AS AUDIENCES ANDINSTITUTIONS:QUICK-FIRE REVISION KKS
TASK:Add the following terms to yourGLOSSARY and find definitions foreach: Blu ray Vertical Integration Digital Distribution Above the line marketing 35mm reels Below the line marketing Independent cinema Synergy marketing Mainstream cinema Merchandising Piracy Viral marketing Niche audience Conglomerate CGI Subsidiary Proliferation DSN – Digital Screen Network Word of mouth advertising HD – High definition
Working Title films:Additional info for your notes
Working Title and finance beyond Universal In fact, WT toppers Tim Bevan and Eric Fellner have bought a measure of freedom to pursue their own instincts for offbeat material and new talent by laying off as much as half the risk through co-financing deals with Frances StudioCanal and various U.K. tax funds. StudioCanals contribution to WTs budgets and overheads is believed to be in the region of 25%, getting all French rights and a worldwide backend position in return. Working Title also has tapped the new breed of U.K. tax finance, known as GAAP funds, for most of its slate in the past couple of years. These deals typically provide equity worth 25%-30% of budgets. Its regular partner is Scion Films, which did tax deals for "Pride & Prejudice," "Catch a Fire," "Gone," "Smokin Aces," "Mr. Beans Holiday," "The Golden Age" and "Atonement."
Why bother with co-production? Co-production has long been a method of sharing risk within the film industry, and when Working Title began its life, co-production was merely another revenue stream that often involved pre-sale or pre- distribution deals on world or national rights. Since one of Working Title’s principal partners was Channel Four , and Channel Four pioneered international co-production in the UK, it is no surprise that Working Title adopted and extended the model. Working Title took co-production further when formalizing their relationship with PolyGram (later Universal ) where US investment of 30% did not prevent them from obtaining EU/UK tax advantages. A 30% stake in the budget + Hollywood support clearly stimulates other investors willingness to get involved in a film. It is this advance in the model that radically enhanced the production processes and values in Working Title films.
Secret of success: The most important part of the business is developing scripts. They usually have around 40 - 50 projects in development at any time and their average spend on development is around $250,000 to $500,000 per script. They aim to make around 5 to 10 films a year, spread across different budget sizes (with an average of $30 to $40 million) and genres. For eg: released in 2009/10 are 10 films including the Richard Curtis comedy The Boat That Rocked , political thriller State of Play and Green Zone , an Iraq war thriller.
The Boat that Rocked Released in the UK on April 1st 2009 Budget of $50 million Richard Curtis romantic comedies have traditionally done very well at the box office Typical Working Title co-production with Universal and Canal+ Familiar Working Title faces and some up-and-coming talent Famous US star Traditional marketing campaign with synergistic merchandising and tie-ins – soundtrack released on Mercury Records owned by Universal… Increasingly traditional digital marketing strategies… Large scale release - 400+ screens in UK Medium scale release in US – 800+ screens It died in the UK yet it still did quite well in the US
Boat That Rocked Marketing Plan: Teaser Poster & trailer… It got a different name in the US: Main Poster & trailer… Pirate Radio. Character posters… During the 7 month delay in its Here’s our Working Title famous US arrival in the US, both DVD and Blu- star… Ray versions of the film came out in Soundtrack synergy… non-American markets, ensuring that U.S. viewers would have access Digital marketing – the film used via the Internet to copies. Spotify to create playlists for each of the 9 DJs featured in the film. In fact, a cam version debuted on Piratebay soon after theatrical iPhone app… release, with DVD and Blu-Ray rips Something viral… appeared in mid-August, eminently available to anybody around the But it got terrible reviews which world with an Internet connection. tend to turn into terrible word of mouth… While its gross intake was relatively modest, at just under $3 million (over 800+ cinemas) Pirate Radio actually did very well on a per-But the film faired better in cinema average which put it in third place among films in wide-release the US...... for the weekend.
