Integrating educational technology into teaching


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A Power-Point from Chapter two of the listed text. Focuses primarily on the philosophies behind the integration of technology into the classroom

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Integrating educational technology into teaching

  1. 1. Integrating Educational Technology into Teaching (Fifth Edition) Chapter 2: Foundations of Effective Technology Integration Models: Theory and Practice Presentation by: Amy Johnson
  2. 2. The Role of Context in Technology Integration <ul><li>Strategy A: Using technology as a support system for studying for mandated tests </li></ul><ul><li>Strategy B: Using technology demonstrate real-world applications for in-class curriculum </li></ul>
  3. 3. Recipe for Successful Technology Integration (p 33) <ul><li>Ingredient 1 : Foundation of Learning Theories </li></ul><ul><li>Ingredient 2 : Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPAK) </li></ul><ul><li>Ingredient 3 : Technology Integration Planning Model (TIP) </li></ul><ul><li>Ingredient 4 : Essential Conditions for Integration (Optimal Conditions) </li></ul>
  4. 4. Ingredient 1 : Foundation of Learning Theories <ul><li>Prior to 1980 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Computers as tools to support learning (word processing/calculations) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Computers as tutors to deliver instruction (drills/practice/tutorials) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Computers as tutees (learning to program computers) </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>After 1980 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Learning expands past reading, writing, arithmetic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>World is changing too fast to define in terms of specifics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Teaching learners how to learn/learning-to-learn skills </li></ul></ul>Ingredient 1 : Foundation of Learning Theories
  6. 6. Ingredient 1: 2 Theories of Integration Directed Instruction/Objectivism Constructivist/Inquiry-based Learning -Learning is transmitted knowledge. Teaching should be directed, systematic, and structured. -Standardization means accountability -Inquiry approaches are too slow to be practical; learning must be teacher-directed -Knowledge is constructed, not transmitted. Let students do activities that help them generate their own knowledge -Directed instruction is teacher centered; hands-on instruction is student centered -Students show learning through many avenues
  7. 7. Ingredient 1: Objectivist Behavioral Theories Behaviorist B.F. Skinner -Learning is an activity that occurs inside the mind and can be inferred only by observed behaviors -Behaviors are shaped by “contingencies of reinforcement” (ie pos/neg/punsihment etc. Information-Processing Atkinson and Shiffrin -Learning is encoding information into the human memory, similar to the way a computer stores info. -3 kinds of stores: sensory registers (receive info), short-term memory (stores info temporarily), long-term info (stores info indefinitely) Cognitive-Behavior Robert Gagne -Learning is shaped by providing optimal instructional conditions -Conditions include nine events of instruction that differ according to the type of skill being taught and a skills hierarchy Systems Theory & Systematic Instructional Design -Learning is fostered by using a system of instruction based on behaviorist information processing, and cognitive behaviorist theories. -An instructional system is designed by stating goals and doing task analysis
  8. 8. Ingredient 1: Objectivist Learning Theories and Directed Technology Integration Strategies <ul><li>Figure 2.4 p. 36 </li></ul>
  9. 9. Ingredient 1: Objectivist Learning Theories and Directed Technology Integration Strategies (Summary) <ul><li>Research indicates that directed (Objectivist) methods work well for solving certain types of teaching/learning problems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>More effective and efficient than minimally guided instruction when learners do not have enough prior knowledge to be self-guided </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Minimally guided instruction ignores the fundamentals of human cognitions and overloads a working memory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Directed drill and practice can help teach basic reading and mathematical skills </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Teacher-directed techniques are effective in teaching problem-solving and higher order thinking skills to at-risk students </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Claim that “one month of explicit (directed) learning can be more effective than a month of implicit (exploratory) learning </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Objectivists