Madamcurrie

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This presentation is prepared By Sreenivasan Kartha in connection with Madam Curie Day, July 4. This for conducting science classes in Kerla.

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Madamcurrie

  1. 1. ck-X{´hÀjw 2011 tIcf imkv{X-km-lnXy ]cn-j¯v
  2. 2. amUw tacn Iyqdn Ah-X-cWw X¿m-dm-¡n-bXv ]T--tI-{µw, sIm«m-c-¡-c.
  3. 3. <ul><li>1903  s_Iz-dÂ, ]nbdn Iyqdn, amUw Iyqdn F¶n-hÀ¡v ^nkn-Ivkn-pÅ tm_Âk-½mw. </li></ul><ul><li>1911  amUw Iyqdn¡v ck-X-{´-¯n-epÅ tm_ k½m-w. </li></ul><ul><li>^nkn-Ivknepw sIan-kv{Sn-bnepw tm_Âk½mw e`n¨ Htc Hcp hyàn amUw Iyqdn-bm-Wv. </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>tdUntbmBIvSn-h-X-bpsS XpSÀ]-T--¯npw Kth-j-W-¯n-p-apÅ kw`m-h--IÄ¡mbncp¶p ^nkn-Ivkn-pÅ tm_Âk-½mw. </li></ul><ul><li>s]mtfm-Wn-bhpw tdUn-bhpw I­p-]n-Sn-¨Xnpw Ah thÀXn-cn-s¨-Sp-¡m-pÅ cmk-{]-{Inb hnI-kn-¸n-¨Xn-p-amWv ck-X-{´-¯n-epÅ tm_Â k½m-w. </li></ul>
  5. 5. 1867 hw_À 7 v t]mf­nse hmÀkbn Pn¨p. tacn kvt¢mtUmhvkvIn F¶mWv bYmÀ° t]c.v Iq«pImcpw ho«pImcpw Ahsf enänÂanb F¶p hnfn¨p.
  6. 6. <ul><li>]nXmhv `uXnIimkv{X þ KWnXimkv{X A[ym]Imbncp¶p. </li></ul><ul><li>amXmhv A[ym]nI, ]m«pImcn, Nn{XImcn F¶oneIfn {]ikvXbmbncp¶p. </li></ul><ul><li>]{´­mas¯ hbkn A½ £b-tcmKw _m[n¨v acn¨p. </li></ul>
  7. 7. ]¯p hb-Êm-b-t¸mÄ A½ S-¯n-bn-cp¶ t_mÀUn§v kvIqfn tNÀ¶v ]Tn-¡m³ XpS-§n. ]n¶oSv s]¬Ip«n-IÄ¡pÅ kvIqfn tNcp-Ibpw 1884  AhnsS n¶v ]mkm-Ip-Ibpw sNbvXp.
  8. 8. <ul><li>t]mf-­nse tZiob ka-c-§-fn tacn-bpsS AÑ-tâbpw A½-bp-tSbpw IpSpw-_mw-K-§Ä kPoh ]¦mfn-I-fm-bn-cp-¶p. </li></ul><ul><li>AXp-aqew Ah-cpsS kz¯p-¡Ä jvS-am-bn. </li></ul><ul><li>tacn-bpsS Xe-apd AXn-m km¼-¯nI ]cm-[o--X-I-fn s]«p. </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>tacn-¡pw aq¯ ktlm-Zcn “t{_mWn-Ém-h”¡pw ]Tn-¡Wsa¶v B{K-l-ap-­m-bn-cp-¶p. </li></ul><ul><li>F¶m AXn-pÅ ]Ww D­m-bn-cp-¶n-Ã. </li></ul><ul><li>BZyw tacn tPmen sNbvXv ]W-ap-­m-¡m-sa¶pw c­p hÀjw Ignªv tacnsb ]Tn-¡m³ klm-bn-¨m aXn-sb¶pw AhÀ Iq«mbn Xocp-am-n-¨p. </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>ktlm-Z-cn-amÀ Ah-cpsS hm¡p ]men-¨p. </li></ul><ul><li>AX-p-k-cn¨v t{_mWn-Ém-hsb ]Tn-¸n-¡m³ aq¶p hoSp-I-fn tacn tPmen-sN-bvXp. </li></ul><ul><li>t{_mWn-Ém-hbpsS nÀ_-Ô-¯nv hg§n 1891  ]T--¯n-mbn tacn ]mco-kn-te¡v t]mbn. </li></ul>
  11. 11. 1891  ]mcoknse tkmÀt_m¬ kÀÆIemimebn tNÀ¶v KWnXw, `uXnIimkv{Xw, ckX{´w F¶nh ]Tn¡m³ XpS§n. 1893  `uXnIimkv{X ¯nepw 1894  KWnX¯nepw _ncpZwtSn
  12. 12. <ul><li>kvIqÄ Hm^v ^nknIvkv B³Uv sIan-kv{Sn-bn C³kv{S-IvSÀ Bbn tPmen tm¡p-I-bm-bn-cp¶p ]nb-dn. </li></ul><ul><li>tacn-bpsS BZy Kth-j-W-ta-J-e-bmb Im´n-I-X-bn-epÅ Xmev]-cy-amWv ]nb-dntbbpw tacn-tbbpw ASp-¸n-¨-Xv. </li></ul>
  13. 13. 1895 Pqssebn ]nbdnbpw tacn-bp-am-bpÅ hnhmlw S¶p.
