● Steps in rational planning
What is situation?
Take action Where do we want
Which alternative Which possible alternatives
is best? are there for action?
● Mixed scanning cycle
What is situation
in broad terms?
Take action Where do we want
Which alternative What are the priority areas?
is best? are there for action?
What are the alternatives
for action in the priority areas
Managerial Process for
Devt(Health) & National Health Development
related SEsystems WHO
Evaluation Priority, goal, and
Implementation Option appraisal
● Current projected situation
– Demographic pattern, future needs(development needs)
● Socio-economy and provision of non-development
services and infrastructure
● Infrastructure of the development sector and the
pattern of services provided
– facilities, utilization, organisational structure,
interrelationships, current and future resources of the
sector-financial and real resources- personnel,
● Environment- political and policy environment
● The determination of the goals and targets of an
– What it wants to achieve
– Influenced by the situational analysis,
development(education, health) needs and broad policy
objectives of the organization or state
– Whether priorities are feasible within politico-social
climate and within the context of available resources
– Clear criteria for the selection of priority problems
– Political feasibility
Rationale for planning
• Inevitable shortfall between available
resources and the competing uses to which
those resources could be put
• How decisions as to the use of such resources
should be made
• How priorities should be set
• For allocation
• Demand based market mechanism
• Need-based planning approach
• One major function of the planning process is
to determine major needs, to devise suitable
programs for meeting them and allocate
• Not much resources to meet all sector(health)
• Which one to meet and which have to be left
• Economic development will not remove the
need for priority setting but alter pattern
• Different approaches lead to different results
The Class discuss on
• Who should set priorities?
• How one should set priorities?
• The underlying factors and attitudes towards
Logical Framework Analysis
• A designing approach that can be used for
planning, designing, implementing and
evaluating projects or programs
• Steps in LFA
• Situational Analysis
• Strategy Analysis
• Project Planning matrix
• Stakeholder Analysis
– Who are the stakeholders involved in the project
and how are they affected?
• Who will be involved?
• Where ?
• Who will facilitate the development?
• What background materials, documents, and
• What materials and logistics required?
Analysis of Problems
Which are the problems the project is
What are the root causes of the those
What is the larger picture in which those
problems and their root causes exist?
What are the linkages between problems?
• Brainstorming techniques can be used to identify
the main problems
• Problems may be displayed and they should then
be clustered into groups of similar issues
• Problem tree is developed
• Moving problems from the clusters of problems
• Adding new problems that emerge
• Problems can be moved up or down the tree as
• balancing out
• Objective Tree
• Problems restated as objectives
• Positive mirror image of the problem tree
• Ordering sequence of the problem and
• Clustering objectives
• Feasibility of different interventions
• Continuous task in project management
Logical Framework Analysis(LFA)
Narrative Summary Objectively Means of Important
Verifiable Verification Assumptions
Goals / Objectives Measures of goal Various sources of Goal/ purpose
achievement information, linkages
Project Purpose End of project Various sources of Output / Purpose
status information, linkages
Outputs /Results Magnitudes of Various sources of Input /Output
outputs, planned information, linkages
completion dates methods used
Inputs / Activities Types / levels of Project data, other Initial assumptions
resources, starting sources of regarding the
date information causality of the
Project location and intervention design
• Choose project sites based on market surveys - assess
• Ensure target audiences, scope, objectives, etc. of project
are clearly spelt out before implementation
• The importance of building trust and confidence at the
initiating stage is critical
• It is a challenge to keep up with actual policy processes
and make the research relevant to governance realities
• Projects are most successful when there is full
involvement and cooperation by stakeholders
• The success of information system implementation is
dependent on the institution’s organizational readiness
• Human resources, workflow environment and policy
should be considered throughout system development
Partnerships and management
• Pay due attention to selection of appropriate partner
• Ensure terms of reference with partner organizations are in
place before the proposal submission stage itself and begin
community-based work only after the committed grant
amount is transferred into the project account
• Consider use of a MoU between implementing partners to
define a clear program of work and scope of responsibilities
• Project should be prepared to respond to unforeseen political
developments and transitions in government
• Projects need advice on Intellectual Property Rights issues and
making the agreement more detailed
• Public-private partnerships with governments and NGOs help
to improve the quality of services being offered and increase
The unforeseen event
• Increased controls on NGOs and tightening of rules for
accepting foreign donations
• Premature staff departures
• Delays in obtaining necessary licenses – in this case to
broadcast using wireless technologies
• The project found employers were reluctant to allow them to
conduct interviews with employees
• Unexpected technical limitations - in this case, Open Type Font
• Project work hampered by political events and technical
problems that were beyond its control
• Unexpected restrictions imposed on the project team due to
unforeseen events, thereby seriously hampering progress and
resulting in a loss of momentum for the project
• Unexpected technical bugs and premature staff departures
Planning for success
• Service providers are not always the best people to develop the kind of online
services most relevant to rural communities. It is vital to perform a market
survey before starting such a project and then bring in partners such as
government institutions, private companies and content providers who will
back the content and services
• Social preparation programs, awareness workshops and training are
indispensable components in operating telecentres, especially in rural areas
where people are not comfortable or familiar with technology
• It is crucial to identify a local champion who is dedicated to using ICT as a tool
for development, improving the telecentre to make it relevant to the
community’s context, and making its operation sustainable
• In rural communities, a combination of ICTs with motivated individuals is
most effective in combating social problems
• Overall impact of the project can be realized fully only with a significant
outreach program to train the end-users
• For optimum utilization of the end product/service, advertising the
product/service and training end-users is critical
• Since data-sharing culture is still conservative in the region, a proactive role in
convincing partners to actively participate is necessary
• The project team developed a participatory
model that empowered those involved, built
capacity and democratized knowledge.
