Classification and generations of computers


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Classification and generations of computers

  1. 2. <ul><li>Introduction to computers </li></ul><ul><li>Classifications of computers </li></ul><ul><li>(1)By nature </li></ul><ul><li>(2)By purpose </li></ul><ul><li>(3)By size </li></ul><ul><li>Generations(5) </li></ul>
  2. 3. Computers Digital Computers Analog Computers Hybrid computers Classification by nature
  3. 4. Digital Computers Use digits specially binary digits (0, 1) to represent data Examples: Personal computers such as Laptops and Desktops, etc Computer Classification Classification by nature
  4. 5. Analog Computers Use physical magnitudes as voltage and pressure instead of digits Examples: Thermometers, voltmeters, speed measuring meters, etc Computer Classification Classification by nature
  5. 6. <ul><li>Hybrid Computers </li></ul><ul><li>Combination of both the analogue and digital computers </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><li>A computer that maintain temperature in a burner of a production plant </li></ul>Computer Classification Classification by nature
  6. 7. Computer Classification Classification by Purpose Special purpose computers General purpose computers Computers
  7. 8. <ul><li>Special purpose computers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Designed for a special job only </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples: Computers used in digital watches, pocket calculators, point of sales, etc </li></ul></ul>Computer Classification Classification by Purpose
  8. 9. <ul><li>General Purpose computers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Design to solve wide variety of problems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples: A personal computer used in an office or at home </li></ul></ul>Computer Classification Classification by Purpose Can a general purpose computer be converted to a special purpose computer ?
  9. 10. By size Mainframe Minicomputers Microcomputers Supercomputer
  10. 11. <ul><li>Mainframe computer </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A large computer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>has enormous input, process, output and storage capacities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>hundreds of terminals connected </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>hundreds of users can work simultaneously </li></ul></ul>Computer Classification Classification by size
  11. 12. <ul><li>Mini computer </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A smaller version of Mainframes </li></ul></ul>Computer Classification Classification by size
  12. 13. Computer Classification Classification by size <ul><li>Microcomputer </li></ul><ul><li>A smaller computer </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>available for only one user at any time </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The central processing unit is embedded in a single chip - microprocessor </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Examples: personal computers; Laptops, desktops </li></ul>
  13. 15. <ul><li>The First generation </li></ul><ul><li>The Second Generation </li></ul><ul><li>The Third Generation </li></ul><ul><li>The Fourth Generation </li></ul><ul><li>The Fifth Generation </li></ul>
  14. 16. <ul><li>1942-1955 </li></ul><ul><li>Vacuum Tube </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Heat </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Burnout </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Machine language </li></ul><ul><li>Magnetic core memory </li></ul><ul><li>Storage </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Punched cards </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tape (1957) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Characteristics of 1 st Generation Computers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Computers big and clumsy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Electricity consumption is high </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Electric failure occurred regularly  - computers not very reliable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Large air conditioners was necessary because the computers generated heat </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Batch processing </li></ul></ul>
  15. 17. programming - machine language
  16. 18. ENIAC - first generation computer vacuum tube 1942-1955
  17. 19. ENIAC - first generation computer vacuum tube 1942-1955
  18. 20. <ul><li>1955-1964 </li></ul><ul><li>Transistor </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Smaller </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No warm-up time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Less energy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Less heat </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Faster </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More reliable </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Storage </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Removable disk pack (1954) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Magnetic tape </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Programming languages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Assembly language </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>FORTRAN (1954) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>COBOL(1959) </li></ul></ul>Used primarily by business, university, government
  19. 21. <ul><li>Computers became smaller   </li></ul><ul><li>Generate less heat </li></ul><ul><li>Electricity consumption lower </li></ul><ul><li>More reliable and f aster  </li></ul><ul><li>Core memory developed </li></ul><ul><li>Magnetic tapes and disks used </li></ul><ul><li>First operating systems developed </li></ul><ul><li>A new processing method was needed. </li></ul><ul><li>Time-sharing (processing technique) </li></ul>
  20. 22. transistor 1955-1964 second generation computer
  21. 23. = 40 1
  22. 24. <ul><li>1964-1975 </li></ul><ul><li>Integrated Circuit </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Electronic circuit on small silicon chip </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reliability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Compactness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Low cost </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inexpensive – mass-produced </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Computers smaller, faster and more reliable </li></ul><ul><li>Power consumption lower </li></ul><ul><li>High-level languages appeared </li></ul>
  23. 25. 1 1000
  24. 26. <ul><li>1975-1989 </li></ul><ul><li>Microprocessor </li></ul><ul><ul><li>General-purpose processor on a chip </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Explosive growth </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Digital watches </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pocket calculators </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Personal computers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cars </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Copy machines </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Television sets </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Integrated circuits, smaller and faster </li></ul><ul><li>Micro computer series such as IBM and APPLE developed </li></ul><ul><li>Portable computers developed </li></ul><ul><li>Great development in data communication </li></ul><ul><li>Different types of secondary memory with high storage capacity and fast access developed </li></ul>
  25. 27. third generation computer integrated circuit 1975-1989
  26. 28. <ul><li>1989-Present </li></ul><ul><li>Large capacity of main memory, hard disk, optical disk. </li></ul><ul><li>Notebook </li></ul><ul><li>Powerful desktop P.C and workstation </li></ul><ul><li>Very powerful mainframe systems </li></ul><ul><li>Internet </li></ul><ul><li>World wide web (www) ,multimedia applications </li></ul><ul><li>Portable computers, more powerful ,cheaper ,reliable and easy to use. </li></ul>
  27. 29. fifth generation computer microprocessor 1989 - today
  28. 30. IBM PC & COMPATIBLE 2007 1990
  29. 31. second vacuum tube transistor integrated circuit third first microprocessor fourth