FIRST INTERNATIONAL AFRICAN BIO-FUELS SEMINAR - 14.12.2009 to 16.12.2009
SUGAR CORPORATION OF UGANDA LIMITED
ETHANOL EVOLUTION & RAW MATERIALS FOR ETHANOL PRODUCTION
• ETHANOL is green petrol. GREEN PETROL is an alternative energy renewable from agricultural resources.
Basically, it is an energy used as motor Fuel. The admixture of FOSSIL FUEL, like Petrol, with ETHANOL is
successfully practiced in Western countries. Due to substantial reduction of petroleum reserves across the
globe and increase of air pollution, many alternative fuel sources are being worked out.
• The actual property of ETHANOL, hydrocarbons boils at lower temperature with high Calorific value and
high heat value, the ETHANOL may seek the entry into the motor world as FUEL in association with the
• ETHANOL is useable as blends with petroleum products, in present day Automobiles, without any engine
modifications offers an immediate solution to help meet the growing FUEL OIL scarcity and reduce
ETHANOL ‐ BIO‐FUEL FEATURES
• Ethanol is a clear, colorless and homogeneous liquid, consisting essentially of Ethyl Alcohol admixed with
not more than 0.50 percent by volume of water. Ethanol is non corrosive and relatively non‐toxic Alcohol.
ETHANOL ADDED TO PETROL REFERRED TO AS:
• Absolute Alcohol
• Anhydrous Alcohol
• Dehydrated Alcohol
• Power Alcohol
Specifications of Fuel ‐ grade Ethanol for Blending with Petrol ‐ ASTM D ‐ 4806.
ORIGIN OF WORD ALCOHOL
• The technique of distillation of alcohol was discovered by Muslim chemists sometime between the 8th
and 9th century. They discovered the flammable alcoholic vapour, and then they invented the alembic (al
embic, meaning the still) which works on the principle that alcohol evaporates at lower temperatures
than water. So the spirit was isolated, but the thing is, since the ingestion of alcohol is prohibited in Islam,
the chemists found various uses for it, but didn't drink it . It's primary uses were for medicine, and in
making perfumes and makeup.
• Al Kohool: the makeup, referring to the use of the distillate in the manufacture of eyeliner. The word
kohool is the plural of kohol, which means eyeliner. Al Kohool is the current Arabic word for alcohol, and is
the most likely explanation.
• Al Ghoul: the same word exists in English, ghoul, means monster or spirit, and is similar to how we refer to
alcohol as "spirits". Though it is far removed from the current Arabic word, it is possible that the word had
re‐entered the Arabic vocabulary due to foreign influence, and modified to its current form.
• In general usage, alcohol (from Arabic al‐khwl ,الكحولor al‐ghawl )الغولrefers almost always to ethanol,
also known as grain alcohol, and often to any beverage that contains ethanol. This sense underlies the
term alcoholism (addiction to alcohol).
ETHANOL ‐ CLASSIFICATION
• BY PRODUCTION ROUTE
FERMENTATION Vs SYNTHETIC
• BY COMPOSITION
ANHYDROUS Vs HYDROUS
• BY END USE
BEVERAGE , INDUSTRIAL & FUEL
• SYNTHETIC ETHANOL SOURCE
ETHYLENE, COAL & NON RENEWABLE
• FERMENTATION ETHANOL SOURCE
SUGAAR CANE, CASSAVA, SUGAR BEET, SWEET SORGHUM, MOLASSES,WHEAT,MAIZE(CORN),BARLEY,POTATOES,
SWEET POTATOES, RICE, WOOD & RENEWABLE
99 % PURE ‐ USED IN PETROL BLENDS
96% PURE ‐ USED AS 100% FUEL SUBSTITUTE
WHY ETHANOL IS AN ALTERNATE AUTOMOBILE FUEL?
Ethanol is eco‐friendly.
Ethanol is a renewable source of energy.
Ethanol is clean, Sulphur free FUEL.
Cleaner burning Engines and longer Engine life
Lower Carbon Di‐oxide emissions
Reduced Co emissions
Reduced Particulate emissions and OH&S issues associated with handling Petroleum
Ethanol is domestically produced FUEL by Sugar Industry helping for the rural development.
