Krishiyidangalile rasathantram

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This presentation prepared by Mr. KVS Kartha on behalf of Parishath Padanakendram Kottarakkara for Science Classes Campaign in connection with the International Year of Chemistry.

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Krishiyidangalile rasathantram

  1. 1. ck-X{´hÀjw 2011tIcf imkv{X-km-lnXy ]cn-j¯v
  2. 2. IrjnbnS-§-fnse ck-X-{´w Ah-X-cWw X¿m-dm-¡n-bXv ]T--tI-{µw, sIm«m-c-¡-c.
  3. 3. taÂa®pw ASn-a®pw• taÂa-®v- þ- D-]-cn-X-e-¯n n¶pw 25 sk.-ao. hsc XmgvN-bn-ep-ÅXpw Xmc-X- tay Idp¸p ndhpw Cf-¡-hp-apÅ a®v• Dg-hp-]m-fn þ Inf-¡p-t¼mgpw Dghv S- ¯p-t¼mgpw Cf-¡p¶ apI-fn-es¯ 12- þ18 sk.-ao. a®v.
  4. 4. a®p-−m-Ip-¶Xv• shbnÂ, ag, Imäv XpS-§nb {]IrXniàn-I- fpsS {]hÀ¯--¯m ]md kmh-[mw s]mSnªv a®p−mIp¶p.• CXn-sm¸w kky P´p Ah-in-jvS-§Ä, kq£vam-Wp-¡Ä, Pew, hmbp F¶nh Ie- cp-¶p.
  5. 5. a®nse ssPhmwiw hnim-e-amb AÀ°¯n kky-P-´p-Pm-e-§-fpsS Agp-Im¯ Awi-§Ä, ¶mbn AgpIn cq]m-´cw kw`-hn¨ t¢Zw (lyq-a-kv), a®nse Øqekq£va Pohn-IÄ Ch-sbÃmw ssPhmw-i-amWv.
  6. 6. a®nsâ ^e-]pjvSn• hf-¡q-dp-Å-Xp-sIm-−p-am{Xw ^e-]pjvSn D−m-I-W-sa-¶n-Ã.• a®nsâ cmk,- `u-XnIKpW-§Ä Ap-tbm- Py-am-I-Ww.• a®nsâ cN-, LS-, kpjn-c-Ø-ew, KmV- X, Pe kw{K-l-W-ti-jn, ndw, ssPhmw- iw, A¾-X, eh-Wmw-iw, [m-b-W-hn-n-a-b- £-aX XpS§n Ht«sd khn-tij LS-I-§- fpsS BsI-Xp-I-bmWv ^e-]p-jvSn.
  7. 7. ^e-]pjvSnbpÅ a®v 5% 25% Pew hmbp [mXp45% ssPhmwiw 25%
  8. 8. a®nse sImtfm-bvUp-IÄ• Hcp ssat{Im-ao-ä-dn Ipd-hphep-¸apÅ Xcn- IfpÅ Ifn-a®pw t¢Z-hp-w a®nse sImtfmbvUv kz`m-h-apÅhbmWv.• Ch¡v (þ) sshZypX NmÀPp−v. AXn-m ]c- kv]cw hnIÀjn-¡pw. NmÀPp-Å hkvXp¡Ä tNÀ¯m sImtfmbvUv kz`m-hanÃm-Xm-Ipw.• ]m Hcp sImtfmbvUv. ]pfntbm Dt¸m tNÀ¯m ]ncn-bpw.
  9. 9. hnfI-fpsS Blmcw• hnf-IÄ¡v t]mj-I-aq-ey-§Ä Atbm-Wp-I- fmtb kzoI-cn-¡m-m-Iq. IqSp-Xepw [-A-tbm- Wp-I-fm-bmWv kzoI-cn-¡-s¸-Sp-I.• sImtfm-bvUp-IÄ¡v EW NmÀPmWv F¶-Xn- m [ NmÀPpÅ Atbm-Wp-IÄ sImtfm- bvUp-Ifn ]än-¸n-Sn-¡pw.• Hcp {Kmw Ifn-a-®nsâ BsI {]X-e-hn- kvXoÀ®w Hcp {Kmw aW-ensâ 1000 Cc-«n. AXn-m IqSp-X [-A-tbm-Wp-IÄ ]än-¸n- Sn-¡pw.
