Of the 2, 223 people aboard the Titanic, only 706 survived. 900 crew members Tickets for the Titanic capped out at $4,350 (which is more than $95,860 in 2008 dollars). April 10, 1912 46-ton luxury liner, Great Britain to NYC. April 15, 1912 Sunk within 2 hours after ice cap impact Last survivor died earlier this year.
Violet Jessop, an ocean liner stewardess and a nurse was one of the survivors of the Titanic. She is also well known for surviving the Britannic in 1916, the sister ship to Titanic. Violet also survived an earlier fiasco in 1911, when she was aboard the RMS Olympic, when it collided with another ship, HMS Hawke. Served as WWI nurse with Red Cross. She passed away on May 5, 1971 of congestive heart failure.
-March 31, 1909 in Belfast (Ireland) -The Titanic was constructed by the Harland & Wolff company - Titanic construction took about 3 years and $7.5 million to complete - It took around 3000 laborers to construct the Titanic - The vessel featured 16 watertight compartments with steel doors designed to close within 25 seconds, keep any flooding out of the ship’s interior
Planning and preparation Staff training Community/population education Disaster plan Primary prevention Assessment of risk, vulnerability analysis, inventory.
The Titanic was supplied with only enough life boats/jackets to accommodate about half of its maximum number of passengers Only one ‘trial test’ 6-7 hours total, never ran engines at full speed prior to voyage. No staff preparation/drills prior to departure. No evidence of disaster plan, roles in disaster, had 24 hour lookout.
Early warnings Mobilization Evacuation Organization of team, role definition. Health care workers put on “call.” Community members must take warnings seriously and be ‘disaster prepared’. Problems: desensitized, previous experience.
Ice warnings on third day, noted by captain. Warning that icebergs were within 5 miles of Titanic on day of disaster. No discussion of potential risks, captain retired to his quarters, speed was not reduced (at full speed due to need for surprise early arrival at NYC). Passengers had no advance warning of icebergs.
Holding on, endurance. Shock of population. Secondary preparation, involvement of disaster leaders in setting priorities. Knowing and implementing the Plan. Triage of evacuation.
April 14 1912 - 10:13 pm lookout signaled bridge “Iceberg right ahead.” Office ordered to put helm ‘hard astarboard” and reverse engines. Captain alerted. Ship hits iceberg, causing slight roll. Hole ripped in steel plating of ship. Impact slight and not noticed by crew or passengers. Boiler room flooded.
Population/community face consequences. Begins DURING the impact phase and continues until ALL threats and hazards have passed. Secondary prevention to minimize damage, further complications. Three parts: isolation, rescue, remedy.
Compartments filling with water, bow sinking, no emergency whistles or warnings to avoid ‘causing chaos.’ Captain issues distress call, Carpathia (58 miles away) responded, Californian (19 miles away) ignored distress call. Many lifeboats lowered into the water were only half full Many Titanic lifeboats drifted off to sea before they could even be properly deployed. “Women and children first”, FIRST CLASS THAT IS. CHAOS. Boats suspended 70 feet, slammed into boat side. Congress noted this was most serious lack of preparation for disaster. 12:47 am Titanic breaks in half, sinks. Deaths: drowning, exposure, trauma. Survivors rowed toward ‘lights’ of Californian.
60% of first class survived. 42% of second class survived. 25% of third class survived. 25% of staff survived. GENDER: 75% women survived; 25% men. Rescue from Carpathia and Californian. Returned to New York and Nova Scotia with survivors. Prayer service for the dead 8:30 am, Captain of Carpathia Public media notification: April 15, 1912
Healing beings. Goal: Restore population/community to predisaster conditions. Evaluation and reflection, lessons learned, implementation of research based changes in disaster preparedness. Secondary and tertiary prevention. PTSDT
Facing the ‘saved by technology’ value of industrial and scientific revolution. Congressional hearings: May 1912 Revolutionary changes from Titanic disaster: Inspection certificates mandated lifeboats, staff training, position of lifeboats, lifeboat staff responsibilities. Disaster drills. Passenger instructions, lifeboat assignments, paths to safety, instructions in each room. Electric searchlights, 24/7 radio operator. All ships required to meet construction standards.
Ellen Church, nurse and pilot, suggested that nurses be put on commercial flights to make passengers feel more comfortable about flying. Church became the worlds first stewardess on May 15, 1930.