Ethanol helps in improvement of rural economy and also helps in increasing
considerable savings of precious foreign exchange. 70 % of the crude oil requirements of
the country are imported. 5% Ethanol blending in petrol results in
Ethanol improves OCTANE NUMBER, so that anti‐knock performance of the FUEL increases.
A safer option for enhancing Octane ratings
Ethanol is an alternate automobile FUEL to TEL/ MTBE/ETBE, which causes environmental
Ethanol can be blended with petrol safely up to 24% without modifying the engines.
The HYDROCORBON FOSSIL FUEL resources are limited and the FOSSIL FUEL reserves are
France, Germany, Sweden, India and other countries relied on
ETHANOL as a FUEL during the 1920’s - 1940’s. Brazil was the first to
start a National Fuel Ethanol Program in 1975.
In 1880 Henry Ford designed a car solely on Ethanol.
The Model T Ford was originally designed to run on Ethanol
During 1920 - 1924 , Standard Oil company marketed 25% by vol. Of
ETHANOL in petrol in Baltimore area.
In the mid 1930’s Petrol / Ethanol blends were used in the city bus
services of Bangalore, India. This was supplied from Mandya Sugar
Ethanol was extensively used during World War II in Germany & India
In Europe, Sweden has continued to develop technology in the transport sector with around
400 buses in Stockholm now running on 100% Ethanol
China hosts the largest Fuel Ethanol Plant in world
FUEL ETHANOL GROWTH ‐ DRIVERS
• ETHANOL IS GOOD FOR ENVIRONMENT (KYOTO)
• GOOD FOR RURAL AREAS
• REDUCES DEPENDENCE ON OIL IMPORTS
• ENHANCES TECHNOLOGICAL KNOWLEDGE BASE
• DEMAND IS VIRTUALLY UNLIMITED
• A TRIED & TESTED TECHNOLOGY
• SUSTAINABLE SUPPLY
SUCCESS FACTORS FOR BIO‐FUELS
• FEED STOCKS
• ACCEPTABILITY TO CONSUMERS
FUEL ETHANOL ‐ POLITICAL SUPPORT
• ETHANOL MAY SERVE SOCIALLY DESIRABLE GOALS BUT IT ….
• IS MORE EXPENSIVE THAN GASOLINE
• FACES AN UNFAVOURABLE OPPORTINITY COST STRUCTURE
• GOVERNMENT SUPPORT IS CRUCIAL
FACTORS DRIVING ETHANOL MARKET
• High oil prices
• National energy security considerations
• Ethanol tax incentives
• Feed stock Price support
• Capital cost support
• Guaranteed(Captive) markets
• Price Guarantees
• Direct Price support
• Improved technology
• Climate change concerns
WORLD FUEL ETHANOL PRODUCTION
• World’s Ethanol production will pass 20 Bln gallons in 2012.
• Ethanol production is expected to grow in 2008 ‐ 2012 with CAGR about 5%.
• U.S. and Brazil are leading the world in production of Ethanol.
• Emergence of new Ethanol producers in Asia and Latin America.
• Cuba has the capacity to manufacture as much as 3.2 billion gallons of Ethanol
annually from its sugar crop.