  10. 10. A¾ a®n• A¾-a-®n ssl{U-P³ Atbm-Wp-IÄ IpSp-X-ep-−m-Ipw.• Ip½mbw tNÀ¡p-t¼mÄ [mcm-f-ambn ImÕyw a®n-te¡v F¯p-w. a¬X-cn-I-fn ]än-¸n-Sn-¨n-cn-¡p¶ ssl{U-Ps XÅn-amän ImÕyw Ømw ]nSn¡pw. a®nv £mc-Kp- W-ambn amdpw.
  11. 11. CaH Ca HH Ca
  12. 12. [m-bWhnn-abw• Cu a®n-te¡v s]m«mkyw C«mÂ, s]m«mkyw ImÕys¯ XÅn-am-äp-Ibpw sNSn¡v e`y-am-¡p-Ibpw sN¿pw.• C¯-c-¯n [-A-tbm-Wp-IÄ ]c- kv]cw Ømw amdp-¶-XmWv [mbWhn-n-abw.• a®nsâ [m-b-W-hn-n-a-b-tijn IqSp- t´mdpw ^e-]p-jvSnbpw IpSpw.
  13. 13. K CaH K Ca HH K Ca
  14. 14. sImtfm-bvUnsâ KpW-§Ä• hf-¯nse aqe-I-A-tbm-Wp-IÄ Ifn-a-®n- tâbpw t¢Z-¯n-tâbpw Xcn-Ifn ]än-¸n-Sn- ¡p-¶-Xn-m shÅ-¯n-eqsS Hen¨v t]mIp- ¶n-Ã.• s]m«m-kyw, Atam-Wnbw Atbm-Wp-IÄ¡v a®n-eq-sS-bpÅ k©m-cX (Mobility) IqSp-X- em-Wv.• Ifn-a-®n-tebpw t¢Z-¯n-tebpw Xcn-I-fnse EW-NmÀPv Chsb ]nSn¨p h¡p-¶-Xn-m a®n-eq-sS-bpÅ k©mchpw Ipd-bp¶p.
  15. 15. sImtfm-bvUnsâ KpW-§Ä• aen Pe-¯nse hnj-ab teml Atbm- Wp-I-fmb ImUvanbw, Cubw, n¡Â F¶n-hsb sImtfm-bvUp-IÄ ]nSn¨p h¡p- ¶-Xn-m D]-cn-Xe/`qKÀ`-P-e-¯nsâ aen- o-I-cWw Hcp ]cn-[n-hsc XS-b-s¸-Sp-¶p.• a®nse ]n.-F¨v hyXym-k-§Ä AXn-Po-hn- ¡m-pÅ Ign-hmWv D`b {]Xn-tcm-[-w.- CXv [-m-b-W-hn-n-abtijn IqSp-¶-X-p-k- cn¨v IqSpw.
  16. 16. Ifn-a-®pw t¢Zhpw a®nÂIfn-a-®ntâbpw t¢Z-¯n-tâbpw km¶n²ywF{X-t¯mfw An-hm-cy-am-sW¶v t_m²y-am-bn-tÃ.
  17. 17. sN¦Â a®n• sN¦Â a®n Ccp-¼v, Aeq-an-obw ssl{Ukv HmIvssk-Up-IÄ [mcm-f-ambn D−v. Ch cmk-kw- tbm-Pw hgn t^mkv^-d-kns _Ôn-¸n¨v nÀ¯n sNSn-IÄ¡v e`y-a-Ãm-Xm¡pw.• Ip½mbw tNÀ¯m ]n.-F-¨v. aqeyw Db-cpw. OH - Atbm-Wp-I-fpsS F®w hÀ²n¡pw. OH - t^mkv^-d-kv kwbp-à-§-fpambn tNÀ¶v Aeq-an- obw ssl{Ukv HmIvssk-Up-IÄ ho−pw D−m-¡pw. ]Icw t^mkv^-d-kns a®n-te¡v Ab-¡pw. AXv sNSnIÄ¡v e`y-am-Ipw.
  18. 18. EWm-b-W-hn-n-abw• Ip½mbw CSp-t¼mÄ sN¦Âa-®n S- ¡p¶ Cu {]{Inb EWm-b-W-hn-n-a-b-am- Wv.• EWm-b-W-hn-n-a-b-abhpw sNSn-IÄ¡v t]mjWw In«p-¶-Xnv klm-bn-¡p-¶p-−v.• Ip½mbw CSp-¶Xv [m-b-W-hn-n-a-b- ab¯npw EWm-b-W-hn-n-a-b-ab¯npw klm-b-I-am-hp¶p F¶p ½Ä I−p.