focus primarily on technology integration strategies that: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Systematically designed, structured learning products such as drills, tutorials, and integrated learning systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>And when using more open-ended materials the strategies are very structured, providing a step-by-step sequence of activates match to specific performance objectives. </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Ingredient 1: Cognitive-Behavioral, 9 Events of Instruction <ul><li>Gaining attention </li></ul><ul><li>Informing the learner of the objective </li></ul><ul><li>Stimulating the recall of prerequisite learning </li></ul><ul><li>Presenting the stimulus material </li></ul><ul><li>Providing a learning audience </li></ul><ul><li>Eliciting the performance </li></ul><ul><li>Providing feedback about performance and correctness </li></ul><ul><li>Assessing the performance </li></ul><ul><li>Enhancing retention and transfer </li></ul>
  11. 11. Ingredient 1: Constructivist Behavioral Theories Social Activism John Dewey -Learning is individual growth that comes from social experiences -Growth is fostered through hands-on activities -Curriculum should arise from student interests and taught as integrated topics rather than isolated skills Scaffolding Theory Lev Vygotsky -Learning is cognitive development shaped by individual differences and influence of culture -Adults and Children perceive the world differently (zone of proximal development) -Adults support through scaffolding, or helping children build on what they know Child Development Theory Jean Piaget -Learning is cognitive growth through neurological and social maturation -states of cognitive development- interacting with environments (p 40). -When faced with unknown children experience disequilibrium, they respond with assimilation (fitting it into their views) or accommodation (changing their views). Discovery Learning Jerome Bruner -Learning is cognitive growth through interaction with environment -Children are more likely to understand and remember concepts that they discover during interaction with environment -Teachers support discovery learning by providing opportunities for exploring and manipulating objects and doing experiments. Multiple Intelligences Howard Gardner -Learning is shaped by innate multiple intelligences (p 41) -Linguistic, musical, logistical/mathematical, spatial, bodily-kinesthetic, intrapersonal, interpersonal, naturalist
  12. 12. Ingredient 1: Constructivist Learning Theories and Directed Technology Integration Strategies <ul><li>Figure 2.6 p. 42 </li></ul>
  13. 13. Ingredient 1: Constructivist Learning Theories and Directed Technology Integration Strategies (Summary) <ul><li>Constructivist methods are designed to make learning more visual and experiential and to allow students more flexibility in how they learn and demonstrate learning. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This addresses inert knowledge : skills that students learned but did not know how to transfer later to problems that required them </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Constructivists advocate cognitive apprenticeships : activities that called for authentic problem solving (solving problems in settings that are familiar and meaningful to students) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Constructivists focus primarily on technology integration strategies that: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide learning environments that reflect situated cognition , or instruction anchored in experiences considered authentic by children because they emulated the behavior of adults </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Enable teachers and adults to help students to scaffold from experiences they already had to generate their own knowledge in an active, hands-on way, rather than receive it passively. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Focus on having students use data-gathering tools (like laptops etc) to study problems and issues in their locale and on creating multimedia products to present their new knowledge and insights. </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Ingredient 1: Conflicting Views for Different Learners Objectivist Constructivist -Stress individual work -Traditional teaching methods -Designed to address accountability and quality assurance in education -require clear, easily observable evidence that students have mastered skills (tests, rubrics, grading criteria -Stress cooperative work -Non-traditional exploration teaching methods designed to help students think on their own -Group work, connection to daily life -Eschews traditional assessment strategies as being too limiting to measure real progress in complex learning instead use project assignments to assess (web pages, multi-media projects etc.)