GLOBAL ETHANOL PRODUCTION PATTERN
America Africa Europe Asia
World Ethanol Production Forecast 2008 ‐ 2012 by Country,
Millions of Gallons
2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 CAGR, %
Brazil 4,988 5,238 5,489 5,739 5,990 2.8%
U.S. 6,198 6,858 7,518 8,178 8,838 5.7%
China 1,075 1,101 1,128 1,154 1,181 1.4%
India 531 551 571 591 611 2.2%
France 285 301 317 333 349 3.2%
Spain 163 184 206 227 249 6.9%
Germany 319 381 444 506 569 9.7%
Canada 230 276 322 368 414 9.9%
Indonesia 76 84 92 100 108 5.6%
Italy 50 53 55 58 60 2.8%
ROW 2,302 2,548 2,794 3,040 3,286 5.7%
World 16,215 17,574 18,934 20,293 21,653 4.6%
Fuel Ethanol Plaant/ Distillery ‐ Methane recovery and power generation “ CDM Project – Verification
of VERs on 22.01.2007
PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF ETHANOL
Value Units Ethanol Water Reference
Liquid density g/mL 0.789 1.000 Perry 3.2
Vapour density @ 90C g/mL 0.0015 0.001 PV=nRT
Molecular weight g/mol 46.0634 18.0152 Perry 3.2
Liquid Heat Capacity J/gK 2.845 4.184 Perry 3-183
Heat of Vapourisation J/g 855 2260 Perry 3-178
Vapour Pressure @ 90C torr 1187 525 Perry 13-4
Liquid Viscosity kg/ms 0.00037 0.00032 Perry 3-252
Vapour Viscosity kg/ms 108 x 10-7 125 x 10-7 Perry 3-311
Surface Tension @ 20C mN/m 22.39 72.75 Kay & Laby
Vapour Diffusivity ethanol/air m2/s 102 x 10-7 Perry 3-319
Liquid Diffusivity ethanol/water m2/s 128 x 10-11 Perry 3-319
COMPARISION OF TECHNOLOGIES
Sl. Factor For Comparison UOM Molecular Sieve Azeotropic Distillation Extractive
No Process Process Distillation Process
1. Steam required Kg/lt. 0.6 1.8‐2.0 0.8
2. Power required KW/day 1100 1600 1320
3. Manpower Per shift 1 Operator 2 Operator + 2 Operator +
1 Supervisor 1 Supervisor
4. Entrainer ‐ No Cyclo‐hexane & Benzene Ethylene Glycol
5. Instrumentation ‐ Automatic plant Manual Semi‐Automatic
6. Product purity %purity 99.90% 99.80% 99.6‐99.8%
7. Product Quality ‐ Consistent May become inconsistent High purity possible
SPECIFICATIONS FOR ANHYDROUS ETHANOL
S.N Characteristics Industry Tender Specification Methods of Test, Refer to
Annex of IS 15464 : 2004
1. Relative density at 15.6cC / 15.6cC max. 0.7956 A
2. Ethanol content % by volume at 15.6cC / 15.6cC min. 99.5 B
3. Miscibility with water Miscible C
4. Alkalinity Nil D
5. Acidity (as CH3COOH), mg/l, Max. 30 D
6. Residue on evaporation, percent by mass, Max. 0.005 E
7. Aldehyde content (as CH3CHO) mg / l , Max 60 F
8. Copper , mg/kg,Max 0.1 G
9. Conductivity , μs/m,Max 300 H
10. Methyl alcohol , mg/litre , Max 300 J
11. Appearance Clear & bright and free from suspended Visual
POINTS RAISED BY OIL COMPANIES & AUTO PRODUSERS
ETHANOL BLEND MUST BE CONTROLLED
NOT ALL EMISSIONS ARE REDUCED, NOX AND ALDEHYDES INCREASED
NOT ALL VEHICLES ON ROAD ARE SUITABLE
ETHANOL ADDITION INCREASES THE VAPOR PRESSURE OF FUEL MIX
ETHANOL ADDITION WILL RESULT IN RESIDUES IN FUEL SYSTEMS BEING
RELEASED AND FUEL FILTER REPLACEMENT WILL BE MORE FREQUENT
LACK OF INFRASTRUCTURE IN BLENDING AND DISTRIBUTION
EXTRA EFFORTS TO PRODUCE AND HANDLE ETHANOL BLENDED PETROL
SOME CHANGES NEED TO HANDLING AND STORAGE FACILITIES
ETHANOL IS HYDROSCOPIC
ALL THE FUEL ETHANOL STORAGE TANKS SHALL BE PROVIDED WITH SILICA GEL TRAP &
Uganda on average consumes a combined volume of 840 million litres of refined diesel
and petrol annually, meaning the country pays a higher price for fuel than either Kenya or
Tanzania, who import crude oil and refine it locally. Uganda imports about 220 million
litres of petrol each year and this is projected to increase to 385 Million Litres by 2010.
Petrol imports are growing at 5% per year in the region. If Uganda starts by blending 5%
ethanol with petrol, then tax revenue would remain the same ‐ since local ethanol would
only replace the additional volume of petrol that would otherwise have to be imported to
meet the growth in demand. The total volume of petrol imports would remain the same,
leaving the Government with the same tax revenue.
according to the statistics of the Oil companies , for blending 5% with petrol to meet
the demand of entire UGANDA would be in the order of 20 Million litres Ethanol per
K.SREERAMAMURTHY – GENERAL MANAGER-DISTILLERY