  19. 19. Ip½mbw tNÀ¡Â• tIc-f-¯nse `qcn-`mKw a®p-Ifpw A¾o-b- amWv. Cu a®n ImÕy-¯nsâ A`m-h- ap-−mIpw F¶-Xn-m Ip½mbw tNÀ¡Â Bh-iy-ambn hcp-¶p.• [m-b-W-, EWm-b-W hn-n-a-b- ab§Ä¡pw Ip½mbw tNÀ¡Â {][m-- am-Wv.
  20. 20. ssPhmw-i-¯nsâ KpWw• a®nsâ cN tami-am-b-Xp-sIm-−pÅ Zqjy-§Ä ]cn-l-cn-¡p-¶p.• ssPh-h-kvXp-¡-fnse t]mfn-km-¡-ssd-Up- IÄ BWv a¬I-Wn-I-Isf Dd-¸n-¨p- nÀ¯p¶ “knaâv.” a®nsâ LS Ch- bn-sÃ-¦n s]«¶v XIÀ¶v t]mIpw.• a®n n¶pÅ Pe-_m-jv]o-I-cWw Ipd- ¡p-¶p.
  21. 21. ssPhmw-i-¯nsâ KpWw• aW IqSnb a®nsâ Pe-kw-{K-l-W- tijn Iq«p-¶p.• Ifn-a-®m-sW-¦n hmbp, Pew F¶n-h- bpsS a®n-eq-sS-bpÅ k©mcw Ffp-¸-am- ¡p-¶p.• D]-cn-X-e-¯n Hcp ]pX¸p t]mse {]hÀ¯n¨v as®m-en¸v Ipd-¡p-¶p.
  22. 22. ssPhmw-i-¯nsâ KpWw• ssPhmwiw tNcp-t¼m-gpÅ Xhnt«m Idpt¸m ndw a®nsâ Dujvam-hns kzm[o-n¡pw.• ssPhmwiw IqSp-X-epÅ a®n Pemw- ihpw IqSn-bn-cn-¡pw. AXn-m A[nIw NqSv hen-s¨-Sp-¡n-Ã.• NqSp-Im-e¯v XWp¸pw inin-c-¯n NqSpw ]IÀ¶v a®nse PohnXw kpJ-I-c-am-¡pw.
  23. 23. ssPhmw-ihpw t]mj-I-e-`y-Xbpw• cmk-h-f-an-ÃmsX Irjn-sN¿pt¼mÄ ss{SPsâ 90-þ95 % hpw ssPhmw-i¯n n¶v.• ssPhmwiw 2% epw IqSp-X-epÅ a®n t^m-kv^-dkntâbpw kÄ^dn-tâbpw {][m t{kmXÊv ssPhmwiw Xs¶.• DjvW-ta-Jema®nepw sN¦Âa-®nepw kq£vaaq-e-I-§Ä Ipd-hv. Nmc¯n 5% kq£vaaq-e-I-§Ä BWv.
  24. 24. ssPhmw-ihpw teml-aq-e-I§fpw• Ccp-¼v, Aeqano-bw, sN¼v, kn¦v, amwK- okv XpS-§nb teml-aq-e-I-§Ä sNSn- IÄ¡v hen-s¨-Sp-¡-¯-¡-hn[w teb-cq-]- ¯nembncn-¡n-Ã.• ssPhmw-ihpw teml-A-tbm-Wp-Ifpw _Ô- §Ä hgn dnwKv BIrXnbnepÅ X·m-{X- Ifmbn amdpw. Cu _Ôw kq£va-aq-e-I- §sf sNSn-IÄ¡v In«p¶ Xc-¯n-em-¡pw.
  25. 25. hnäm-anpw aäpw• ssPh-hkvXp¡-fpsS hnL-S-w- hgn -hn¯p- ap-f-¡Â, thcv hfÀ¨, hnfhv F¶n-hsb kzm[o-n-¡p¶ hn-äm-an-p-IÄ, Bâo_- tbm«n¡pIÄ, kkytlmÀtam-Wp-IÄ F¶nh a®n-te-¡v.• Bâo_-tbm«n¡pIÄ tcmKm-Wp-¡-fpsS kwJy Ipd-¡pw.• a®nsâ ^e-]pjvSn ne-nÀ¯p¶ kq£vaPohnI-fpsS t{kmXÊv ssPhmwiw.