What is Synergy and Cross Media/ technological Convergence? http://www.scribd.com/doc/14824216/Synergy- and-Cross-Media-Convergence
The importance of cross media convergenceand synergy in production, distributionand marketing. What does convergence mean and why is it important? When two or more technologies come together to create a new technology. Audiences: Everything in one product. Institutions: Audiences tied to one product.
Star-performer-productsynergy Development of a star persona across a range of media sites. A pop star releases albums works on film soundtrack/scores write books use song in advert involved in rock documentaries etc
Production synergyThe Harry Potter effect... Film giant Warner Brothers buying Leavesden Studios - the home of Harry Potter. http://www.economist.com/node/853542
Slumdog and Production innovation: how convergence/ digital technology has had an impact on film making Danny Boyle, director of "Slumdog Millionaire" discusses new technology that he used on the film while on set in India. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kbu3GmiWF68&feature=player_embedde d#at=56 Many of the fast-paced chase scenes and game show set were shot with the SI- 2K Digital Cinema Camera, developed by Silicon Imaging of Niskayuna, New York. “We needed a digital camera with enough latitude to hold highlights and something very small so we could enter the children’s world at their level.” Up to 4-hours of continuous footage are captured on a single 160GB notebook drive; this is the equivalent of 14-reels of 35mm film which has an associated cost exceeding $25,000 for materials and processing. The recorded files, can be immediately played with the target colour look at full resolution, without the need for film scanning, tape ingest, format conversions or off-line proxies. Also it could withstand the sweltering temperatures of Mumbai!
Distribution and MarketingSynergy:Sony example: Tonight I could watch a Sony produced film (Godzilla) on my Sony DVD player and 32 in Sony TV. Later I could listen to the Sony produced soundtrack featuring Jamiroquai, a Sony recording artist on my Sony CD player. Later, I could research the film on my Sony laptop and call someone to discuss the film on my Sony phone and just before I go to sleep I could play the Sony produced Godzilla game on my Sony playstation...........
The importance of cross media convergence andsynergy in production, distribution andmarketing.Egs:Disney: High School Musical – on stage, on ice, music videos, soundtrack, website, etcWorking Title: The soundtrack to the film O Brother, Where Art Thou became a best seller in the USA, certified eight times platinum as of October 2007 with sales of 7,421,000 copies in the US up to November 2008. It won the Grammy Award for Album of the Year in 2002. How might have had some synergetic benefit for WTF?
Slumdog Millionaire key points:Distribution:How "Slumdog Millionaire was promoted through Creative Search Marketing(Technological convergence) : "Tug" in the use of search marketing for Pathe to publicise Slumdog Millionaire using online marketing on the Internet to drive traffic. This allowed for niche audiences to be targeted: "Indian moviegoers and Danny Boyle enthusiasts". Tug launched targeted banners across the Google Content network to build awareness of the film on a cost per click model. Eye balls were free. Tug worked with Google to create click to play trailer ads. Pathe only paid when the surfer clicked through to the microsite. Banner and even trailer views were free! Tug tested and improved ad copy weekly and included Bafta award and box office hit messaging when the movie met these milestones. A tactical SEO programme was also put in place concentrating on the film name to ensure top positioning for the difficult to index, flash microsite.
Success: It drove over 75,000 new visitors to ‘SlumdogMillionaireMovie.co.uk’ More than 21 Million ad impressions were served and viewed by targeted audiences – for free. On a blind network at £5 CPM that would have cost over£100K! 73,000 movie goers engaged with and viewed the video trailer These results cost a mere £13,000 in media spend over a 5 week burst. To support their above the line advertising, Pathe developed a suite of online marketing collateral including a viral, a widget and a trailer focused microsite
Hollywood and Synergy These humongous-sized mammoths are able to use their size and ownership of a wide range of media to cross promote their films (and other media) across their wide media empires. The synergies of cross-promotion that can be created by these media organisations is mind-boggling. For 20th Century Foxs Avatar it resulted in the greatest word-of- mouth ever generated for a big budget film and no doubt this helped the film become a blockbuster. (Fox with-holding the trailer from the summer and early Autumn also created an itch to see film and this also added to the word-of -mouth.) Such are the benefits of cross-media ownership by these giant institutions. http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/cool/giants/
The importance of technologicalconvergence for institutionsand audiencesPositive More people have access to filmsNegative Piracy
Technological Convergence andExhibition In the film industry the number of platforms where you can view films is proliferating all the time; audiences can also watch films in a variety of ways WHEN THEY WANT TO. You can use digital technology to: download a film or TV programme onto your mobile phone, laptop, I-Pad or PC; you can watch it on your flat- screen TV; you can also connect your HD TV to the Internet and watch the film on You Tube; of course, you can see the film on Blue Ray or ordinary DVDs; some might prefer to watch the film on Playstation or X Box; you could, perhaps, download it on Pirate Bay or other sites and consume it at a time that suits you.