  15. 15. Ingredient 1: Merging Objectivist and Constructivist Technology Integration Approaches <ul><li>Essentially both methods can be used to reach all learners </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Objectivist approaches are typically used to convey the most meaningful information (foundation skills) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Constructivist approaches can be used to motivate students and to provide cooperative learning activities, and to demonstrate student abilities to transfer mastered skills to new problems (developing global skills) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Teachers must discern which approaches will best serve the specific needs of their students/classrooms </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Ingredient 1: Strategies for Objectivist, Constructivist, and Both <ul><li>Figure 2.7 p. 45 </li></ul>
  17. 17. Ingredient 2: Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPAK) <ul><li>Historically, teacher education has focused on content knowledge and pedagogy. </li></ul><ul><li>Recently, teacher education is beginning to investigate how content knowledge and pedagogy work together rather than separately. </li></ul><ul><li>Today, teacher education is expanding to include technology </li></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><li>What does TPAK really mean? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It essentially provides for a framework to capture some of the essential qualities of knowledge required by teachers for technology integration in their teaching, while addressing the complex, multifaceted and situated nature of teacher knowledge. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>An understanding that emerges from an interaction of content, pedagogy, and technology knowledge. </li></ul></ul>Ingredient 2: Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPAK)
  19. 19. Ingredient 2: Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPAK) <ul><li>Still Confused? Best explained by Figure 2.8 pg. 50 </li></ul>The TPACK framework is a metacognitive tool teachers can use to enhance technology integration into their classrooms by helping them to visualize how their technology knowledge and skills work in tandem with other knowledge domains about teaching and learning
  20. 20. Ingredient 3: Technology Integration Planning Model (TIP) <ul><li>Figure 2.9 p 45 </li></ul>
  21. 21. Ingredient 3: TIP Phase 1 <ul><li>What is my TPACK? Self-assessment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What is my knowledge of technology (TK)? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What is my knowledge of pedagogy (PK)? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What is my knowledge of content (CK)? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Where do I see myself in the TPCAK model? </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Ingredient 3: TIP Phase 2 <ul><li>Determine your (teacher) relative advantage </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What is the problem I am addressing? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Do not just focus on technologies (not having the skills to use a technology is an instructional problem) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Look for evidence that using the technology will aid students </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Do technology-based methods offer a solution with sufficient relative advantage (is technology a good solution)? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Estimate the impact (what are the benefits?) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Consider the required effort and expense (is it worth it?) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Ingredient 3: TIP Phase 3 <ul><li>Decide on Objectives and Assessments </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What outcomes do I expect from using the new methods? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Focus on results not processes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Make statements observable and measurable </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What are the best ways of assessing these outcomes? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Written tests for skill achievement outcomes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Evaluation criteria checklists or rubrics to assess complex tasks or products </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Use semantic differentials to assess attitude outcomes </li></ul></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Ingredient 3: TIP Phase 4 <ul><li>Design Integration Strategies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use objectivist strategies when an efficient way is needed to assess specific skills </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use constructivist strategies when students need to develop global skills over time/when learning may be assessed through non-traditional means (portfolios etc.). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What kinds of instructional methods are needed in light of content objectives and student characteristics? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How does technology best support these methods? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How can I prepare students adequately to use technologies? </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Ingredient 3: TIP Phase 5 <ul><li>Prepare the Instructional Environment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What equipment, software, media and materials will I need to carry out the instructional strategies? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How should resources be arranged to support instruction and learning? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What planning is required to make sure technology resources work well? </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Ingredient 3: TIP Phase 6 <ul><li>Evaluate and Revise Integration Strategies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How well has the technology integration strategy worked? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Achievement data </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Attitude data </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Students’ comments </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What could be improved to make the technology integration strategy work better? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Scheduling </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Technical skills </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Efficiency </li></ul></ul></ul>
  27. 27. Ingredient 4: Essential Conditions for Technology Integration <ul><li>A shared vision for technology integration </li></ul><ul><li>Empowered leaders </li></ul><ul><li>Standards and curriculum support </li></ul><ul><li>Required policies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Children’s Internet Protection Act </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Students sign acceptable use contract to use internet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Firewalls </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Equitable access </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Financial assistance for purchasing/professional development </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Access to hardware, software, and other resources for sustainable integration </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Finding funding (grants) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Purchasing hardware and software (input from teachers) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Setting up and maintaining facilities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>sustainability </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Skilled personnel and opportunities for professional development </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hands-on integration emphasis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Training over time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Modeling, mentoring, and coaching </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Post-training access </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Technical assistance </li></ul><ul><li>Appropriate teaching and assessment approaches </li></ul><ul><li>Engaged Communities </li></ul>