  26. 26. ssPhmwi kwc-£Ww• ssPhmwiw ne-nÀ¯m³ a®n ss{S-P³ D−m-I-Ww-þ- ss{S-Pv ]-bÀhÀ¤-§Ä, ss{S- P³ cmk-h-f-§Ä, ssPh-h-kvXp-¡Ä.• Bh-c-W-hn-f-Ifpw ]¨ne-hn-f-Ifpwþh-«, D§v, ioas¡m¶, kp_m-_pÄ-þ-sU-bn-©, Inep¡n, NW-¼v, sImgnªnÂ.• slIvS-dnv 5þ6 S¬ ssPh-h-fw.• as®m-en¸v XS-b-Ww. hmbp k©mcw Iq«mpw If-Isf HXp-¡mpw am{Xw Dghpw Inf-¡epw
  27. 27. t]mjI aqe-I-§Ä• {]Ir-Xn-bn 92þ kky-tIm-i-§-fn 60þ hfÀ¨¡v 17.• ImÀ_¬, ssl{U-P³, HmIvkn-P³, ss{S- P³,- t^m-kv^-d-kv, s]m«m-kyw, ImÕyw, aáojyw, KÔ-Iw, amwK-o-kv, Ccp-¼v, sN¼v, mIw, tamfn-_vUn-w, t_mtdm¬, t¢mdn³, n¡Â.• IqSmsX acp-`q-an-bnse Nne sNSn-IÄ¡v tkmUn-bw, ss{S-P³ kw`-cn-¡p¶ _mIvSo-cn- b-IÄ¡v tIm_mÄ«v, sÃnpw Icn-¼npw knen-¡¬
  28. 28. Ah-iy-aq-e-I-§Ä• 17  3 þ D-W-§nb kky`mK¯nsâ 94 % hpw ImÀ_¬, ssl{U-P³, HmIvkn-P³þhm-bp-hn n¶pw Pe-¯n n¶pw e`y-am-Ipw.• _m¡n 14 v a®v Xs¶ B{ibw• {]mY-anI t]mjIaqe-I-§Ä/ hfaqe-I-§Äþ ss{S-P³,- t^m-kv^-d-kv, s]m«m-kywþIq-Snb Af-hn thWw.• ZznXob t]mjIaqe-I-§Äþ ImÕyw, aáojyw, KÔ-Iw.• kq£va aqe-I-§Ä-þ-_m¡n 11 F®w.
  29. 29. e`yX• {]mY-anI t]mjIaqe-I-§Ä hf-ambn ÂI-Ww.• ZznXob t]mjIaqe-I-§fpw kq£vaaqe- I-§fpwþ-h-f-ambn ÂtI−n hcm-dn-Ã.• ]s£ as®m-en-¸pw ssPh-h-f-{]-tbm- K¯nsâ Ipdhpw kq£va-a-q-eI ZuÀe`yw krjvSn-¡mw.
  30. 30. hf-{]-tbmKw• t]mj-I-aq-e-I-§Ä a®n-eq-sStbm tcnt«m ÂIp-I.• aq¶v Xcw 1. ssPh-hfw 2. cmkhfw 3. Pohm-Wp-hfw
  31. 31. ssPh-hfw• It¼m-ÌvþN¸p-N-h-dp-IÄ, Ce-IÄ, Agp-In-t¨- cp¶ ssPhm-h-in-jvS-§Ä, NIn-cn-t¨mdv + NmW-Iw, tKmaq{Xw• ssPhm-h-in-jvS-§Ä ¶mbn hnL-Sn¨v sNSn¡v Ffp¸w hen-s¨-Sp-¡m-hp¶ AhØ• ImÀ_¬-þ-ss-{S-P³ Ap-]mXw 10 : 1 BIWw• ss{S-P³ t{kmX-Êp-IÄþNmW-Iw, io-a-s¡m- ¶, ]b-dp-hÀ¤-]-¨n-e-IÄ, tImgn-¡m-jvTw, Noª-aÕyw.