The technologies that have been introducedin recent years at the levels of production,distribution, marketing and exchange:New Technologies: Distribution/Marketing Internet/Downloading Watch films on the internet, Mobile Phones mobile phones, Ipods ipads Games Consoles Viral marketing Exhibition/Exchange:Production: Channel 4, Film Four Exchange Digital cameras Cinema – 3D, Multiplexes, HD cameras Arthouse Cinemas, IMAX Home – DVD/Blu Ray/HD, TV, Sky/Cable. Pay per view, VoD
How have new technologies affected the film? Are these effects positive or negative?New technologies: CGI and Special Effects Growth of affordable digital technology to increase film making opportunitiesProduction: Positive or negative?Consumption: Increase of technology Blu-Ray, Home Cinema, DVD, PVRs Convergence of products to watch them on Piracy Positive or negative?
Digital technology andcinemas Technological convergence or simply convergence‘ is changing the ways in which films are being produced, distributed and consumed. The old 35mm films will end up in museums with cheaper digital downloads offering an immersive experience far greater than before on new digital screens in multiplexes. Watch the following short film so that you will know how to discuss convergence in the consumption/exhibition part of your essays and be able to discuss the changes that digital technology will bring about in cinemas and the benefits cinema-goers. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CJUP4BouGVY&feature=player_em bedded
The significance of proliferation inhardware and content for institutions andaudiencesProliferation:A sudden increase in the amount or number of somethingProliferation (through technology) Downloading – itunes, ipod, apple TV Digital Piracy – DVD’s, filesharing Social Networking Sites – marketing and buzz Accessibility – everywhere??? Control – industry/audiences
The significance of proliferation in hardware and content for institutions and audiencesSignificance for Institutions: Cameras Ipads Internet Mobile phones = an increase in the number of people that can be reached through marketingSignificance for Audiences: Exposure to rapid increase of technology Pressure to buy the latest products? More mobile technology available and able to consume films at a faster more convenient rate
How ‘Avatar’ is an example of how audiencesuse technological convergence on the Net forexchangeis increasingly important for modern action adventure movies.Digital technology E.g. the new Sherlock Holmes film used digital effects to evoke Victorian London as an evolving city.But it is also impacting how we SHARE and watch films: Watch the following film from Russia, where digital technology has been used to edit and create a series of images from "Avatar" with several songs from the films soundtrack; they have also used digital technology and the Net to upload this on YouTube for others to see and comment on. This is a good example of exchange -the creative work of members of the public and unintended by the film-makers and distributors. The comments and probable answering videos may lead to endless exchange. To see comments on YouTube simply click on the image. By today it had more than 284,588 views! http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WeYLjhWTZVM&feature=player_embedded
Exhibition Issues for "The Boat ThatRocked" - Audience reception and digitalpiracy The importance of comments made after the Official trailer on YouTube: Several, "spam" comments, refer to websites where you can download the film free online. This is one of the results of WEB 2.0 and the interactive nature of digital technology. Its a form of piracy, of course, and another example of technological convergence - something which can cut both ways for the distribution of the film - profitably and unprofitably. The spam is aimed at young people who are "time rich and cash poor".
Hollywood http://www.slideshare.net/belair1981/distribu tion-3499494 Additional info