  14. 14. FIvkvþtd ¡v kam--amb HcpXcw civan-IÄ bp-td-nb¯n n¶pw ]pd¯p hcp¶Xmbn sl³{Sn _Iz-d Is­¯n. Cu hnIn-c-W-§-sf-¸än Bbn-cp¶p tacn-bpsS Kth-j-W-hn-j-bw .
  15. 15. <ul><li>bptd-nbw kwbp-à-§-fn F´p-sN-bvXmepw bptd-nb¯nsâ Af-hn--p-k-cn¨p am{XamWv hnIn-c-W-¯nsâ km{µ-X F¶v tacn {i²n¨p. </li></ul><ul><li>AXp-sIm­v X·m-{X-IÄ X½n-epÅ {]hÀ¯--¯n n¶Ã Bä-¯n n¶p-X-s¶-bmWo hnIn-c-W-§Ä F¶ Ap-am--¯n tacn F¯n-t¨À¶p. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Bä-¯n-p-Ån- S¡p-¶ GtXm {]{In-bbmWv Cu hnIn-c-W-ap­m¡p-¶-sX¶ nK-a--¯n AhÀ F¯nt¨À¶p. tacn CXnv ‘tdUntbm BIvSn-hnän’ F¶p t]cn«p.
  17. 17. A¶v tdUntbmBIvSohv Bbn Adn-b-s¸-«ncp¶ c­p aqe-I-§tf D­m-bn-cp-¶p-Åp. bptd-n-bhpw tXmdn-b-hp-w.
  18. 18. tacntbm-sSm¯p {]hÀ¯n¡p-¶-Xn-mbn ]nbdn {InÌ-ep-I-sf-¡p-dn-¨pÅ Xsâ ]Tw nÀ¯nh-¨p. k¦oÀ®-X-bpÅ Hcp [mXp-hmb ‘]n¨v»³UnÂ’ tacn Xsâ {]hÀ¯w XpSÀ¶p.
  19. 19. Xsâ P·-m-SntmSpÅ AZ-ay-amb {]Xn-]¯n-sIm­v Cu ]pXnb ]ZmÀ°s¯ tacn ‘s]mtfm-Wnbw’ F¶p hnfn-¨p. 1898 Pqssebn bptd-n-b-t¯-¡mÄ tdUn-tbm- B-IvSnhXbpÅ Hcp ]pXnb ]ZmÀ°w AhÀ thÀXn-cn-s¨-Sp-¯p.
  20. 20. 1899 Pp-h-cn-bn bptd-n-b-t¯-¡mÄ ]¯p-e£w C-c«n tdUn-tbm-B-IvSn-h-X-bpÅ Hcp aqeIw IqSn Is­-¯n. CXnv ‘tdUnbw’ F¶v t]cv ÂIn.
  21. 21. tacnbpsS ]T§fn n¶pÅ {][m Is­-¯epIÄ tdUnbw {]Im-ihpw NqSpw ]pd-¯p-hnSp¶p F¶Xpw Cu hnIn-c-W-§Ä ssPh-tIm-i-§sf in-¸n¡p¶p F¶-Xpam-Wv.