  32. 32. ØqessPh-hf§Ä• -arKhf§Ä, sXmgp-¯p-h-fw, tImgn-¡m- jvTw, kkym-h-in-jvS-§Ä, Nmcw XpS-§n- bh• Ch-bn k-ky-aq-e-I-§Ä Ipd-hv- þ -AXn- m h-fsc IqSnb Afhv thWw• -hne IqSp-X – -F-¯n-¡m-pÅ _p²n-ap-«v- þ- e-`y-X-¡p-dhv
  33. 33. km{µo-Ir-X- ssP-h-h-f-§Ä• e£yw t]mj-I-§Ä ÂIpI• th¸n³ ]n®m-¡v, Bh-W-¡n³ ]n®m-¡v- þ-h-fhpw ssPhIoS-m-in-nbpw.• FÃp-s]m-Sn-þ20-þ25 % t^mkv^-dkvþA-¾-X- Iq-Snb a®nv Ap-tbm-Pyw.• aÕy-h-fw-þ4% ss{S-P³, 3.9% t^mkv^- dkv• cà-h-fw-þ10-þ12% ss{S-P³
  34. 34. cmk-h-fw-þ-D-]-tbm-K-coXn• Hmtcm hnfbv¡pw GXp aqeIw GXv ka- b¯v F{X Af-hn F¶v a-Ên-em-¡- Ww.• hnf-I-fpsS Cw, Ahbv¡v Bh-iy-amb t]mj-I-aq-e-I-§-fpsS tXmXv, a®nsâ LS-, kz`mhw F¶n-hsb ASn-Øm-- am¡n hf-{]-tbm-Kw.
  35. 35. cmk-h-f-§Ä• tÀh-f-§Ä-þ-Hcp {]mYanI kky-aq-eIw am{Xw-þ-bq-dnb (ss-{S-P³), kq¸À t^mkvt^-äv (-t^m-kv^-d-kv)• kwbp-à-h-f-§Ä-þ-H-¶n IqSp-X {]mYanI -aq-eI§Ä tNÀ¯v nÀ½n-¨-Xv-þ- ^m-IvSw-t^mkv (20% ss{S-P³ 20% t^mkv^-d-kv)• Iq«p-h-f-§Äþ-H-¶n IqSp-X tÀh-f- §Ä- Irjn-bn-S-¯nÂh¨v Iq«n-t¨À¯-Xv- þ10:5:20 Iq«phfw
  36. 36. hfw tNÀ¡p¶ coXn• ASnhfambpw taÂh-f-ambpw þ hnX-dn-sIm- Sp-¡p¶ coXn km[m-cWw þ jvSw Hgn-hm- ¡m³ thcp-]-Sew DÅn-S-t¯¡v tcn«v C«p-sIm-Sp-¡p-I.• ssPh-h-f-§-Ä aqe[mXp-¡fmbn hnL-Sn- ¡p-¶-Xnv ka-b-sa-Sp-¡pw. AXn-m Sp- ¶-Xnv c−mgvN ap¼v a®n tNÀ¡-Ww.• cmk-h-f-§Ä Sp¶ ka-b¯pw hnf-I- fpsS hnhn[ hfÀ¨m-Z-i-I-fnepw
  37. 37. hfw tNÀ¡p¶ coXn• hfÀ¨bv¡v XpSÀ¨-bmbn Bh-iy-apÅ ss{S-P³ Xh-W-I-fmbn ÂImw.• thcp-I-fpsS hfÀ¨sb klm-bn-¡p¶ t^mkv^-dkv BZy L«-¯n thWw. tdm¡vt^m-kvt^äv a®n ebn-¡m³ ka- b-sa-Sp¡psa¶-Xn-m 2þ4 BgvN ap¼v.• s]m«mkyw hfÀ¨-bpsS FÃm L«-§- fnepw shW-sa-¶-Xn-m Xh-W-I-fm-bn.
  38. 38. kwtbm-PnX hf-{]-tbmKw Xmsg ]d-bp-¶-h-sbÃmw ]cn-K-Wn-¨p-sIm-−pÅ hf-{]-tbmKamWv kwtbm-PnX hf-{]-tbmKw• a®nsâ `uXn-I, cmknI LS--IÄ Ap-Iq-e- am-¡pI.• a®n Bh-iy-¯nv ssPhmwiw e`y-am- ¡pI.• t]mj-I-aqeI§Ä -Bh-iy-¯nv e`y-am-¡pI.• a®nsâ A¾Xbpw eh-Wmw-ihpw hnf-IÄ¡v tbmPn¨ Xc-¯n-em-¡pI.
