia which described an ideal society where everyone lives in perfect harmony.❖ François Rabelais - French Renaissance Man* who wrote Gargantua and Pantagruel; comic tale that reﬂects opinions on religion, education and doubts about the organized church❖ Rabelais used satire to make his points
Shakespeare❖ William Shakespeare - wrote 37 plays and countless sonnets ❖ Shakespeare’s humanist approach made his stories approachable and engaging for audiences ❖ Have lasted the test of time ❖ “... was not of an age, but for all time.”