  22. 22. <ul><li>tdUnbw shÅn-t]mse shfp-¯-Xm-Wv. </li></ul><ul><li>C¶v Iym³kÀ NnIn-Õ¡pw ^vfqd-kâv s]bnâv nÀam-W-¯npw Ipdª Af-hn tdUnbw D]-tbm-Kn-¡p-¶p. </li></ul>
  23. 23. tdUn-b-hpw AXn-tmSv kmay-apÅ KpW-[À½-§-fpÅ t_cn-bhpw AS-§nb k¦oÀ®-amb Hcp [mXp-hmWv ]n¨v»³Uv. AXn-m tdUnbw am{Xw thÀXn-cn-s¨-Sp-¡pI Gsd t¢i-I-c-am-Wv. 1898 Bb-t¸m-tg¡pw IyqdnZ¼-Xn-amÀ t_cnbw H«pw Ie-cm¯ Hcev]w td-Unbw thÀXn-cn-s¨-Sp-¯p.
  24. 24. <ul><li>1902 Bb-t¸mtg¡pw Hcp S¬ ]n¨v»³Un n¶pw 0.1 {Kmw tdUnbw t¢mssdUv AhÀ thÀXncn-s¨-Sp-¯p. </li></ul><ul><li>1910 Bb-t¸mtg¡pw IqSnb Af-hn tdUnbw Hä¡v thÀXncn-s¨-Sp-¡mpÅ sshZKv[yw tacn BÀPn¨p Ign-ªn-cp¶p. </li></ul>
  25. 25. <ul><li>]n¨vs»³Un n¶pw ip²-amb tdUnbw thÀXn-cn-s¨-Sp-¡m-pÅ cmk-{]-{In-b-bpsS t]äâv kz´-am-¡m³ tacn B{K-ln-¨n-Ã. </li></ul><ul><li>imkv{X-k-aq-l-¯nv Cu hnZy kz´-am-Is« F¶m-W-hÀ B{K-ln-¨-Xv. </li></ul>
  26. 26. <ul><li>1906þ Hcp IpXn-c-h­nb-]-I-S-¯n ]nb-dn-Iyqdn ac-W-a-S-ªp. </li></ul><ul><li>tdUn-tbm-B-IvSohv hnIn-c-W-§Ä [mcm-f-ambn GäXnm ]nbdn ZpÀ_-e-m-bn-cps¶¶v Duln-¡ps¶-¦nepw A]-ISw D­m-bXv AXp-sIm-­mWv F¶-Xnv hyà-amb sXfn-shm¶pw CÃ. </li></ul>
  27. 27. <ul><li>]nb-dn-bpsS acWw tacnsb hÃmsX XfÀ¯n. </li></ul><ul><li>Kth-j-W-¯n ebn-¨-Xp-sIm-­p-am-{X-amWv B ZpJ-¯n n¶pw A-hÀ Ic-I-b-dn-b-Xv. </li></ul>
  28. 28. <ul><li>tkmÀ-t_m-¬ kÀh-I-em-im-e-bn ]nb-dn-sb BZ-cn-¡p-¶-Xnpth­n D­m-¡s¸« s{]m^-k-À ]Zhn 1906  tacn¡p ÂIn. </li></ul><ul><li>A§s tacn tkmÀ-t_m-Wnse BZy hn-Xm- s{]m-^-k-dm-bn. </li></ul>
  29. 29. ]nb-dn-bpsS t]cn ma-I-cWw sN¿-s¸« tdUnbw C³Ìn-«yq-«nsâ ]Wn-IÄ 1914 BKÌn ]qÀ¯o-I-cn¨p. {^©p-K-h¬saân n¶pÅ [-k-lm-b-t¯msS nÀ½n¨ C³Ìn-äyq«v {][m--ambpw sshZyimkv{X ta-J-e-bn-se Kth-j-W§Ä¡p th-­n-bmWv Øm]n-X-am-bXv.