  39. 39. a®nsâ ^e-]pjvSn• agbpw shbnepw þ aqe-I-§Ä s]s«¶v jvS- s¸-Spw.• IqSp-X hnfhv In«p¶ hnf-IÄ þt]m-j-I- jvSw IqSpw.• An-b-{´n-X-amb as®m-en¸v þjvSw ]ns¶bpw IqSpw.• ^e-]pjvSn ne-nÀ¯m³ jvS-s¸-Sp-¶-Xnv Xpey-ambn aqe-I-§Ä Xncn¨v ÂIWw
  40. 40. ssPh-h-fw-þ-{]-iv-§Ä• ssIImcyw sN¿m-pÅ _p²n-ap«v• DbÀ¶ hne• Ipdª e`yX þ C´y-bn Irjn-sN-¿p¶ hnf-I-sfÃmw IqSn a®nÂn¶pw Hcp hÀjw 28 Zi-e£w S¬ t]mj-I-§Ä FSp-¡p-¶p. NmW-Iw, ap-jy-a-ew, hnfm-h-in-jvS-§Ä XpS- §n-bh FÃmw Iq«n-bmepw BsI 5.6 Zi- e£w S¬ t]mj-I-§tf Xncn¨v ÂIm³ Ign-bq.• ssPh-hfw am{Xw D]-tbm-Kn-¨m slIvS-dnv 5 S¬ F¶Xv 14 S¬ Bbn DbÀ¯-Ww.
  41. 41. cmk-h-fw-þ-{]-iv-§Ä• Aan-X-ambn D]-tbm-Kn-¨m ]mcn-Øn-XnI {]iv-§Ä• ssPh-hfw CÃmsX cmk-hfw am{X-ambn D]-tbm-Kn-¨m a®nse t]mj-I-tiJcw CÃm-Xm-Ipw. kq£va-aq-e-I-§-fpsS Ipd- hp-−m-Ipw.• CXv a®n-s Xs¶ _m[n-¡pw.
  42. 42. ssPh-Ir-jnþ]cn-anXn-IÄ• hym]-I-ambn ssPh-Irjn¡v Bh-iy-amb ssPh- h-f-¯nsâ e`yX C¶nÃ.• ]s£ ssPhhfw Bh-iy-¯nv e`y-amb Øe- §-fn DXv]m-Z--£-a-X-bn amä-an-ÃmsX cmk- hfw ]qÀ®-ambn Hgn-hm¡n Irjn km²y-hpam- Wv.• C¶v cmk-hfw D]-tbm-Kn-¡p¶ Øe¯v cmk- hfw ]qÀ®-ambpw Hgn-hm-¡p-t¼mÄ DXv]m-Z--£- a-X-bn Ipd-hp-h-cpw. F¶m 5þ6 hÀjw sIm−v DXv]m-Z--£-a-X- hos−-Sp-¡m-m-Ipw.
  43. 43. hf-{]-tbm-Kw-þ-im-kv{Xo-bX• a®nse ImÀ_¬-þ-ss-{S-P³ Ap-]mXw ne-nÀ¯-W-sa-¦n hnf-]-cn-{I-a-¯n ]bÀhÀ¤§Ä DÄs¸-Sp-¯p-Ibpw ss{S-P³ hf-§Ä tNÀ¡p-Ibpw thWw.• CXv a®n ne-n¡-W-sa-¦n ImÀ_¬ IqSn a®n D−mI-Ww. CXnv ssPhmwiw Xs¶ thWw.
