Deaf And Hard Of Hearing Presentation


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Deaf And Hard Of Hearing Presentation

  1. 1. Deaf and Hard of Hearing Introduction to Special Education: Making a Difference Chapter 10
  2. 2. Definitions, generally <ul><li>Deaf – those with profound hearing loss who cannot understand sounds with or without hearing aids </li></ul><ul><li>Hard of Hearing – those with hearing losses that impair their understanding of sounds, including communication </li></ul>
  3. 3. Definitions according to IDEA ‘04 <ul><li>Deaf a hearing impairment that is so severe that the child is impaired in processing linguistic information through hearing, with or without amplication, that adversely affects a child’s educational performance </li></ul><ul><li>Hard of Hearing an impairment in hearing, whether permanent or fluctuating, that adversely affects a child’s educational performance but that is not included under the definition of deafness </li></ul><ul><li>IDEA ’04 recognizes these two groups, but it considers them to belong to one special education category which it calls hearing impairments see chart on pg. 355 </li></ul>
  4. 4. Historically. . . <ul><li>Attitudes towards the deaf have varied </li></ul><ul><li>Ponce de Leon, a Spanish monk from the 1500s, is credited as the first teacher of deaf students </li></ul><ul><li>William Holder and John Wallis, in the 1600s, are credited with the first founding of a school for the deaf. It was in England </li></ul><ul><li>Thomas Hopkins Gaullaudet and Laurent Clerc founded the first school for the deaf in the U.S. in 1817. </li></ul>
  5. 5. The debate about communication <ul><li>Huge historical debate over the benefits of oral communication versus manual communication. Jokingly called “the Hundred Years’ War” </li></ul><ul><li>Debate was fueld primarily by Thomas Gallaudet’s son, Edward, and Alexander Graham Bell. Both had deaf mothers. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Bell vs. Gallaudet <ul><li>Bell believed </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Residential schools and sign language caused segregation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Feared it encouraged deaf people to marry other deaf people and would result in the loss of hearing for the entire human race </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Began legislation to prevent 2 deaf people from marrying, eliminate residential schools, prohibit sign language, and ban deaf people from becoming teachers </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Bell vs. Gallaudet cont’d <ul><li>Galludet believed </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Strongly opposed all of Bell’s positions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>He won support from Congress for the manual approach and for separate center schools </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>But the conflicts did continue for some time </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Early Hearing Devices <ul><li>Old versions are primarily hearing trumpets which amplify sound </li></ul><ul><li>The development of battery technology, especially during World War II greatly advanced hearing aid devices </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The earliest devices were bulky and hard to use </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Small transistors, like the radio, were designed to go over the ear in the 1950s </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Today, hearing aids use microchips to amplify sound </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Hearing Loss <ul><li>Occurs when the hearing mechanism is damaged or obstructed in such a way that sounds cannot be perceived or understood. </li></ul><ul><li>Can occur anytime before or after birth </li></ul>
  10. 10. Challenges of Hearing Loss <ul><li>Most of us communicate through hearing and learning. This corresponds to how we learn </li></ul><ul><li>Deaf people and people who are hard of hearing have a restricted ability to communicate which reshapes the ways in which they must be taught </li></ul>
  11. 11. Types of hearing loss <ul><li>First, check out how hearing works </li></ul><ul><li>Sensorineural Hearing Loss damage to the inner ear or the auditory nerve </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Much more difficult to correct than conductive hearing loss </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Are able to hearing different frequencies at different intensity levels; means their loss is not flat or even </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Less common in children </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Conductive Hearing Loss blockage to the outer or middle ear. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Generally, this results in mild to moderate hearing loss. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most of us have or will experience this in our lives (ex: air pressure in a plane, colds, ear infections etc.). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>On any given day 20% of elementary school students experience conductive hearing loss </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Decibels, or dB, which are used to measure sound, help us to identify levels of hearing
  13. 13. Degree of Hearing Loss <ul><li>Mild Hearing Loss (21-40 dB): only speech that is soft or is produced at a distance is difficult to hear </li></ul><ul><li>Moderate Hearing Loss (41-55 dB): typical conversation speech is hard to follow </li></ul><ul><li>Moderately Severe Hearing Loss (56-70 dB): only loud speech can be heard </li></ul><ul><li>Severe Hearing Loss (71-90 dB): even loud speech is hard to understand </li></ul><ul><li>Profound Hearing Loss (91 dB+): considered “deaf,” assistive listening devices alone enable the individual to understand information presented orally </li></ul><ul><li>Should be noted that it is hard to accurately classify hearing loss </li></ul>