  30. 30. <ul><li>C³Ìn-äyq«v Bcw`n¨v A[nIw sshImsX H¶mw temIalm-bp²w s]m«n-¸p-d-s¸«p. </li></ul><ul><li>AtXmsS C³Ìn-äyq-«nse tPmen-¡m-cpsS F®w sh«n-¡p-d-¡-s¸-«p. </li></ul><ul><li>tacnbpw aIÄ sFdnpw am{X-am-Wv A¶v C³Ìn-äyq-«n Ah-ti-jn-¨-Xv. </li></ul>
  31. 31. ]nb-dn-þ-tacn Iyqdn Z¼-Xn-IÄ¡v tm_Â k½m--t¯m-sSm¸w e`n¨ kzÀ®-sa-UÂ bp²-^­nte¡p kw`m-h sN¿pIbpw Hcp gvkmbn tkh--a-p-jvSn-¡p-Ibpw sNbvXp.
  32. 32. <ul><li>bp²-cw-K¯v tUmIvSÀamÀ¡v D]-tbm-Kn-¡m³ k©-cn-¡p¶ tdUn-tbm-{Km^n bqWn-äp-IÄ nÀ½n-¡m³ tacn tXrXzw ÂIn. </li></ul><ul><li>A§s k©-cn-¡p¶ 20 bqWn-äp-I-f-S¡w 220 bqWn-äp-IÄ nÀ½n-¡-s¸-«p. </li></ul>
  33. 33. <ul><li>]«m-f-¡msc NnIn-Õn-¡m³ tdUn-b-¯n n¶p-­m-Ip¶ “dmtUm¬” nd¨ sIm¨p Syq_p-IÄ tacn Xs¶ tcn«v nÀ½n-¨v ÂIn. </li></ul><ul><li>“ enän Iyqdokv” F¶mWv Cu Syq_p-IÄ Adn-b-s¸-«-Xv. </li></ul>
  34. 34. tUmIvSÀamÀ tcmKn-bpsS tcmK-_m-[n-X-amb tImi-§sf in-¸n-¡m³ Cu Syq_p-IÄ tImi-§-fpsS ASp¯v tNÀ¯phbv¡pw.
  35. 35. <ul><li>1918  bp²w Ah-km-n-¨-t¸mÄ tacn Xsâ a¡-fmb sFdn-tâbpw Cuhn-tâbpw H¸w Gsd mÄ sNe-hgn¨p. </li></ul><ul><li>c­p aq¶p hÀj-¯nv tijw ]mco-knse C³Ìn-äyq-«n Xncn-s¨¯n Xsâ tdUnbw Kthj-W-§-fn apgpIn. </li></ul>
  36. 36. <ul><li>tdUn-b-hp-am-bpÅ nc-´-c-k-¼À¡w A]-I-S-am-sW¶v tacn-¡-dn-bn-Ãm-bn-cp-¶p. </li></ul><ul><li>tdUn-tbm-B-Iväohv sFtkm-tSm-¸p-IÄ AS-§nb Syq_p-IÄ tacn tai-h-en-¸n kq£n-¡p-Ibpw t]m¡-än sIm­p--S-¡p-Ibpw sNbvXn-cp-¶p. </li></ul>
  37. 37. tdUn-b-hp-am-bpÅ nc-´-c-k-¼À¡w aqew 1911 Bb-t¸m-tg¡pw tacn ISp¯ hr¡-tcm-K-¯n--Sn-s¸-«p.