• People in rural areas are ready and capable
to successfully adopt these new skills and
technologies not only for education, but also
to improve themselves and their communities
• The project performed a participatory needs assessment to determine the
information requirements and the capacity of the users. The results of the
assessment formed the basis for the preliminary system design .
• It is critical to build trust and confidence at the initiating stages of any
• The project stresses the value social intermediaries play in bridging the
information divide. Institutions such as schools, the workplace, and NGOs
offer important access points for individuals. Informal networks of friends
and family also play an important role in building awareness and distributing
• An Internet Exchange can only be successful with the full cooperation of the
• Educating the ISPs about how to set up the networks is more valuable in the
long run than having experts do it for them.
• In implementing the project, the project saw that it was critical to establish
control at the local level through a local coordinator and cooperation units .
• The project worked in close cooperation with local government health
institutions and personnel who are the primary users of the system .
• Following the analysis of the telecentre after one year of operation, the project defined
three additional research principles to improve its model .
• Technology is merely a tool; without efforts in marketing, product improvement and
other non-ICT related capacity development training, the technology usage will not be
• To prevent information and knowledge gaps from widening, the project suggests
integrating traditional models of communication such as community radio, church bells
and two-way radios with more modern ICTs .
• Through interaction with editors of journals and participants of the workshop, the
project identified several features to improve its system.
• The rule-based approach was selected over a more sophisticated method because a
sufficiently large parallel text corpus for the English-Nepali language pair was not
• With deeper analysis and understanding of the needs and requirements of end-users,
one is able to ensure that technology serves the genuine needs of communities and
does not become an end in itself .
• By paying close attention to health centre events and culture and by employing
purposeful immersion in the end-user’s way of life, the researchers were able to gain
immense insight into their needs and requirements and apply these insights into
software code, a process they call evolutionary software development .
• The project was extended by six months to allow for a longer period of data collection
and validation, which will ensure proper analysis and interpretation .
Common organizational models and
• l Provide relevant services by partnering with other providers and make
each service independently sustainable. Partner with local organizations
that can train operators and spread awareness of computers and the
• l The project began with a call for participation and selected three partners
based on the criteria of technical capability and geographic representation .
• l Deploying IPv6 has been enhanced through collaboration with schools and
universities, ISPs, telecommunications companies and other IPv6
• l The Free and Open Source Localization Toolkit is further developing and
testing its documentation through a south-south collaboration
(Cambodia/South Africa) project called WordForge .
• l The team has noted the importance of creating public-private partnerships
with governments, NGOs and health institutions for remote health delivery
to rural areas.
• They see that such partnerships can improve the quality of services being
offered and increase acceptance of it by villagers
• Services offered by the centre generate enough revenue to cover costs; the project team has
identified new services to serve the local community.
• The application delivered has quite a high maintenance cost that has obvious implications for
the project’s sustainability .
• To be a viable business, build wide area networks to connect a larger number of potential users
over sparsely populated areas .
• The key to creating demand and financial viability of the telecentre is to provide information
and content that is relevant to the local community. Complementing this is the need to provide
programmes aimed at building relevant ICT skills, particularly in rural areas where people are
not comfortable or familiar with technology .
• To cover its costs and to ensure its financial viability, the centre must charge fees for training
programmes, and even when these fees remain low, many people in the area still cannot afford
• Preliminary research found that most initiatives are planned with a pilot-based approach.
• In many cases, these rely on funding and subsidies to make the model a success. None of the
initiatives studied were economically sustainable through private enterprise on a large scale
• The project team notes that obtaining the license or acquiring the software from a
commercially available GIS is prohibitively expensive. Using free and open source technologies
allows users greater access to the significant benefits of powerful GIS applications
Lasting impact, continuity and scaling-up
• Since wireless networking eliminates the process of laying cables to connect villages, the design provides a viable and
effective means of bridging the digital divide and bringing low-cost communication to the most needy
• Sustainability of the telecentre requires community participation in telecentre operation and management
• The research findings contributed to the development of a national IT curriculum and the development of e-
• Those who attend ICT learning programmes further spread the message through word of mouth and other informal
channels, creating a ripple effect that is difficult to quantify
• Once the systems have been tested and firmly established in one federation, the project will document its learning and
expand the implementation to cover three other federations in the region (see project 18). l While ICTs enable the
creation of new kinds of jobs, they also undermine the need for other kinds of jobs. The net effect depends upon the
nature of labour market institutions that facilitate labour to move from vanishing jobs to new ones
• The results are anticipated to be used in the development of a continuing education programme focusing on ICT-
assisted reporting techniques for local journalists .
• The project built capacity at the Centre and enabled it to develop a partnership with PAN Localization and Microsoft’s
Language Interface Pack for Urdu
• The project foresees that once the most challenging aspects of the project development process are completed, the
infrastructure framework can then be used to build many different kinds of resource sharing systems
• Once project team reaches its desired result, it is planning discussions with the Ministry of Education and Culture to
investigate further cooperation in distributing the text-to-speech system .
• The forest fire forecasting system can be adopted and replicated in other geographical areas with necessary
modifications in the ranks and weights, based on the specific characteristics of the local area
• Additional research activities evolved from this project .
• The project has seen a number of opportunities for further development and replication .
• M-DOK is designed to be easily scalable and low-maintenance. The application is expected to be most useful for
countries where SMS messaging is prevalent