  14. 14. The Age of Onset <ul><li>Prelingually Deaf those who are deaf before they learn to speak and understand language. Apprx. 95% of all deaf children are prelingually deaf. These people may be capable of oral communication, but if so, usually develop oral language skills much later than they developmentally should </li></ul><ul><li>Postlingually Deaf those who experience profound hearing loss after they have learned to speak and understand language. Many retain their ability to use speech and communicate with others orally </li></ul>
  15. 15. What IDEA ’04 says about hearing loss <ul><li>Stresses the importance of the communication needs and style of students with hearing loss </li></ul><ul><li>When developing an IEP the following should be considered </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The individual’s language and communication needs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Opportunities for direct communication with peers and professional personnel in the student’s language and communication mode </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The student’s academic level </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The student’s full range of needs, including opportunities for direct insturction in her or his language and communication mode </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Other factors to consider for hearing impaired students <ul><li>30-40% of those who are deaf or hard of hearing have additional disabilities that often result from the same condition, disease, or accident that caused their hearing loss </li></ul><ul><li>Individuals with mild to moderate hearing loss are sometimes overlooked when it comes to other special needs because it is assumed their hearing devices fully compensate for their disability </li></ul>
  17. 17. Deaf Culture <ul><li>Unlike people with other disabilities, many people with profound hearing loss do not consider themselves people with disabilities, but rather as a minority group </li></ul><ul><li>They consider themselves “Deaf.” Notice the capital “D” </li></ul><ul><li>Deafness is not a disability for them, but rather one aspect of their lives that binds them together as a minority group rich in culture, history, language, and the arts </li></ul><ul><li>The language for the American Deaf community is ASL </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Plays are written in ASL </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Performed by deaf actors using ASL </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Being Deaf of Deaf (born Deaf of Deaf parents) or CODA (Child of a Deaf Adult) is a source of considerable pride </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ASL is their native language </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Not preoccupied by deafness, but engaged in childhood and play </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Deafness is a language difference not a disability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This only represents about 5% of the deaf population </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. American Sign Language ASL <ul><li>In the U.S. the primary language for the deaf and the hard of hearing is ASL </li></ul><ul><li>ASL: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Uses manual communication signs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Has all the elements of other languages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Is not parallel to English in either structure of word order </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Is not a mere translation of oral speech or English language (as is signed English) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Is a fully developed language </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Many schools allow ASL to fulfill the foreign language requirement for their students </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Some argue that children with severe hearing loss should learn ASL as their primary language, but this is discouraged as it may alienate/isolate them from their family and culture </li></ul>Only 11% of teachers of the deaf use ASL in the classroom. Instead, they use manual communication methods that use grammatical structures that are similar to English.
  19. 19. Academic Achievement <ul><li>It is important for the hearing impaired to develop strong reading skills to aid in the usage of captions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>TV and Film </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Internet, Email </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Individuals who are deaf and who have higher reading abilities are more likely to graduate from college </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Reading is a challenge for many people who are deaf -By age 20 half of deaf students tested scored below the mid-fourth grade reading level ask Dr. Garner why. </li></ul>
  20. 20. Prevalence <ul><li>Hearing loss is associated with age. Over half of the people with hearing problems are over 65. Although only 25% of them use a hearing aid </li></ul><ul><li>Hearing loss is the #1 birth defect in the U.S., but it is still low incidence affecting only 0.13% of students. 1 in 1,000 babies is born profoundly deaf and 2-3 have less severe hearing loss </li></ul>
  21. 21. Causes of Hearing Loss <ul><li>The cause most often associated with hearing loss in children is unknown, but it is suspected that 50% of children born with deaf do so due to genetics </li></ul>
  22. 22. Causes of Hearing Loss cont’d <ul><li>The most common causes of hearing loss in children in order of prevalence </li></ul><ul><li>Heredity and Genetics can be congenital and sensorineural. Most children whose deafness is hereditary are less likely to have multiple disabilities </li></ul><ul><li>Meningitis a disease that affects the central nervous system. Most hearing loss caused this way is due to bacterial meningitis. There are vaccines available to prevent this disease, but there is no national immunization program </li></ul><ul><li>Otis Media infections of the middle ear that result in an accumulation of fluid behind the eardrum that interrupt the process of hearing. Can be corrected with antibiotics. Depending on the frequency and duration of infection, it can affect speech development and can result in a language impairment that affects future learning. Chronic, untreated Otis Media can cause a permanent conductive hearing loss </li></ul><ul><li>Noise OSHA (U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Admin) set standards for safe exposure. Exposure at or above 105 dB for one hour or more is unsafe. An average rock concert averages 125 dB. This type of hearing loss usually occurs slowly, across years of exposure, without pain or awareness </li></ul>
