NARULA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGYTechnical PresentationSubmitted by,Kaustav DasArindam KhanrahPurnendu GiriTathagata BanerjeeDebnath Pal
INTRODUCTION: Drawing inspiration from psychology, computer vision andmachine learning, the team in the Computer Laboratory atthe University of Cambridge has developed mind-readingmachines. Mind reading machine is co-ordination of humanpsychology and computer techniques. Some equipment are used to gather data & then analyzed.To use those data for further prediction of mind is known astheory of mind reading.
People express their mental states, includingemotions, thoughts and desires, all the time through facialexpressions, vocal nuances and gestures. This is true whenthey are interacting with machines.The relationship between observable head and facialdisplays and the corresponding hidden mental states over timeis modeled using Dynamic Bayesian Networks.
WHAT IS MIND READING? Drawing inspiration from psychology, computer vision andmachine learning has developed mind reading machinecomputers. Using a digital video camera, the mindreading computersystem analyzes a person’s facial expressions in real timeand infers that person’s underlying mental state. Prior knowledge of how particular mental states areexpressed in the face is combined with analysis of facialexpressions and head gestures occurring in realtime,its veryuse full for future.
Software from Nevenvision identifies 24 feature points onthe face and tracks them in real time. For example, a combination of a head nod, with a smile andeyebrows raised might mean interest.
WHY MIND READING? The mind-reading computer system presents informationabout your mental state as easily as a keyboard and mousepresent text and commands. Current projects in Cambridge are considering furtherinputs such as body posture and gestures to improve theinference. We are also looking at the use of mind-reading to supporton-line shopping and learning systems.
The mind-reading computer system may also be used tomonitor and suggest improvements in human-humaninteraction. The Affective Computing Group at the MIT MediaLaboratory is developing an emotional-social intelligenceprosthesis that explores new technologies to augment andimprove people’s social interactions and communicationskills. To implement this system in cars to detect driver mentalstates such as drowsiness, distraction and anger.
HOW DOES IT WORKS?Futuristic Head Band: The mind reading actually involves measuring the volumeand oxygen level of the blood around the subjectsbrain, using technology called functional near-infraredspectroscopy(FNIRS). The user wears a sort of futuristic headband that sends lightin that spectrum into the tissues of the head where it isabsorbed by active, blood-filled tissues.
RESULTS CAN BE EVALUATED IN THEFOLLOWING WAYThe results are oftencompared to an MRI, but canbe gathered withlightweight, noninvasiveequipment.Wearing the FNIRSsensor, experimental subjectswere asked to count thenumber of squares on arotating onscreen cube and toperform other tasks.
Measuring mental workload, frustration and distraction istypically limited to qualitatively observing computer users. A computer program which can read silently spoken wordsby analyzing nerve signals in our mouths and throats, hasbeen developed by NASA. Preliminary results show that using button sized sensors. "Biological signals arise when reading or speaking tooneself with or without actuallip or facial movement”.
ADVANTAGES: Prof Christopher J James, a biomedical engineer claimedthat the future of mind reading computer is strong since ithas demonstrated safe use of neural implants, wireless lowpower implants, possibility of complex stimulation patterns. Transmit visual images to the mind of a blindperson, allowing them to see. transmit auditory data to the mind of a def person, allowingthem to hear.
The system could send commands to rovers on otherplanets, help injured astronauts control machines, or aiddisabled people. The finding raises issues about the application of such toolsfor screeningsuspectedterrorists as well as for predictingfuture dangerousness more generally. The day when computers will be able to recognize thesmallest units in the English language—the 40-odd basicsounds (or phonemes) out of which all words or verbalizedthoughts can be constructed.
DISADVANTAGES AND PROBLEMS:TAPPING BRAINS FOR FUTURE CRIME: Using computer algorithms and functional magnetic resonanceimaging, or FMRI, the scientists were able to determine with70percent accuracy. Individual brains differ, so scientists need to study a subjectspatterns before they can train a computer to identify thosepatterns or make predictions. In the Dec.19, 2006, issue of The Economist, an articlequestioned the scientific validity of the notion of free will:Individuals with particular congenital genetic characteristicsare predisposed, if not predestined, to violence.
Max Planck Institute, neuroscience and bioscience are not at apoint where we can reliably predict human behavior. Nor is society ready to deal with the ethical and practicalproblems posed by a system that classifies and categorizespeople based on oxygen flow, genetics and environmental factorsthat are correlated as much with poverty as with futurecriminality. In time, neuroscience may produce reliable behaviorpredictions. But until then, we should take the lessons of sciencefiction to heart when deciding how to use new predictivetechniques.
APPLICATIONS:- A mind-controlled wheelchairdeveloped fromthe University ofElectro-Communications in Japan. Brain-Computer Typing machine.By thinking about left and righthand movement user cancontrol the virtual keyboard.
THE GREATEST INVENTION Hawking, who suffers from amyotrophic lateral sclerosis(ALS), has been steadily losing his motor function and iscurrently almost completely paralyzed. The machine isdesigned to pick up brain waves and communicate themvia computer, effectively translating his thoughts intoaudible speech
CONCLUSION: Tufts University researchers have begun a three-yearresearch project which, if successful, will allow computersto respond to the brain activity of the computers user. IBM Says Mind reading is no longer science fiction Wellhave Mind-Reading Computers Within Five Years. One professor used the following example of a real worlduse: "If it knew which air traffic controllers wereoverloaded, the next incoming plane could be assigned toanother controller." Hence if we get 100% accuracy these computers may findvarious applications in many fields of electronics where wehave very less time to react.