Florence Nightingale Anniversary of Her Death

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Mississippi Nurses Association PPS August 2010 Dr. Karen Saucier Lundy
The University of Southern Mississippi

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  • she is no longer a behaloed 'gracious lady' but a complicated woman of her time, humorous and wry, often unlikable, always formidable.heiress to a tradition of freethinking in political, religious, and social matters
  • This is a complicated woman, icon suggests myth and one dimensional. Bostridge addresses two issues head on: first bio in 50 years: lesbianism and death from syphillis. BOTH NO EVIDENCE. Both driven (her selected writings will fill a projected 16 volumes) and driving (she could be said to have worked two of her loyal supporters to death), she always put her cause first, with remarkable results. As Bostridge notes, to Nightingale, 'earthly friendships' were merely 'a hindrance on the path to true righteousness.'
  • Abolitionists and dissenters, long tradition of political activism, Parthe turned to art, Flo was better educated than sons. When college education opened to women, she was not interested due to her age…30
  • Bostridge documents how much her success relied on others’ support. The common soldier’s savior, the standard-bearer of modern nursing, a pioneering social reformer: Florence Nightingale belongs to that select band of historical characters who are instantly recognizable.
  • There is something unnerving—something strange and therefore interesting—in the intensity of the young Florence's desire to do something; her determination, adhered to at painful cost, to remain unmarried in order to fulfill a destiny which was at that point still cloudy to her. She was not interested in saints but she has some of the characteristics associated with sainthood—none of them anything to do with being nice.
  • It had little to do with church or piety, or even Christ. On both sides, the Nightingales were of dissenting stock, and she was brought up among free-thinking, intellectually adventurous Unitarians who enjoyed a stimulating combination of public purpose and private inquiry.
  • Lady Dunsany: FN possessed same strange and sexless identity, which belonging neither to man nor woman seemed to combine the choicest results of both.
  • 36 yo
  • Queens college opened to women in 1848. By then she was onto her sphere of action.
  • Wrote account of her time at Kaiserworth where women could find ‘useful education.’ age 30, the ‘age of Christ.’
  • It can help de-mystify the notions of evidence-based nursing and show itshistorical continuity with concerns that were important to the founder of modern nursing,Florence Nightingale.
  • FN has the last word….
  • our world is a better place for her life.Florence lived to 90 years of age, a spinster. She was an attractive young lady and sought after, turning down offers of marriage. In her early days she wanted freedom. Her attitudes are recorded. Marriage interfered with her view of freedom so she avoided it. After Crimea she sought privacy and seclusion, beset by long standing ill health.
  • Florence Nightingale Anniversary of Her Death

    1. 1. “When I am no longer even a memory”: Florence Nightingale1820 – 1910<br />Karen Saucier Lundy, PhD, RN, FAAN<br />Professor<br />The University of Southern Mississippi <br />School of Nursing<br />
    2. 2. Absorbing, superbly written, and authoritative, this is a terrific biography of a woman to whom we owe a great deal, but would perhaps never want to meet."—The Atlantic Monthly<br />
    3. 3. From the reviews…..<br />"Devout and unforgiving, inexhaustible and chronically unwell, the farsighted and exacting Florence Nightingale famously gnawed her way through the barriers that kept genteel Victorian women trapped 'in a meaningless round of trivial occupations' in order to promote her vision of a modern public health-care system.”<br />“By sheer will and an intellect that combined creativity and detailed analysis, Nightingale changed the way we perceive public health.”<br />
    4. 4. Florence Nightingale<br />Born in Florence, Italy<br />12 May 1820<br />
    5. 5. The Nightingale Family<br />Parthenope <br />Nightingale<br />Verney<br />William Edward Shore<br />Nightingale (WEN)<br />Fanny Smith <br />Nightingale<br />
    6. 6. Curriculum Vitae<br />“But the happiest time of my life was during a year's illness, which I had when I was 6 years old. I never learnt to write till I was 11 or 12, owing to a weakness in my hands. And I was shy to misery. “ F.N. at Kaiserworth 1851<br />
    7. 7. Florence Nightingale<br />One of Florence Nightingale’s childhood homes – Lea Hurst, Derbyshire<br />
    8. 8. FN Birth Certificate<br />
    9. 9. Embley Park<br />
    10. 10. Those were the days…before Nightingale<br />She was a fat old woman, this Mrs. Gamp, with a husky voice and a moist eye, which she had a remarkable power of turning up and showing the white of it. Having very little neck, it cost her some trouble to look over herself, if one may say so, to those to whom she talked. She wore a very rusty black gown, rather the worse for snuff, and a shawl and bonnet to correspond. . . . The face of Mrs. Gamp-the nose in particular-was somewhat red and swollen, and it was difficult to enjoy her society without becoming conscious of the smell of spirits. Like most persons who have attained to great eminence in their profession, she took to hers very kindly; insomuch, that setting aside her natural predilections as a woman, she went to a lying-in [birth] or a laying-out [death] with equal zest and relish.<br />Charles Dickens, 1910<br />