  23. 23. Technology <ul><li>Technology and assistive listening devices (official IDEA ’04 lingo) are credited with much of the improved access to mainstream society experienced by people with disabilities </li></ul><ul><li>The continual advances in this arena are promising for the future </li></ul>
  24. 24. Hearing Aids <ul><li>Hearing Aids assistive listening devices that amplify sounds but are not surgically implanted. The most commonly used device </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Behind the ear – BTE (these tend to be the most effective, but are the least used because they are the most visually apparent) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>In the ear ITE </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>In the canal ITC </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Completely in the canal CIC </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Digital Hearing Aids automatically adjust the volume by amplifying sounds only to the degree necessary to compensate for loss </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Analog Hearing Aids amplify all sounds equally, making it impossible to discriminate speech from background noise </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Cochlear Implants <ul><li>Surgically implanted devices that use a small speech processor and microphone to detect sound and then send electrical signals to the implanted receive/stimulator, which ultimately passes this information to the brain. </li></ul><ul><li>FDA approved them in 1990 </li></ul><ul><li>At first were only used for adults who experienced severe hearing loss later in life </li></ul><ul><li>New data shows that they aid in the development of speech and language for children who are born deaf. Many children who have cochlear implants, first had them implanted before the age of 2 </li></ul>
  26. 26. What IDEA ’04 says about Assistive Listening Devices <ul><li>IDEA ’04 explicitly addresses the use of hearing aids and indirectly addresses the use of cochlear implants </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Assistive technology devices and/or services are made available to a child with a hearing disability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hearing aids worn in school by children with hearing impairments are functioning properly </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The term assistive technology device does not include a surgically implanted medical device or its replacement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The term related services does not include a surgically implanted medical device, nor does it include optimization of functioning, maintenance, or replacement of the above </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. Telecommunication Devices: Devices to aid in access to TV and Cinema and Phone <ul><li>Captions (The French Chef With Julia Child was the 1 st show to offer captions </li></ul><ul><li>Open Captions –seen by all viewers regardless of hearing impairment </li></ul><ul><li>Closed Captions – captions that can be turned off or on </li></ul><ul><li>Rear Window Captioning – projects captions from a message board on the theater’s rear wall to a piece of clear plastic that attaches to the moviegoer’s seat </li></ul><ul><li>Text telephone (TTY) – A machine that prints out the voice messages from a phone. A drawback is that a device must be on both ends of the phone for this to work. </li></ul><ul><li>Telecommunications Relay Service – required by the FCC, allows a TTY user to “talk” to a person using a standard phone. An operator at a relay center places the call on a voice line and reads the typed message from the TTY to the non-TTY user. This relay service uses a 1-800 number </li></ul><ul><li>Voice Carry Over - a TTY that includes the option of using both voice and text. A relay operator types what the hearing person says, which is then displayed on the text phone. </li></ul><ul><li>Personal Data Assistants PDAs – increasingly popular with the hearing impaired. PDAs are reducing the needs for TTYs </li></ul>
  28. 28. Speech-to-Text Translations <ul><li>Real Time Captioning – practically instantaneous translations of speech into print; an accommodation for students who are deaf and attending lectures </li></ul><ul><li>Automatic Speech Recognition – technology that converts speech into text almost instantaneously </li></ul>
  29. 29. Alerting Devices <ul><li>Assistive devices for people who are deaf to make them aware of events in their environment through a loud sound or other means (ex, the bird “chirping” on many new crosswalks) </li></ul>
  30. 30. Early Identification <ul><li>Universal Newborn Hearing Screening – in 41 states (text from 2007) and Washington DC is now required </li></ul><ul><li>Young children with profound hearing losses who receive early intervention services have much better outcomes than those who do not </li></ul><ul><li>Children who are identified before they are 6 months of age experience half the delays of children who are identified after they are 18 months old </li></ul>
  31. 31. Average Hearing Levels and Identification <ul><li>Chart on pg 372 </li></ul>How hearing loss is identified
  32. 32. Evaluation: State and District Wide Assessments <ul><li>Most students with hearing loss participate in annual assessments required by the NCLB. </li></ul><ul><li>Students who are hard of hearing or who are deaf who still participate with their fellow students without disabilities use the accommodations that are specific to their IEPs. </li></ul>