  44. 44. kwtbm-PnX hf-{]-tbm-Kw• ssPh-h-f-{]-tbmKw a®nsâ ^e-]pjvSn ne-nÀ¯p-¶-Xn-m-h-iy-amb `uXn-I, cmk-Kp-W-§Ä sa¨-s¸-Sp-¯p-¶-Xn ]cn- an-X-s¸-Sp-¯pI.• t]mj-I-aq-e-I-§Ä cmk-h-f-§-fn-eqsS ÂIp-I.• A¾X IqSnb a®n Ip½mbw tNÀ¡p-I.• Ip½mb¯ntâbpw cmk-h-f¯ntâbpw Afhv Bh-iy-¯nv am{Xw
  45. 45. {i²n-t¡-−h a®v ^e-]p-jvSn-tbmsS ne-n¡-W-sa-¦n ssPh-hfw, cmk-hfw, Pohm-Wp-hfw, Ip-½mbwF¶nh Bh-iym-p-k-cWw tNÀ¡Â, If-n-b-{´-Ww, Dghv Ipd-¡Â,]pX-bn-SoÂ, hnf-]-cn-{I-aw, ]b-dp-Ir-jn, a®p-kw-c-£Ww F¶n-h-bn-seÃmw {i²n-t¡−Xp−v.
  46. 46. IoS-m-in-n-IÄ• 1845-þ-AbÀem³UnÂþsF-dnjv s]m«täm ^man³-þ-I-cn-¨n tcmKw þacWw 4 tImSn.• 1943-þ44-þ-_w-KmÄ £maw-þ-s-Ãns _m[n¨ slÂhnt´m kvt]mdnbw eo^v kvt]m«v F¶ IpanÄ tcmKw-þ-a-cWw B hÀjw am{Xw 15 e£w t]À.• C¯cw kml-Ncyw Hgn-hm-¡m-pÅ {ia- ¯n n¶pw IoS-m-in-n-IÄ þ “nÈ_vZ hk´w” ]pÀhn-Nn-´--¯nv XpS-¡-an-«p.
  47. 47. IoS-nb{´Ww1. bm{´nI nb-{´Ww þ ssIsIm-−v, sIWn D]-tbm-Kn-¨v, kqcy-Xm-]w, NqSv Ch D]-tbm-Kn-¨v.2. Irjn-coXn D]-tbm-Kn-¨v.3. ssPhnI nb-{´Ww þ FXnÀ {]mWn- IÄ, ]cm-Z-§Ä, Cc-]n-Sn-b-·mÀ, tcmKm- Wp-¡Ä F¶nh D]-tbm-Kn-¨v.4. cmk-n-b-{´Ww þ cmk-]-ZmÀ°-§Ä D]- tbm-Kn-¨v.
  48. 48. hÀ¤o-I-cWw• {]hÀ¯n-¡p¶ coXn 1. DZ-c-Io-S-m-in-n--þ-h-b-än-se-¯p¶p (ImÀ_m-dnÂ) 2. kv]Ài-Io-S-m-in-n--þ-Xz¡neqsS (am-e-¯n-tbm¬) 3. [qa-Io-S-m-in-n--þizmkmfn-bn-eqsS (m-]vX-eo³)• cmk-L-S 1. ImÀ_-WnI Io-S-m-in-n- 2. AImÀ_-WnI Io-S-m-in-n-
  49. 49. cmk-Io-S-m-in-n-IÄ• A]-I-S-km-[y-X-¡-p-k-cn¨v hnhn[ te_- ep-IÄ 1. Nph¸v 2. aª 3. oe 4. ]¨ Nph¸pw aªbpw te_-epÅ IoS-m-in-n- IÄ A]-I-S-Im-cn-I-fm-Wv. Ch Ign-hXpw Hgn- hm-¡Ww
  50. 50. IoS-m-in-n-IfpsS te_epIÄNph¸v aª• BÂUn-ImÀ_v • F³tUm-Ä^m³• s_µn-tbm-ImÀ_v • t{]mkn-tm-t^mkv• -^q-d-Um³ • {Snbm-tkm-t^mkv• ImÀ_-dn³• UnHm-IvtkmÀ_v oe• ^ntm-_q-ImÀ_v • _nIvtkmÄ• s^tm-Ivko-ImÀ_v • skhn-tUmÄ• sFtkm-t{]m-ImÀ_v • skhn-tamÄ• satXm-a-bnÂ
  51. 51. ssPh-Io-S-m-in-n-IÄ • ]pIbne¡jmbw • ths¸-®-¸m-bkw • th¸n³Ip-cp-I-jmbw • as®® an{inXw • Xpf-kn-bn-e-an-{inXw • Im´m-cn-ap-fIp embn
  52. 52. a®v acn-¡m-Xn-cn-¡m³a®nse ck-X{´w Adn-bpI. a®npw sNSn¡pw Bh-iy-ap-ÅXp ÂIpI. Bh-iy-ap-ÅXp am{Xw.

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