    11. 11. And Then There Was Nightingale .<br />Florence Nightingale was named one of the 100 most influential persons of the last millennium by Life Magazine <br />
    12. 12. Kaiserworth 1851<br />….”I took all the training that was to be had- there was none to be had in England, but Kaiserwerth was far from having trained me.”<br />
    13. 13. Kaiserworth 1851<br />“But the first idea I can recollect when I was a child was a desire to nurse the sick. My day dreams were all of hospitals and I visited them whenever I could. I never communicated it to any one, it would have been laughed at; but I thought God had called me to serve Him in that way.”<br />
    14. 14. Nightingale on Women<br />“Why have women passion, intellect, moral activity-these three-in a place in society where no one of the three can be exercised?" <br /> Nightingale, 1852 <br />Cassandra<br />
    15. 15. On Women…..<br />“Women never have a half-hour in all their lives (excepting before or after anybody is up in the house) that they can call their own, without fear of offending or of hurting someone. Why do people sit up so late, or, more rarely, get up so early? Not because the day is not long enough, but because they have no time in the day to themselves.”<br />
    16. 16. On Faith and Spirituality…<br />Nightingale inspired by the voice of God calling her in her youth, her deep religious belief was mystical, unorthodox and free of any taint of religiosity. <br />FN disliked religious ritual and did not identify with any denomination.<br />It was science that illuminated divine purpose to her, and in particular the new discipline of statistics: 'a sacred science which could permit man to read the mind of God.'<br />
    17. 17. Florence Nightingale: Duty Calls and the Dream is Realized<br />The Crimean Experience<br /> Set sail with 38 self-proclaimed nurses with varied training and experiences, of whom 24 were Catholic and Anglican nuns. <br />6,000 men, four miles of hospital beds<br />“…a thing unknown and undreamt of ..” London Times, 1910<br />
    18. 18. The Lady with the Lamp<br />Mortality rate from the Crimea War was estimated to be from 42% to 73%. Nightingale is credited with reducing that rate to 2% within 6 months of her arrival at Scutari. <br />
    19. 19. What about the Crimean nurses? 1854-56<br />229 women total<br />11 died in Scutari hospitals<br />17 remained for duration<br />49 women dismissed (18 for intoxication)<br />
    20. 20. "In that hour of misery, a Lady with a lamp I see ...“<br />Henry Wadsworth Longfellow<br />Santa Filomena<br />
    21. 21. “What a comfort it was to see her pass even. She would speak to one and nod and smile to as many more, but she could not do it all, you know. We lay there by hundreds, but we couldkiss her shadow as it fell, and lay our heads on the pillow again content.”<br />
    22. 22. The Crimean War<br />“I Can Stand Out the War with Any Man" <br />Barracks Hospital today<br />
    23. 23. ‘Florence was Joan come round again’<br />“There is not an official who world not burn me like Joan of Arc if he could, but they know that the War Office cannot turn me out because the country is with me. That is the position.” (1855 to Sidney Herbert)<br />
    24. 24. “Miss Nightingale had stamped the profession of nurse with her own image. . . in the midst of the muddle and the filth, the agony and the defeats; she had brought about a revolution. “Woodham-Smith, 1951, p. 179<br />
    25. 25. 1856<br />
    26. 26. Pearls From Flo<br />There are five essential points in securing the health of houses: Pure air<br />Pure water<br />Efficient drainage<br />Cleanliness<br />Light<br />Pure air<br />Florence Nightingale. (1860). Notes on Nursing: What It Is and What It Is Not. London: Harrison. <br />
    27. 27. St. Thomas School of Nursing<br />Notes on Nursing<br />School of Nursing<br />Public fund 50,000 pounds<br />
    28. 28. On Education<br />Unrecognized for her educational impact<br />No outlet for her own education until 31<br />Emphasis on practicality and application, praxis<br />“…only widowhood or poverty could give an educated woman a reason to work.”<br />
    29. 29. “…the first thought I can remember and the last was nursing work and in the absence of this, education work, but more the education of the bad than of the young. But for this, I had no education myself.” (1848)<br />
    30. 30. “…while the intellectual foot has made a step in advance, the practical foot has remained behind. Woman stands askew. Her education for action has not kept pace with her education for acquirement.” (Nightingale, 1851)<br />
    31. 31. Two major themes in FN’s Writing<br />Nurses must be trained differently and instructed specifically in district and instructive nursing.<br /> The focus on the role of the nurse. She clearly distinguished the role of the health nurse in promoting what we today call self-care<br /> Monteiro, 1985<br />
