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Brazil의 역사와 문화


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유성도서관 Viva Brazil 특강,
브라질의 역사와 문화 여행안내 용 강의자료

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Brazil의 역사와 문화

  1. 1. 비교 브라질 • 8,547,956 km² • 1 억 9200 만 • 포르투갈 • 상파울로 • 브라질레이로 (Brasilero) • 커피 • 오바마 미국 • 9,629,091 km² • 3 억 800 만 . • 영국 • 뉴욕 • 백인 (white) • 면화 • 지우마 호세프
  2. 2. 1500, Pedro Cabral 바히아에 상륙
  3. 3. • 자연상태에서 조화와 균형 • 남 - 초자연적 신비 vs 여 - 일상적 생활 • 문자의 원초적 기능은 다른 인간을 예속화시키는 것 • 서구문명은 순수한 원주민에게 재앙
  4. 4. 1544, Capital is established at Salvador
  5. 5. Salvador, city of churches
  6. 6. Path to Independence 1750, Treaty of Madrid recognized Portuguese claims to land west of the Tordesillas line. Immigrants to the interior discovered land suitable for cattle ranching.
  7. 7. 1690s, Gold Rush Minas Gerais Discovery of gold in the interior triggered a mass migration from the coasts. Gold rush dwarfed that of the US in the 1840s. 500,000 Portuguese moved to Brazil.
  8. 8. Churches, such as this one, St. Francis in Salvador, were lavishly decorated in gold.
  9. 9. 1763, Capital was moved to Rio to better protect gold mines
  10. 10. The Empire (1822–1889) Pedro I, 1822–1831—took over Portugal after the death of his father. Left his son… Pedro II (1840–1889) in charge . Rule was autocratic. Senators appointed for life.
  11. 11. • As Napoleon invaded Iberia to isolate the British through blockade (Portugal was allied with Britain), Portuguese King João VI moved the empire from Lisbon to Rio de Janeiro. • With the French threat removed, João went back to Lisbon and left his son, Pedro I, in charge. • Under pressure from merchants, wealthy farmers and the Church, independence was declared in September 1822. No revolution required! • Brazil became a constitutional monarchy.
  12. 12. The Old Republic (1889– 1930) •Seeking a more enlightened, European model of government, the King was driven to France. • Freedom of religion was established •All literate males gained suffrage. •European, Arab and Japanese immigration continued. Attempt was made to ‘whiten’ population. •Gap between north and south widened.
  13. 13. Vargas (1930–45 & 1951–54)
  14. 14. “Father of the poor: “ President or Dictator? * Came to power in a bloodless coup supported by the Liberal Alliance. * Light industrial sector surpassed coffee as the key industry * “Brazilianization”—culture unified around common themes, …Blacks allowed on the soccer team, samba became the official music. * Brazil became the only Latin American country to fight in WWII (allies). •Raised minimum wage, suspended democracy and created an oil and electric monopoly before committing suicide in 1954. *Most important Brazilian ever? A citizens’ poll in 2010 said so.
  15. 15. Kubitschek (1956–61) to Military Rule (1964–1985) Kubitschek moved the capital to the interior, Brasília, as developing the interior become a national priority. Fearing the politics of Brazil had gone too far left, conservatives mobilized and seized control in ‘64. Suppressed dissent (tortured 20,000) and free press, abolished political parties, blocked agrarian reforms. This period of repression is also associated with an economic boom.
  16. 16. • Journalist Vladimir Herzog was killed in 1975 after a torture session promoted in the midst of political repression. According to official sources, he committed suicide in jail.
  17. 17. 정보의 전달과 축적의 과정인 ' 은행예금식 교육 (banking education)' 을 극복하는 ' 문제제기식 교육 (problem-posing education)' 은 하나의 참된 인식행위로 이루어진다
  18. 18. “ 내가 가난한 이들에게 먹 을 것을 나눠 주게 하자 사람들은 나를 성인이라 불렀다 . 그런데 내가 가난한 이들 에게 왜 먹을 것이 없는지 따져 물으니 사람들은 나 를 사회주의자라고 부른다 .”
  19. 19. Lula da Silva Born poor, had little formal education. Jailed during military rule, Lula became a union organizer and founding member of the Workers’ Party (1980). Elected President in 2002 after several failed campaigns. "Under Lula, Brazil became the world's eighth-largest economy, more than 20 million people rose out of acute poverty and Rio de Janeiro was awarded the 2016 Summer Olympics, the first time the Games will be held in South America." — The Washington Post, October 2010[12]
  20. 20. More Japanese live in São Paulo than there are Japanese in any other country!
  21. 21. Soccer and Its King
  22. 22. Carnival Beginning 40 days prior to Easter and lasting a week, Carnival is Brazil’s most recognizable holiday. Nominally Catholic (coinciding with the beginning of Lent), the festival combines circus, dance, music , costumes and parades. Typically one had to join a samba school to participate. Groups like Didá in Salvador have organized female drum lines and seek to involve those of lower socio-economic status.
  23. 23. Samba
  24. 24. Bossa Nova
  25. 25. Capoiera
  26. 26. Capoeira Capoeira is a Brazilian martial art combing dance, music and the blending of acrobatic and fluid fighting moves. While debates exist as to certain aspects of its origin, we do know that it came to and evolved in Brazil with enslaved Africans.
  27. 27. Niemeyer architecture in São Paulo, Edifício Copan. The world’s single largest apartment complex?
  28. 28. Rocinha-Rio Favelas, urban shantytowns
  29. 29. Candomblé
  30. 30. Candomblé • An Afro-Brazilian religion blending tribal African spirituality, beliefs and gods (Yoruba orixás) with the practices of Catholicism and the veneration of saints.