  33. 33. The importance of early intervention <ul><li>Allows children to be fitted with hearing aids as soon as possible, which can be as early as four weeks old, or to be scheduled for cochlear implants which can be done as early as 1 year old </li></ul><ul><li>Intervention, before the age of 6 mos pays off in better reading achievement and speech abilities in later years. </li></ul><ul><li>Preschool programs allow students with hearing losses to develop language at the righ developmental period in their lives </li></ul><ul><li>Early intervention programs help families better understand and meet the very special needs of their family members </li></ul>
  34. 34. Teaching students with hearing loss <ul><li>Remember, on any given day, this applies to 20% of your school population (but they may not qualify as a student with a disability) </li></ul><ul><li>The educational needs of every student with hearing loss is unique </li></ul><ul><li>IDEA ’04 mandates that school placements and methods of instruction be given individually determined for every student with a disability </li></ul><ul><li>An array of educational services and placements should be available to every student who is deaf or hearing of hearing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Audiologists </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Speech Language Pathologists </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interpreters </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Teachers of the deaf </li></ul></ul>
  35. 35. Common Sense Practices <ul><li>Reduce background noise </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Have a rug and tennis balls on chair legs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>AC running as quietly as possible </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Decrease sound vibrations with curtains </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Seat deaf students away from ‘noisemakers’ </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Instructional Tips </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Seat students so they can see everyone </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use visual displays </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Define key words/topics carefully </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use multimedia and use captions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Have students share notes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use familiar objects when presenting concepts </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Speaking Tips </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Be aware of your pace and slow down as needed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Keep your hands away from your face </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Always face students with hearing impairments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Keep use of figurative language to a minimum </li></ul></ul>
  36. 36. Classroom Management for the Hearing Impaired <ul><li>Place student as close to the speaker as possible </li></ul><ul><li>Instead of a black/whiteboard, use an overhead projector etc. so that the speaker can face the class when presenting material </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce the background noise as much as possible </li></ul><ul><li>Do not stand with the light behind you </li></ul><ul><li>For class discussions, make certain the student knows who is about to speak and ensure that he/she is able to see the speaker </li></ul><ul><li>For class discussions, arrange students’ chairs in a circle so the student can see everyone’s face </li></ul>
  37. 37. Access to the General Ed Curriculum <ul><li>IDEA ’04 makes specific statements pg 359 , and pg 366 </li></ul><ul><li>Many parents feel the general ed classroom is not the least restrictive classroom for hearing impaired students </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Can be restrictive because students cannot communicate with peers and staff </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Residential schools enable students to communicate fully in all academic and extracurricular activities </li></ul></ul><ul><li>For students who use ASL, having a teacher who is not fluent can be highly restrictive and isolating </li></ul>
  38. 38. Residential Schools <ul><li>The Deaf (minority group) community strongly advocates for residential schools </li></ul><ul><li>The issue is that people advocating for those with mental retardation advocated strongly for the closing of these schools </li></ul><ul><li>Since the birth rate for deafness is low incidence this means that often deaf children are the only deaf person in their school or even community which leads to isolation and estrangement. Residential schools aid in their feeling more accepted </li></ul><ul><li>This leads many to feel that a separate program best meets the needs of deaf students and is also the LRE </li></ul>
  39. 39. LRE and Severity of Hearing Impairment <ul><li>The LRE is most controversial with among the hearing impaired than with any other group because defining the severity of loss is often hard </li></ul><ul><li>See pg. 380 for a detailed chart on severity of loss and the placement considerations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most hard of hearing students find the LRE for them in the regular ed classroom </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Many deaf children do attend their neighboring schools, however a significant number of deaf students prefer a school wither their classmates share their deafness </li></ul></ul>
  40. 40. Validated Educational Practices <ul><li>Oral Only Approach – using only oral means to communicate </li></ul><ul><li>Total Communication Approach – employing any and all methods of communication (72% of the hearing impaired are taught using this method) </li></ul><ul><li>Cued Speech – hand signals for “difficult to see” speech sounds; assist with speech reading </li></ul><ul><li>Bilingual-bicultural approach – combines practices of ESL and bilingual education; ASL is the native language and reading and writing in English are taught as a second language (the newest method) </li></ul>
  41. 41. Partnerships with Families and Communities <ul><li>Acceptance and inclusion from family is the most important thing for any child, including those with hearing impairments </li></ul><ul><li>For parents who are Deaf, and have a Deaf child, this is often cause for celebration and relief </li></ul>