    32. 32. Quotes and Vision: Hospitals<br />“Money would be better spent in maintaining health in infancy and childhood than in building hospitals to cure disease.” (1894)<br />“My view you know is that the ultimate destination of all nursing is the nursing of the sick in their own homes. . . . I look to the abolition of all hospitals and workhouse infirmaries. But no use to talk about the year 2000.” (1860)<br />
    33. 33. Quotes and Vision:Evidence Based Practice<br />Evidence, which we have means to strengthen for or against a proposition, is our proper means for attaining truth.<br />So may times our information regarding the questions at issue was by no means as full as we could wish – indeed it was almost nothing. Our only resource was to deal with such statistical information as we possessed, and to ascertain fairly what it told us.<br />
    34. 34. Nightingale and Disaster<br /> Preparation<br /> Empowerment of the population: policy<br />Sanitation and prevention<br />Evaluation and epidemiological assessment. Extensive report post Crimean resulted in far reaching changes in medical and nursing education, government role<br />
    35. 35. Nightingale and Terrorism<br />Focus on the vulnerable<br />Burka vs. the corset<br />The Hawk<br />The General<br />Demanding, unrealistic?<br />
    36. 36. I look to the day when there are no nurses to the sick but only nurses to the well. (I893) Florence Nightingale<br />
    37. 37. F.N. 1858 Age 38 years<br />
    38. 38. In the event of my death…1908<br />Request made to the Lord Mayor that for a planned gold casket might be substituted for a plain wooden one, the money thereby saved being handed over at Miss Nightingale's wish to the Queen Victoria Jubilee Institute of Nurses.<br />British Order of Merit 1908<br />
    39. 39. In Death….<br />: "FN. Born 1820. Died 1910." <br />
    40. 40. East Wellow churchHampshire, England<br />
    41. 41. The Death of an Icon<br />Death in London of Florence Nightingale at age 90 years.<br />Funeral…”will be of the quietest possible character in accordance with her strongly expressed wish.” (London Times 1910)<br />
    42. 42. Post Trauma?<br /> "Oh my poor men; I am a bad mother to come home and leave you in your Crimean graves. . . . I can never forget. . . . I stand at the altar of the murdered men and while I live, I fight their cause" <br />
    43. 43. Funeral procession 1910<br />
    44. 44. Athena 1850- -1854<br />Florence Nightingale Museum 2003<br />
    45. 45. Nightingale: Leave in the archives!<br />Obsessive-compulsiveness<br />Racism<br />Sexism and elitism<br />Lack of social life and interactions<br />Lack of attention to nurse to nurse relations<br />Leadership style: autocratic<br />
    46. 46. The vision we keep and use!<br />Nurse as autonomous professional<br />Focus on holistic self care and patient empowerment<br />Focus on scientific basis of nursing care<br />Endless curiosity about the world<br />Diverse interests<br />Love of cats <br />
    47. 47. Sense of humor<br />“She does not want to hear facts; she wants to be enthusiastic.” (1896 about Mrs. Josephine Butler)<br />“Agitate, agitate.” (1863)<br />“I can fire my own guns.” ((1856 to Dr. Farr)<br />“A little gin would be more popular.” (1855 to Queen Victoria)<br />
    48. 48. The Voice of an Iconhttp://catalogue.wellcome.ac.uk/record=1590740<br />'When I am no longer even a memory, just a name, I hope my voice may perpetuate the great work of my life. God bless my dear old comrades of Balaclava and bring them safe to shore. Florence Nightingale.‘<br />30 July 1890<br />
    49. 49. Ever Yours….<br />
    50. 50. Selected References F.N.<br />Nightingale, F. (1851). The institution of Kaiserwerth on the Rhine, for the practical training of deaconesses, under the direction of the Rev. Pastor Fliedner, embracing the support and care of a hospital, infant and industrial schools, and a female penitentiary. London: Colonial Ragged Training School.<br />Nightingale, F. (1858). Notes on Matters Affecting The Health, Efficiency and Hospital Administration of the British Army. London: Harrison and Sons.<br />Nightingale, F. (1859). Notes on Hospitals. London: John W. Parker and Sons.<br />Nightingale, F. (1859). Notes on Nursing: What it is and What it is not. London: Harrison.<br />Nightingale, F. (1860). Suggestions for Thought to the Searchers After Truth Among the Artizansof England. London: Eyre and Spottiswoode.<br />Nightingale, F. (1871). Notes on Lying-in Institutions. London: Longmans, Green and Co.<br />
    51. 51. Selected References (About)<br />Attewell, A. (1999). Florence Nightingale. PROSPECTS: The quarterly review of comparative education. International Bureau of Education Paris UNESCO: 28: 1, 153-66.<br />Bostridge, M. (2008). Florence Nightingale: The making of an icon . London: Farrar, Straus and Giroux.<br />Cook,, E.T. (1913). The life of Florence Nightingale, 2 vols. London: Macmillan.<br />Woodham-Smith, C. (1952). Florence Nightingale 1820 – 1910. London: The Reprint Society.<br />Young, D.A. (1995). Florence Nightingale's fever. BMJ. 311(7021): 1697–1700.<br />

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