  38. 38. <ul><li>kpc-£m-kw-hn-[m--§Ä H¶p-an-Ãm¯ Hcp sjUn-emWv tacn Kth-j-W-{]-hÀ¯--§Ä sNbvXn-cp-¶-Xv. </li></ul>
  39. 39. <ul><li>Cu hnIn-c-W-§Ä aqew D­m-Ip¶ A¹m-ÌnIv Ao-anb F¶ tcmKw _m[n-¨-tXmsS tacnbpsS BtcmKyw Ap-Znw £bn¨p h¶p. </li></ul><ul><li>tacn ssIImcyw sNbvXn-cp¶ t]¸-dp-IÄ t]mepw hfsc A]-I-S-Im-cn-I-fm-sW¶v Is­-¯n-b-Xp-sIm­v seUvsse-n-§pÅ s]«n-I-fn-emWv C¶h kq£n-¨n-cn-¡p-¶-Xv. </li></ul>
  40. 40. <ul><li>1934 Pqsse 4 v </li></ul><ul><li>Ing-¡³ {^m³knse </li></ul><ul><li>Hcp km-täm-dn-b-¯n h¨v </li></ul><ul><li>B al-¯mb Pohn-X-¯nv </li></ul><ul><li>Xnc-Èoe hoWp. </li></ul>
  41. 41. <ul><li>1903þ^n-kn-Ivkn tm_ k½mw </li></ul><ul><li>1911-þ-sI-an-kv{Sn-bn tm_ k½mw </li></ul><ul><li>1903-þ-tUhn saU </li></ul><ul><li>1904-þ-am-äyqkn saU </li></ul><ul><li>1909-þ-F-en-b«v {Ik¬ saU </li></ul><ul><li>{^©v eoPn-b³ Hm^v HmWÀ </li></ul><ul><li>t]m-f­nse tem t]mfn-sS-Ivn-Iv, s]mkvm³ kÀh-I-em-im-e, {Iqt¡mhv PmKn-sb-tÃm-Wn-b³ -- kÀh-I-em-im-e, hmgvk t]mfn-sS-IvnIv F¶n-h-bpsS HmW-ddn tUmIvS-tdäv </li></ul>
  42. 42. <ul><li>1935-þ-hmgvkm tdUnbw C³Ìn-äyq-«nsâ ap¶n amUw Iyqdn-bpsS {]Xna </li></ul><ul><li>1967þ amUw Iyqdn-bpsS HmÀ½bv¡v hmgvk-bn ayqkn-bw. </li></ul><ul><li>tdUn-tbm-B-IvSo-h-X-bpsS bqWn-änv Iyqdn F¶p t]cp ÂIn. </li></ul><ul><li>Atäm-an-IvkwJy 96 DÅ aqe-I-¯nv Iyqdnbw F¶p t]cp ÂIn. </li></ul><ul><li>Iyqssd-äv, kvtImtkmhv kvssIäv, Ipt{]m-kvtIm-tkmhvkv kvssIäv F¶nh bptd-nbw [mXp-¡Ä¡p ÂInb t]cp-IÄ. </li></ul><ul><li>{^m³knsâ Ìm¼v, ]gb 500 {^m¦v tm«v, mW-b-§Ä Ch-bn amUw Iyqdn-bpsS Nn{Xw. </li></ul>
  43. 43. <ul><li>tm_Âk½mw tSnb BZy hn-X. </li></ul><ul><li>c­p taJ-e-I-fn tm_ k½mw tSnb Htc Hcp hnX. </li></ul><ul><li>tkmÀ-t_m-¬ kÀh-I-em-im-e-bnse BZy hnXm s{]m^-kÀ. </li></ul><ul><li>]mcokv ]m´n-tbm-Wn-te¡v tijn-¸p-IÄ amä-s¸« BZy hnX. </li></ul>F¶n«pw {^©v kb³kv A¡m-Uan tacn¡v AwKXzw ÂIn-bn-Ã. hnX Bb-Xp-sIm-­p-am-{Xw.
  44. 44. <ul><li>bps-kvtImbv¡v th­n </li></ul><ul><li>yq kbânÌv amK-kn³ 2009  </li></ul><ul><li>S-¯nb thms«-Sp-¸n </li></ul><ul><li>imkv{X-¯n </li></ul><ul><li>Gähpw Bth-iw-sIm-Ån-¡p¶ hn-X-bmbn </li></ul><ul><li>sXc-sª-Sp-¡-s¸-«Xv aäm-cp-ambn-cp¶n-Ã. </li></ul><ul><li>amUw Iyqdn Xs¶. </li></ul>
  45. 45. <ul><li>am-hnI aqey-§-fpsS DZm-¯-am-Xr-I. </li></ul><ul><li>{]Xn-_-²-X-bpÅ imkv{X-K-th-j-I. </li></ul><ul><li>ASn-bp-d¨ kmaq-ly-t_m-[w. </li></ul><ul><li>efn-X-amb Pohn-X-ssi-en. </li></ul><ul><li>hn-X-I-fpsS hgn-Im-«n. </li></ul><ul><li>am-h-cm-in-¡v PohnXw _en-bÀ¸n¨ t]mcmfn . </li></ul>
  46. 46. <ul><li>amUw Iyqdn- F-s¶¶pw ap¡v Bth-ihpw amXr-Ibpw Bbn-cn-¡s«. </li></ul>

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